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Structure of cell

  1. Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organisms. Describe the following terms related to human cell

1.1

Structure of cell

1.2

Function of cell

1.3

Cellular respiration

1.4

Requirements of cell for survival

  1. Define cellular adaptation
  1. Explain the following major types of cellular adaptation given in the table (in 30-50 words each).

  Types Cellular adaptation Description

  1. Movement of substances within and between body fluids, sometimes across a barrier such as the cell membrane is essential to normal physiology. Mention the direction, requirement and one example of substance transported by the following transport systems.

Transport system [Active transport ] Requirement [Carrier molecule and cell energy] Example [Ions, sugars, amino acids] Direction [Low to high concentration]

4.1

Simple Diffusion

4.2

Facilitated diffusion

4.3

Osmosis

4.4

Hydrostatic force

  1. Environmental health problems arising from environmental emergencies are connected to their effects on the physical, biological and social environment that pose a threat to human health. Specify one (1) effect of the following environmental emergencies on human body and mention any three (3) signs and symptoms of the particular effect.

Environmental emergencies Effect on human body (1) Signs and symptoms (3)

5.1

Diving

5.2

High altitude

5.3

Temperature

  1. Mr Jims, 68 year-old man presented to the Emergency Department following a house fire. The flat below his had caught fire during the night, and the smoke rose through the floors and windows, and the patient was exposed to significant smoke inhalation. He is suspected to have carbon monoxide poisoning. Answer the following questions based on the scenario.

6.1

What might be the pathophysiological changes brought about by carbon monoxide in his body?

6.2

Enlist the possible signs and symptoms that the patient may manifest?

  1. Describe the impact of following processes in human body (in 30 to 40 words).

7.1

Surgical insult

7.2

Penetrating Trauma

7.3

Blunt trauma

  1. Define the following terms related to human body and measurements in different body systems (in 20 -30 words).

Terms Definition

Medial Toward the midline of the body.

  Terms Definition

8.1

Lateral

8.2

Mid-axillary line

8.3

Anterior

8.4

Posterior

8.5

Ventral

8.6

Dorsal

8.7

Superior

8.8

Inferior

8.9

Proximal

8.10

Distal

8.11

Torso

8.12

Plane

8.13

Sagittal plane

8.14

Median sagittal plane

8.15

Coronal plane

8.16

Transverse plane

8.17

Blood pressure

8.18

Body mass index

8.19

Cardiac output

8.20

Tachypnea

8.21

Hypercapnia

8.22

Hypoxia

8.23

Intracranial pressure

8.24

Peristalsis

8.25

Glomerular filtration

  1. The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

  DISEASES AFFECTING THE CNS Stroke (Cerebro Vascular Accident)

9.1

Definition

9.2

Briefly outline the Pathophysiology

9.3

List four signs

9.4

Nurses are required to provide head up position for a client with stroke. Briefly describe the impact of this nursing intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Cns Epilepsy

10.1

Definition

10.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

10.3

List four signs

10.4

Nurses should provide padded side rails for patients with seizures. Briefly describe the impact of this nursing intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Cardiovascular System Raynaud's phenomenon

11.1

Definition

11.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

11.3

List four signs

11.4

Impact of calcium channel blockers in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Asthma

12.1

Definition

12.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

12.3

List four specific signs

12.4

Impact of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Pneumonia

13.1

Definition

13.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

13.3

List four signs

13.4

Nurses should encourage hydration unless contraindicated. Briefly describe the impact of this nursing intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Peptic ulcer

14.1

Definition

14.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

14.3

List four specific signs

14.4

Impact of antibiotic therapy on patients with peptic ulcer disease.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Cirrhosis of liver

15.1

Definition

15.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

15.3

List four specific signs

Function of cell

15.4

What is the impact of a high protein diet on patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver?

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Gout

16.1

Definition

16.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

16.3

List four specific signs

16.4

Impact of allopurinol on patients with gout.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory SystemCarpal tunnel syndrome

17.1

Definition

17.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

17.3

List four specific signs

17.4

What is the Impact of Wearing a Splint for a Patient with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Nephrotic syndrome

18.1

Definition

18.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

18.3

List four specific signs

18.4

Nurses should advice the patients with nephrotic syndrome to restrict salt intake. Briefly describe the impact of this nursing intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System urinary tract infection (UTI)

19.1

Definition

19.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

19.3

List four specific signs

19.4

Nurses should ensure adequate fluid intake in patients with urinary tract infection. Briefly describe the impact of this nursing intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

20.1

Definition

20.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

20.3

List four specific signs

20.4

A combination of antibiotics are used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease. Briefly describe the impact of this intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Prostatic Cancer

21.1

Definition

21.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

21.3

List four specific signs

21.4

Impact of 5 alpha reductase inhibitors on patients with prostatic cancer 

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

22.1

Definition

22.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

22.3

List four specific signs

22.4

Impact of insulin therapy on patients with diabetes

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Respiratory System Hypothyroidism

23.1

Definition

23.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

23.3

List four specific signs

23.4

Nurses should advice the patient to consume a low calorie diet. Briefly describe the impact of this intervention.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Immune System Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

24.1

Definition

24.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

24.3

List four specific signs

24.4

Impact of hydroxychloroquine on patients with SLE

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Lymphatic System Hodgkin's disease

25.1

Definition

25.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

25.3

List four specific signs

25.4

Impact of chemotherapy on patients with hodgkin's lymphoma.

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Special Senses Méniere's disease

26.1

Definition

26.2

Briefly outline the Pathophysiology

26.3

List four specific signs

26.4

Impact of antihistamines on patients with Méniere's disease

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Special Senses Senile Cataract

27.1

Definition

27.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

27.3

List four specific signs

Cellular respiration

27.4

Nurses should advice the patients after cataract surgery to avoid lifting heavy objects.

  1. Briefly describe basic chemistry of the following human body processes in 30-40 words each) and provide one (1) example of chemical reaction related to each.

28.1

Metabolism

28.2

Respiration

  1. Interpreting Arterial Blood Gases.

    Using the alternatives below fill in the gaps in the following table:
    Respiratory alkalosis,
    Renal (Metabolic) acidosis
    Renal (Metabolic) alkalosis

pH Primary problem Condition

Low PCO2 Respiratory acidosis

  pH /Primary problem Condition

29.1

High / PCO2

29.2

Low / HCO3

29.3

High / HCO3

  1. Mr Reynold had undergone craniotomy and he is on 2nd post op day. You are there to take over the client from the staff of previous shift. Answer the following question based on the scenario.

    On assessing the level of consciousness of Mr Reynold, you got a score of E2M3V1, which is entirely different from the previous reading (E4M4V3).

30.1

Mention your interpretation.

30.2

Describe how you would respond in this situation as an enrolled nurse 

  1. Enrolled nurses should be aware of various signs and symptoms related to each body systems. This helps with doing focussed or system wise assessment of the client.
    Answer the following questions in relation to cellulitis

31.1

What is cellulitis?

31.2

What are the common causes of cellulitis?

31.3

What are the common assessment findings, signs and symptoms of cellulitis?

  1. Based on the given example in the table given below, mention the contraindications and nursing implications to specific health assessment findings

Health assessment findings Contraindications

Eg: Edema Edema may be a sign of fluid overload. Therefore, IV Fluids are likely to be contra indicated.

Nursing implications:

-Monitor Fluid balance

-Assess for skin integrity and implement strategies to prevent skin breakdown

-Position client comfortably to assist with breathing and to prevent friction and shear

-Administer diuretics and other medications as prescribed

  Health assessment findings Contraindications

32.1

Dyspnea or wheezing

32.2

Bleeding

32.3

Hypotension

32.4

Allergy to seafood

32.5

Past history of Mastectomy

32.6

Neutropenia

  1. You got information from the admitting office that Mr John 45 years old client with complaints of fever and headache wants to get admitted to your unit for observation and treatment. Answer the following questions.

33.1

Describe your role as an enrolled nurse in admitting Mr John to your unit (in 30-40 words).

33.2

Enlist twelve(12) pieces of information that you would document in his admission database.

33.3

What is the role of doctors in care of client?

33.4

What is the role of the pharmacist in care of client from admission to discharge?

33.5

Discharge planning should commence once the client has admitted. Describe the discharge planning process of Mr John (in 30-40 words).

33.6

Briefly describe the discharge details to be recorded in the client's discharge summary. .

  1. The human body strives to adjust to conditions that are optimal for survival. Answer the following questions on homeostasis.

34.1

Describe homeostasis .

34.2

Homeostasis and disease are inversely related. Briefly describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease (in 50-70 words).

34.3

The control of body temperature in humans is a good example of homeostasis in a biological system. Concisely describe the process of body temperature regulation .

  1. Various life processes indicate that human beings are alive. Elaborate the following life processes in your own words (in 30-50 words each).

35.1

Organisation:

35.2

Processes of metabolism:

35.3

Nutrition:

35.4

Biological maturation:

35.5

Inheritance:

35.6

Ageing:

  1. Describe the levels of structural organisation of body systems from the cellular to the Organisational Level.
  1. Describe the indications, action and contra indications of a commonly used medication on the human organism e.g., Aspirin, Paracetamol, Salbutamol etc.

37.1

Indications for use

37.2

Action

37.3

Contraindications

37.4

Drug

  1. Refer the previous question: The following table gives the common disorders, problems and complaints associated with each body system and its components relevant to the nursing care you might provide for your clients in the Australian health care system. Complete the following table with regard to its definition, pathophysiology, signs and impact of specific health procedures(in 10-20 words each).

Diseases Affecting The Cardiovascular System

Angina pectoris

38.1

Definition

38.2

Briefly outline the pathophysiology

38.3

List four specific signs

38.4

Impact of supplimental oxygen therapy in patients with angina

  1. Mr Reynold had undergone craniotomy and he is on 2nd post op day. You are there to take over the client from the staff of previous shift. Answer the following question based on the scenario.

39.1

Please complete the file "Tool - Neurological Functions" from the Handouts for the unit by recording the best response for each score of the corresponding tests involved in the tool. Please upload the completed tool in the "Attach Files" section of the question.

  1. Recognize the possible clinical conditions from the acute signs and symptoms given below.

  Signs and symptoms Clinical conditions (Provisional diagnosis)

40.1

  • Chest pressure or pain, typically on the left side of the body
    • Neck or jaw pain
    • Shoulder or arm pain
    • A fast heartbeat
    • Shortness of breath
    • Nausea and vomiting

40.2

  • A headache that lasts anything from four up to 72 hours.
    • Pulsating or throbbing pain, often just on one side of your head.
    • A headache that gets worse when you're active or stops you from being active.
    • Feeling sick or vomiting.
    • Increased sensitivity to light and noise.

40.3

  • Coughing, especially at night
    • Wheezing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest tightness, pain, or pressure

40.4

  • Drooped mouth.
    • Inability to lift arms.
    • Slurred speech.
    • Dizziness, loss of balance or an unexplained fall

40.5

A 55-year-old male client presented at the emergency department with dyspnea. He claims that he has been having difficulty breathing for the past three days. It gets worse when walking up stairs and unloading groceries from the car.
General health assessment revealed-
• Inability to complete sentences
• Moderately obese
• Physical assessment: BP 145/89mmHg, RR: 22/min with distended neck veins and productive cough. 

  1. Mr Reynold had undergone craniotomy and he is on 2nd post op day. You are there to take over the client from the staff of previous shift. Answer the following question based on the scenario.

41.1

Mention the tool used for assessing his level of consciousness

Structure of cell

1.1

A cell is mainly consists of three parts and they are a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus. In a cell, there are several cell organelles like ribosome, mitochondria, and lysosomes.

1.2

The main functions of a cell are to furnish the structure of body, supply nutrients, forming different types of molecules, metabolizing nutrition’s and replicating itself. Cells also permits specific nutrients and molecules according to their size.

1.3

The oxidation of food molecules like glucose into water and carbon dioxide is referred to as cellular respiration. The whole process occurs in mitochondria in two steps.ATP holds the released energy in this process.

1.4

The most important compounds for a cell to survive are oxygen and glucose for respiration. The compound is water because without water they are unable to execute the essential reactions.

2.

Cellular adaptation is the changes made by the cell itself in reply to unfavourable environmental changes. It can be either physiological or pathological.

3.

The four major types of cellular adaptation are atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Atrophy refers to the reduction in cell size. However, the whole organ size will be reduced if enough number of cells have atrophied. In early human development, thymus atrophy is an important example of physiological atrophy. Hypertrophy refers to the increment of the cell size. The organ can be hypertrophied with the hypertrophy of the cell. Hypertrophy may be caused by the mechanical signals or by the trophic signals, the kidney and the heart have the higher chances of hypertrophy. Hyperplasia is the condition where number of cells is increased due to cell mitosis. Hyperplasia is of two types- compensatory and hormonal. Compensatory hyperplasia occurs mainly in epithelial cells of bone marrow cells,intenstines.Hormonal hypertrophy is mainly common in organs that is dependable on estrogen.For example in uterine cells hyperplasia is more common. Metaplasia refers to the replacement of differentiated cells by an other type of cells. The changes occurred in bronchial cells in response to an irritant like smoke or smog is the common example of metaplasia. It is thought that this replacement of cells is reversible.

4.

4.1

Simple diffusion is the process of moving solutes along a concentration gradient through a semipermeable membrane.It is completed by the hydrogen bonds between the solutes and the water molecule. In human body, transportation of water is example of the simple diffusion. Water molecules are transported to cell from high to low concentration.

Function of cell


4.2

Facilated diffusion is the process of active transport in which one molecule is transported with the help of another molecule along with their concentration gradient. Through facilitated diffusion, protein molecules can be transported along with carbohydrate nucleosides.

4.3

Osmosis is the process by which solvent passes through plasma membrane from low to high concentration. In human body, dialysis is the example of osmosis.

4.4

 Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by the fluid outside or within the capillary at resting condition. Due to the hydrostatic pressure, filtration occurs in the kidney.

5.

5.1

The effect of diving in human body is mainly vasoconstriction caused by the increased amount of oxygen in the body. This results in high blood pressure and lowering of heart rate and cardiac output.

The signs of diving in human body are chest pain, rashes in skin, joint pain in major joints like shoulder and elbows.

5.2

The primary effect of high altitude on human body is the hypobaric hypoxia that is the lower concentration of oxygen in the body.

The primary sign of high altitude is acute mountain sickness ( AMS) which includes symptoms like headache,dizziness,vomiting (Bärtsch  and Swenson 2013).

5.3

The main effect of temperature in human body is pyrexia and mental dysfunction due to high temperature.

The signs and symptoms of the temperature on human body is mainly heat rash,heat syncope and heat stroke (Harlan et al. 2014).

6.

6.1

The main pathophysiological changes due to carbon monoxide poisoning is formation of myoglobin that cause reduction in cardiac output and blood pressure. This may result in brain ischemia.

6.2

Seven possible signs and symptoms of this condition can be dizziness,blurred vision,loss consciousness,nausea, weakness, shortness of breath, vomiting.

7.

7.1

Surgical response is the stress that body experiences after a surgery. It results due to release of several hormone and inflammatory response.


7.2

Penetrating trauma refers to the injury due to piercing of an object through skin and enters into the bodily tissue. This results in open wound in the body.

7.3

Blunt trauma is the non-penetrating trauma and in this case, skin wound is not necessary.

8.1

Outer part of the body.

Response to question 8.2

Coronal line on torso.

Response to question 8.3

             Frontal part of the body.

Response to question 8.4

            Backside of the body.

Response to question 8.5

           Closer to the frontal side

Response to question 8.6

           Closer to the posterior portion

Cellular respiration

Response to question 8.7

            Thing, which is above

Response to question 8.8

            Thing, which is in lower position

Response to question 8.9

            Something, which is closer to the torso

Response to question 8.10

Distal means which is apart from torso.

Response to question 8.11

           Trunk of the body

Response to question 8.12

Sections of body

Response to question 8.13

          Plane collateral to sagittal suture.

Response to question 8.14

         Bisects of the vertical bodyline

Response to question 8.15

        Vertical plane dividing the body into dorsal and ventral.

Response to question 8.16

        Divides the body into inferior and superior.

Response to question 8.17

       Pressure exerted by the flow of blood in the wall of the blood vessels.

Response to question 8.18

      Value isolated from weight and height of the individual.

Response to question 8.19

     Amount of blood ejected per minute

Response to question 8.20

      Rapid breathing with abnormality

Response to question 8.21

     Increased amount of blood carbon dioxide level

Response to question 8.22

       Lack in oxygen supply into a specific organ

Response to question 8.23

       Inner pressure of skull

Response to question 8.24

     Movement of gastro-intestinal tract

Response to question 8.25

    Filtration of excess fluid by kidney.

Response to question nine.

Response to question 9.1

     Inadequate blood flow to the brain tissue results in cell death.

Response to question 9.2

     Lack of oxygen causes infarction to the tissue.

Response to question 9.3

     Headache, spasticity, hemiplegia, numbness

Response to question 9.4

    Head up position would improve blood and oxygen supply in the brain tissues.

Response to question 10.

Response to question 10.1

     Bunch of neurological disorders, which is characterized by epileptic seizures.

Response to question 10.2

      Changes in gene expression and ion channel distribution is associated with the disease.

Response to question 10.3

      Attacks of seizure, decreased consciousness, contraction of chest muscle, bitten of tongue.

Response to question 10.4

     It will help in protecting patient during tonic phase.

11.1

       Raynaud's disease refers to the condition in which vasospasm occurs in fingers, toes.

11.2

This situation happens due to decrease in blood supply in smaller arteries that supply to the skin

11.3

The symptoms are whitening of skin, numbness, prickly feeling.

11.4

Calcium channel blocker increases peripheral circulation by arteriolar vasodilation.

12.1

 Asthma refers to the shortness of breath or wheezy sound during breathing.


12.2

Asthma causes squeezing of the trachea and production of mucous. This results in narrow down of air pathway (Cornet et al 2013).

Requirements of cell for survival

12.3

The main symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing

12.4

 Corticosteroids reduces inflammation and mucous production in trachea (Price, Fletcher and Van Der Mole 2014.).

13.1

 Pneumonia refers to the lung infection those results in air sac inflammation.

13.2

 In these disease alveoli is filled by pus or fluid resulting in cough with pus.

13.3

 Symptoms are chest pain during breathing, fever, nausea, shortness of breath.

13.4

Hydration will decrease the viscosity of mucous and that will ease the breathing for the patient.

14.1

Peptic ulcer refers to inflammation due to sores in stomach and small intestine.

14.2

The inner mucous cell line is destroyed by the attack of Pylori and long-term use of NSAIDs.

14.3

The main symptoms are nausea,stomach pain,vomiting,intolerance to fatty food.

14.4

 In case of H.pylori, antibiotic is effective for killing Pylori.

15.1

 Liver cirrhosis is the ultimate stage of liver fibrosis.

15.2

 Liver cirrhosis mainly occur due to formation of scar tissues during self-repairing process of liver.

15.3

The symptoms are jaundice, weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite.

15.4

 High protein diet will avoid tissue wasting and PCM (Tsochatzis , Bosch and Burroughs 2014.).

16.1

 Gout is a form of joint pain with various complications.

16.2

Accumulation of urate crystals causes local inflammation in the joints .

16.3

 The symptoms are  severe joint pain,redness and inflammation, difficulty in movements,swollen area of joint.

16.4

Allopurinol helps in reduction of uric acid level in the body and that results prevention of gout attack.

17.1

The disease refers to the tingling and numbness of arm and hand

17.2

 The compression of median nerve ,that passes through carpal tunnel region of wrist ,is responsible for this disease.

17.3

 The main symptoms are pain and numbness in thumb,weak grip,ache in upper arm,pain in wrist.

17.4

 Splint will reduce the symptoms of curpal tunnel syndrome  in some way.

18.1

  Nephrotic syndrome refers to a kidney disorder in which presence of protein in the urine is ditected.

18.2

 Damage in small blood vessels in kidney is associated with nephrotic syndrome.

18.3

The symptoms are edema, weight gain,foamy urine,loss of appetite.

18.4

 Restriction in salt intake will help in reduction of protein concentration in urine.

19.1

UTI refers to the infection  by bacteria in either of bladder,kidney or urinary tract.

19.2

The bacteria E.coli first enters the bladder and then forms colony to spread infection.

19.3

 The symptoms are burning during urination,bloody urine,flank pain,frequent urination.

Types of Cellular adaptation

19.4

 Increase in fluid intake helps in flushing out of the bacteria and they have lesser time to attach with the bladder (Foxman  2013.).

20.1

PID is a inflammatory disease of female reproductive system

20.2

In PID bacteria distrubs the normal barrier of reproductive tract during abortion or miscarriage.

20.3

 The symptoms are lower abdominal pain,painful urination utarine bleeding ,pain during intercourse .

20.4

 Antibiotic will reduce the inflammation and this will result  in improvement of PID.

21.1

 This disease refers to the formation of cancer in posted gland.

21.2

 In the disease prosted gland cells are converted into cancer cells .

21.3

 Main symptoms are kncturi , hamaturia , free Quentin urination ,dysuria .


21.4

 5 alfa reductase inhibitor reduces the chance of prosted cancer almost by 25 % through multimodal therapy (Ryan et al. 2013)

22.1

 Diabetes mellitus is a disease with absence of insulin.

22.2

Destruction of beta cells of pancreas is associated with this disease.

22.3

 Weight loss, polyuria, dry mouth, polypsia .

22.4

 Insulin will reduce blood sugar level but in can cause hypoglycaemia (Schlesinger ET al.2013)

23.1

 Hypothyroidism refers to the decreased production of thyroid hormone.

23.2

Immature thyroid gland is responsible for lower amount of hormone production.

23.3

Enlarged thyroid gland, hoarse voice, poor appetite, Weight loss.

23.4

 During Hypothyroidism, metabolism is slow low calorie diet will help to regain the weight of the patient.

24.1

SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the healthy tissue of is attacked by the immune system of the body.

24.2

 Abnormality in apoptosis produces antibodies against the immune system itself.

24.3

Symptoms are malaise, fever, muscular pain, joint pain.

24.4

Hydroxychloroquine helps in preventing self-damaging of the cells by its immune system itself.

25.1

Hodgkin's disease refers to the cancerous condition of lymphatic system.

25.2

 Uncontrolled growth of lymphatic cells is associated with this disease.

25.3

The symptoms are fever, ithching, weight loss, painless swelling of lymphatic nodes.

25.4

Chemotherapy helps in destroying the cancer cells of the system.

Response to question 26.

Response to question 26.1

             Disease of the inner ear may result in permanent hearing loss.

Response to question 26.2

             Alteration in endolymph in the inner ear.

Response to question 26.3

         Allergies, migrains, viral infections, head trauma

Response to question 26.4

         Antihistamines reduces the vertigo effect.

Response to question 27.

Response to question 27.1

         Vision impairing due to old age

Response to question 27.2

Transport system

         Injury to eye tissues

Response to question 27.3

        Blurred vision, yellowing of eye colour, difficulties in night vision, sensitivity to light and glare vision.

Response to question 27.4

         Avoiding heavy lifting helps the patient to prevent further pressure to the eye.

Response to question 28

Response to question 28.1

         Conversion of eating material into energy with or without the help of oxygen. Formation of carbon dioxide and water from glucose is the example of metabolism

Response to question 28.2

          Inspiration of oxygenated air and expiration of less oxygenated air is referred to as respiration. Breathing is example of respiration.

Response to question 29.

Response to question 29.1

            Respiratory alkalosis

Response to question 29.2

           Renal acidosis

Response to question 29.3

         Renal alkalosis

Response to question 30.

Response to question 30.1

        Mr. Reynold  has improved physical status.

Response to question 30.2

       He would be continued with the same medication as he is responding to the medication.

Response to question 31.

Response to question 31.1

       Insertion of bacteria through a cut skin is referred to as cellulitis

Response to question 31.2

       Mainly caused by the streptococcus and staphylococcus bacteria.

Response to question 31.3

        Rash, warmness in the affected area, inflammation in the skin (Arakaki et al. 2013).

Response to question 32

Response to question 32.1

          Provide vasodialator, provide sufficient oxygen

Response to question 32.2

        Proper bandage, provide painkiller

Response to question 32.3

        Continuous observation of blood pressure, provide appropriate diet

Response to question 32.4

       Prevent further eating of seafood, provide proper anti allergic

Response to question 32.5

       Observe for any inflammation in that area, biopsy to check if there is any kind of malignancy has grown or not.

Response to question 32.6

         Continuous monitoring of blood neutrophil, Supply blood neutrophil through intravenous process.

Response to question 33

Response to question 33.1

         Should alert the doctor as soon as possible and observe the patient properly.

Response to question 33.2

           Age,sex,past medication, blood pressure, heart rate,temperature,occupation, assumption about the disease, family history, surgery history, record changes.

Response to question 33.3

            Doctor should promptly respond to the scenario to treat as soon as well.

Response to question 33.4

           Pharmacist would provide proper medicines in exact time to treat the patient.

Response to question 33.5

         Exact recording of medications, proper medicine list, date of check-up, and diet chart all should be included.

Response to question 34

Response to question 34.1

            Homeostasis is the maintaining equilibrium of systems of the body.

Simple Diffusion

Response to question 34.2

            Imbalance of homeostasis causes disease in our body.

Response to question 34.3

           Increase body temperature because vasodilation and it results in more blood flow to the skin. This causes radiation of heat from the outer part skin of the body. As a result temperature homeostasis will be maintained (Houdas  and Ring 2013).

Response to question 35.1

            Cooperation of all systems in the body

Response to question 35.2

           Burning of food material to energy with the help of oxygen

Response to question 35.3

           Science of interacting nutrition in food.

Response to question 35.4

          Production of new classes from the existing one

Response to question 35.5

        Method of getting older.

Response to question 36.

       Cells produces tissues, tissues produces organ and organs produces a whole system

Response to question 37

Response to question 37.1

        Used to treat acute pain

Response to question 37.2

        Reduces pain by inhibiting COX1 and COX2

Response to question 37.3

       May cause ulceration with overuse (Geusens et al. 2013).

Response to question 37.4

       Acetylsalicylic acid ( ASA) is the  drug in aspirin.

Response to question 38.1

        Severe chest pain due to coronary heart problem

Response to question 38.2

       Coronary artery spasm or blockage

Response to question 38.3

     Chocking sensation, heaviness in the chest, epigastrium, and referred pain.

Response to question 38.4

    Supplemental oxygen helps to increase oxygen supply to cardiac muscle and helps in reducing pain (Arslan et al. 2013).

Response to question 40.

Response to question 40.1

       Cardiac arrest

Response to question 40.2

        Migraine pain

Response to question 40.3

         Pneumonia

Response to question 40.4

        Paralysis

Response to question 40.5

       Asthma

Response to question 41

Response to question 41.1

         Glasgow  Coma Scale( GCS) (Chen ,Grothe and Schaller 2013).

References

Arakaki, R.Y., Strazzula, L., Woo, E. and Kroshinsky, D., 2014. The impact of dermatology consultation on diagnostic accuracy and antibiotic use among patients with suspected cellulitis seen at outpatient internal medicine offices: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA dermatology, 150(10), pp.1056-1061.

Arslan, F., Lai, R.C., Smeets, M.B., Akeroyd, L., Choo, A., Aguor, E.N., Timmers, L., van Rijen, H.V., Doevendans, P.A., Pasterkamp, G. and Lim, S.K., 2013. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes increase ATP levels, decrease oxidative stress and activate PI3K/Akt pathway to enhance myocardial viability and prevent adverse remodeling after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Stem cell research, 10(3), pp.301-312.

Bärtsch, P. and Swenson, E.R., 2013. Acute high-altitude illnesses. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(24), pp.2294-2302.

Chen, B., Grothe, C. and Schaller, K., 2013. Validation of a new neurological score (FOUR Score) in the assessment of neurosurgical patients with severely impaired consciousness. Acta neurochirurgica, 155(11), pp.2133-2139.

Cornet, A.D., Kooter, A.J., Peters, M.J. and Smulders, Y.M., 2013. The potential harm of oxygen therapy in medical emergencies. Critical Care, 17(2), p.313.

Foxman, B., 2013. Urinary tract infection. In Women and Health (Second Edition) (pp. 553-564).

Geusens, P., Emans, P.J., de Jong, J.J. and van den Bergh, J., 2013. NSAIDs and fracture healing. Current opinion in rheumatology, 25(4), pp.524-531.

Harlan, S.L., Chowell, G., Yang, S., Petitti, D.B., Morales Butler, E.J., Ruddell, B.L. and Ruddell, D.M., 2014. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(3), pp.3304-3326.

Houdas, Y. and Ring, E.F.J., 2013. Human body temperature: its measurement and regulation. Springer Science & Business Media.

Price, D., Fletcher, M. and Van Der Molen, T., 2014. Asthma control and management in 8,000 European patients: the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) survey. NPJ primary care respiratory medicine, 24, p.14009.

Ryan, C.J., Smith, M.R., De Bono, J.S., Molina, A., Logothetis, C.J., De Souza, P., Fizazi, K., Mainwaring, P., Piulats, J.M., Ng, S. and Carles, J., 2013. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(2), pp.138-148.

Schlesinger, S., Aleksandrova, K., Pischon, T., Jenab, M., Fedirko, V., Trepo, E., Overvad, K., Roswall, N., Tjønneland, A., Boutron-Ruault, M.C. and Fagherazzi, G., 2013. Diabetes mellitus, insulin treatment, diabetes duration, and risk of biliary tract cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in a European cohort. Annals of oncology, 24(9), pp.2449-2455.

Tsochatzis, E.A., Bosch, J. and Burroughs, A.K., 2014. Liver cirrhosis. The Lancet, 383(9930), pp.1749-1761.

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