Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a condition related to strep throat. A group ‘A’ bacteria known as Streptococcus causes this condition. The bacterium causes throat infection and if not detected and treated early, it can cause permanent damage to the heart leading to stroke or even death. In cases where a child experiences recurring or untreated throat infections, it can cause rheumatic fever. RHD is caused by overcrowding, poor sanitation, and air pollutions just to mention a few. Therefore, Shakira might have contracted the condition from this kind of environment. Other than the environment, the environment can also be inherited. In this case, Shakira might have inherited this kind of gene from her father or mother. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential (O’Sullivan, 2013). In Shakira’s case, she needs a daily dose of antibiotics until she is 25 years of age to prevent recurrence of the condition and to prevent the development of heart infections and other bacterial endocarditis.
Cultural safety in health care delivery involves placing substantial consideration to cultural sensitivity and cultural awareness to all the patients (Nursing council of New Zealand, 2012). In this case, practicing nurses are expected to provide quality and safe health care by considering the issue of cultural diversity; this can be achieved by recognizing and respecting cultural diversities. Further, enrolled nurses should respect the rights of individuals from other cultures in order to meet their needs and expectations (Faculty of Health, 2013)
According to the American Council of Gynecologists and Obstetricians, cultural sensitivity is the code of conduct whereby a practicing nurse has the knowledge and interpersonal skills that enable them to understand, appreciate and work with individuals from a culture different from their own. A good example of cultural sensitivity is the Amish couple who come from a minority group in America who do not consider enrolling for any kind of medical insurance because of their culture. After the couple went through a cesarean, is when a nurse advised them to enroll in Medicaid. In such a case, the nurse was culturally sensitive; this enabled her to recognize that the couple was not using the government aid. Therefore, by helping the couple enroll in Medicaid, the nurse will be in a position to reach the community (McGough, Wynaden & Wright, 2017).
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 stipulate that the government to,
- Involve the people in the formulation and the implementation of policies that affect them
- Promote the self- management and self- adequacy of this people
- Enhance and promote the overall development of this population (The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act, 2005).
- Involve this group of people in the formulation and the implementation of policies by the Commonwealth, the State, territorial, and local governments without the deviation of responsibilities.
The ‘stolen generation’ is about how children and relatives remove themselves forcibly or voluntarily from their families. The separation has resulted in adverse intergeneration health problems (Dwyer, Willis & Kelly, 2014). The cause of the health problems is the trauma of the separation, which led to drug and substance abuse causing mental health complications. These complications have thereon bee passed to the subsequent generation through the parents. In this case, the offspring developed behavioral and emotional challenges exposing them hyperactivity, emotional and character disorder that means that they are also likely to engage in drug and substance abuse. Further, the stolen generation has poor parenting, this led to redundant intellectual development leading to depression, substance abuse, and suicidal (Dudgeon & Hirvonen, 2014).
The participation in decision-making involves an input from the community and family due to the structure in kinship and family ties. In order for a nurse to communicate effectively, they should first inquire with the family in order to facilitate the information that is to be passed is understood by all. Further, the nurse should be respectful in the way they handle the patient and their family, they should also give the family ample time to discuss private affairs. The nurse should also be confidential when dealing with the information they acquire from the patient to avoid injury. For instance, if the nurse is dealing with a special case that does not require community intervention; they should handle the information discreetly (Bortoli, Coles & Dolan, 2015). In addition, nurses should build rapport and trust so that the patients can communicate openly with the nurses.
When dealing with Shakira and the family, the nurse should use indirect questions a strategy to collect clinical information. In this case, nurses should pose questions giving them to respond. The nurse should use clear and plain language that is easily understood. Secondly, the caregiver should pay attention to every detail by avoiding interruptions. Finally, the nurse should show that they have understood what the patient had said by giving a summary of the session while showing an understanding (Bennett, 2015).
In order to help Shakira and her family, a culturally diverse nurse should be employed. The nurse should be ready to accept and respect the behaviors, culture, systems, and policies of the patient. In addition, employing a culturally diverse nurse will help ease up the situation
I comprehend that the now- indigenous society are treated with mistrust. The mistrust stems from the era of the European settlement and the forceful separation of children from their families leading to the ‘stolen generation’. The mistrust is further heated as the indigenous people feel that they are alienated from the now- indigenous whose culture is separate from theirs. Therefore, they feel intimidated as their culture is different and they are being criticized for that (Beckett & Keen, 2015).
- Will I be stereotyped, criticized, discriminated, treated with contempt, or ignored by the health care provider?
- Can I fully trust the health care providers with my personal information?
- Judgmental, arrogant, and incompetent health care providers who intimidate patients
- Racism and discrimination that frightens patients making them powerless and uncomfortable
Beckett, J., & Keen, I. (2015). Encounters with indigeneity: writing about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Aboriginal Studies Press.
Bennett, B. (2015). “Stop deploying your white privilege on me!” Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engagement with the Australian Association of Social Workers. Australian Social Work, 68(1), 19-31.
De Bortoli, L., Coles, J., & Dolan, M. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in child protection: A sample from the Victorian Children’s Court. Journal of Social Work, 15(2), 186-206.
Dudgeon, P., &Hirvonen, T. (2014). Dark chapters in Australian history: Adopted children from the Stolen Generations. InPsych: The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd, 36(4), 12.
Dwyer, J., Willis, E., & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals caring for rural Aboriginal patients: holding response and denial. Australian Health Review, 38(5), 546-551.
McGough, S., Wynaden, D., & Wright, M. (2017). Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing.
O’Sullivan, B. (2013). Considering culture in Aboriginal care.
O’Sullivan, B. (2013). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education: An introduction for the nursing profession. Cambridge University Press.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2012C00258