1. You on a community visit for a regular client. On completion of your visit the Client gives you $300 cash for all your troubles and tells you to put in your pocket and buy something special.
Please provide process through which a person can examine and reflect on all the aspects of this ethical dilemma. Include in your answer a discussion on the key ethical principles such as Integrity and veracity. You will also need to refer to your codes of professional conduct and standards of practice and code of ethics.
2. Describe what you understand by the phrase “nursing theorists”
3. Revisit the ANMC Competencies for Enrolled Nurses. Examine these competencies and discuss the different roles of the EN:
This activity is to gain a clear perspective on how the two professionals practice. Answer each question below. This may be formatted using an interview style answer or table.
a. How do you define your role as an Enrolled Nurse?
b. How is your role different to that of an RN?
c. What aspects of the two roles are the same?
4. How can Patients access health information to improve their health outcomes?
5. Describe your understanding of the role and function of professional and industrial bodies relevant to Enrolled Nurse Practice. Describe the function of each organisation. Write the organisations on the list below list and indicate whether they are professional or industrial bodies?
1. The ethical dilemma posed by a patient offering a cash gift or tip can be an embarrassing situation for a nursing professional. Most codes of ethics do not favour the acceptance of such gifts or tips because it could cause limitations. (Zahedi, et al., 2013). Viewed from the patient's perspective, it could be their way of expressing gratitude, appreciation and respect. But from the nurse's perspective the act of accepting gifts does not appear reasonable or acceptable. But there is always the consideration that people from Asian cultures might feel offended if a gift is refused. It may be necessary to at times make a judgement on case to case basis. There might be times when the care receiver is a child and may not understand professional or ethical intricacies of refusing a gift. At such times it is important for the nurse to keep the goal of care giving and not hurting the patient emotionally and accept a small gift, albeit unwillingly. In case of cash gifts though, the acceptance will break rules of ethics. As mentioned in the case, accepting a cash gift of $300 is definitely not ethical.
2. As a nursing student it can be quite a challenge to remember the names of 'nursing theorists' and the nursing theories that they proposed. Some of the theorists and the theories that they gave are:
Dorothea E. Orem Self-care Theory
Virginia Henderson Need Theory
Hildegard Peplau Interpersonal Theory
Madeleine Leininger Transcultural Nursing
It is on these and other theories given by the leading nurses that nursing education is based. Most of what we learn and will practice in future is based on the ideas of the theorists. The work ethics that will guide us through the job of care-taking, our behaviour and treatment of the patients in our care is based on the guidelines and theories propounded by some great professionals in the field of nursing. Their experiences while at work are now the lighthouses of knowledge that form the guiding principles and around those we shall build our professional careers (Olin, 2011).
3. a) An enrollednurse assists a registered nurse. Among the various roles played by an enrolled nurse are:
- assessment of patient and communicating with the RN regarding patient health
- to monitor the impact of nursing care
- evaluation of patient's health
- supporting and comforting the patient
- assisting the patient with daily activities
b) A registered nurse has a Bachelor degree while an EN has a diploma in nursing. An RN has more responsibility than an EN. An RN may perform the role of an administrator, may provide services to patients that are more complex in nature and may have received training in specialised care or in carrying out research activity.
c) The roles of an RN and EN are similar because both perform the role of care giving. Both are trained in aspects of nursing that involve administration of medication to the patients, assisting patients, communicating with and receiving instructions from doctors, documenting the patients vital parameters, and in giving first aid during emergencies ("Categories of Nurses in Australia," n.d.).
4. Health for all citizens of Australia is a priority for the government. The website https://www.health.gov.au/ is treasure trove of information about all health disorders. People can visit the website and obtain details about any disorder that afflicts them. Remote areas in Australia are difficult to reach and have populations that are older and more prone to diseases and injury. The medical specialist outreach program has been specifically designed for people living in difficult to reach areas. The National Rural and Remote Health Infrastructure Program facilitates better access to health service to people in remote areas by providing funds. Further information can be accessed at [email protected] or from 1800 780 939. The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia offers a 24 hour emergency service and can be accessed at www.flyingdoctor.org.au or contacted on 02 8259 8100. The Rural Women's GP Service provides female general practitioners to travel to communities that find it difficult to access medical care. They can be reached at 02 8259 8100.
5. Nurses practise in an environment that is demanding and requires high degree of professionalism. The regulatory bodies and legislations provide the framework for practice. Professional nursing bodies deal with several issues related to the profession. Also required are bodies that bring improvements to the conditions of employment and maintenance, these are dealt with by the professional bodies. While nursing colleges are governed through professional bodies, providing workplace representation, bargaining for salaries and seeking good conditions of employment are looked after by industrial bodies.
ANMC The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) is a professional body that provides a coordinating role at the national level and deals with regulatory issues that affect Australian nurses. The council has members from each state and territory and the public is represented by two members. Competency standards for nursing, giving accreditation to courses that teach nursing and a framework that sets rules for issues related to ethics, discipline and professional issues are laid down ("Standards and criteria", 2009).
ACHPRA (Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency) supports the 14 health professions and regulates them under a single nationally consistent law ("Who We Are").
The Joanne Briggs Institute (JBI) is an international not-for-profit institution. At the institute research is carried out under the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide. It is professional body that is engaged in promoting effective healthcare practice through collaboration with 70 other organisations across the world (Institute, 2011).
Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS) is another not-for-profit organisation. Members in its council are drawn from health bodies, consumers and the government. The council plays a role as a provider of health care assessment. It involves the various stakeholders from the government, the healthcare industry and consumers and updates health standards. It is a professional body.
The Queensland Nursing Union is an industrial body that represents and protects the democratic, social, political and professional interests of its members. It advocates for nurses, midwives and the patients in their care.
Standards and criteria for the Accreditation of Nursing and Midwifery Courses Leading to Registration, Enrolment, Endorsement and Authorisation in Australia- with Evidence Guide (2009, February). Retrieved from https://www.anmac.org.au.
Categories of Nurses in Australia (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nurseinaustralia.com.
Institute, J. B. (2011). The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: music as an intervention in hospitals. Nursing and Health Sciences, 13(1), 99-102.
Olin, J. (2011, September 12). 7-nursing-theories-to-practice-by/. Retrieved from https://www.rncentral.com: https://www.rncentral.com/blog/2011/7-nursing-theories-to-practice-by/
Ryan, D. (2009, February). Enrolled Nurse.pdf. Retrieved from https://www.anmac.org.au.
Who We Are (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ahpra.gov.au.
Zahedi, F., Sanjari, M., Aala, M., Peymani, M., Aramesh, K., Parsapour, A., . . . Dastgerdi, M. (2013). The Code of Ethics for Nurses. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(1), 1–8.