1. There have been a number of different key models of health that have influenced health promotion. Describe the two (2) major health service models identified below
2. The National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards are being applied across a wide variety of health care services in all States/Territories in Australia. Describe the application of these standards .
3. Australia's health-care system is a multi-faceted web of various providers, settings, participants and supporting mechanisms. Explain the overall structure of health care system in your State/Territory .
4. Nursing in Australia has evolved in training and regulation since the 19th century. Briefly describe how the nursing profession has evolved over time outlining major historical events .
5. Nursing today is much different from nursing practices years ago. Describe the current perspectives of the nursing profession including the opportunities for career development in Australia .
6. Explain the philosophical framework underpinning primary health care.
8. Briefly explain the role of the following nursing regulatory authorities, industrial and professional bodies .
9. It is vital to understand the population health issues related to those from a culturally and linguistically diverse background. Describe 3 (three) possible health and illness issues faced by people migrated to Australia.
10. Health insurances are provided by public and private agencies and organisations in Australia. Describe the role of the following organisations in relation to health insurance and financial support.
11. Research and explain the following two (2) health issues prevailing among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia . Hint: What is known about heart health in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population?
12. Provide 3 (three) examples of healthcare environments an enrolled nurse could practise in Australia.
1. Social model of health: This is a model of health whose main aim is to tackle the social issues affecting the population such as poverty, cultural values, behaviours, and other environmental and economic factors that, in one way or the other impact on people’s health. It achieves its goals by focusing on policies, promotion, and education (Drummond, Sculpher, Claxton, Stoddart & Torrance 2015).
Biomedical model of health: The model focuses on the biological factors which impact on people’s health. Such biological factors include viruses, bacteria, and fungi. By identifying such biological factors to be of great influence on the health, the model adopts the strategies to help in addressing them to ensure that people are not exposed to the factors that might expose them to diseases.
2. NSQHS sets standards to be abided by all the healthcare facilities in the country. In my state, the NSQHS standards are compulsory to all the healthcare organizations. Each of them is required to conform to the set standards governing the staffing levels, equipment of the facilities, and the delivery of safe, high-quality, accommodative, and satisfactory care to all the patients.
3. It is true that the healthcare system in Australia is multi-faceted. The same applies to my state in which there is a complex network of stakeholders composed of a wide range of healthcare providers, supporting mechanisms, settings, and participants. At the apex of the hierarchy is the commonwealth government, followed by the state and local governments respectively. There are government and privately-owned healthcare facilities across the state. The system is made up of other equally important players such as the insurers, healthcare practitioners, professional associations, and regulatory bodies whose mandate even stretch beyond the state.
4. Just like any other organized country, Australia has a well-structured healthcare system. The sector which is actually made up of different players is highly-regulated by the government and other professional entities. The training system has been evolving over the years. Initially, there were a few healthcare professionals whose training was narrowed to a specific scope. With time, enough research was conducted, several changes introduced, and the training became more professionalized. Meaning, the nurses now have to specialize in specific areas. The training curriculum was modified to create room for different levels of experts including the Enrolled Nurses, Registered Nurses, and Advanced Registered Nurses each of whom has specific roles to play in the delivery of healthcare services in the country (Dent, Harden & Hunt 2017). Today, nursing has become responsive because it has adopted new and progressive approaches, models, and strategies such as Evidence-Based Practice, interdisciplinary approach, and cultural competence.
5. Just like any other discipline, nursing is progressive. Today, there are different nursing perspectives that prevail. Some of these include the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and culturally-competent care-delivery. When it comes to opportunities, nursing has become lucrative because there are many career opportunities to be explored today. For example, soon, nurses will be telecommuting.
6. Primary Health Care (PHC), as its name suggests, is the initial level of care that the patients receive. PHC is, therefore, based on the philosophical framework of acceptability, affordability, equity, and research-based. Meaning, the PHC providers should always do their best to ensure that the care is availed to all regardless of their socio-economic status in the community.
7. The holistic health model: It is a model of health which focuses on the delivery of healthcare services tailored to satisfying the patient’s physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. According to this model, healthcare can only be of importance if it addresses the psychological, physical, spiritual, and social problems that the patients are going through.
The health-illness continuum: Also known as the health continuum, the illness-wellness continuum is a model of health care which advocates for the use of treatment and wellness paradigms by the healthcare providers. The continuum can be used by the healthcare providers to plan, guide, and execute the treatment process for the patient.
8. a) Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia: Regulating the registration, licensing, and operation of the nurses and midwives in the country
b) Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation: This is the trade union movement for the Australian nurses. It has a total of over 249,000 members. Its roles include the advancement of the nurses’ political, professional, and industrial interests such as remuneration, promotion, and working conditions.
c) Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency: The agency is mandated to control the activities of the healthcare providers in the country
d) Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council: As its name suggests, the council is responsible for the accreditation purposes as far as the nursing and midwifery professions are concerned. The accreditation roles revolve around the curriculum, training facilities, and the teaching process for the nurses and midwives.
9. The immigrants who come to Australia have a unique set of illnesses that can only be addressed well if a culturally-competent approach is adopted. Such diseases include malaria, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD), depression, obesity, and other mental illnesses. Mental illness is common especially amongst the refugees who have fled from their countries because of war.
10. Private Healthcare Australia (PHA): PHA is an entity which unites all the private healthcare insurance providers in the country. It acts as a representative body for these insurers because they need to have an umbrella association through which they can operate. Currently, PHA has over 20 registered members.
Centrelink: It is a governmental agency that falls within the Department of Human Services. Its main roles are to deal with the social security issues in the country. It helps Australians by paying the social security payments for them in a well-organized and coordinated manner.
11. Cardiac health issues: The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia are worse-off when it comes to the cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of such diseases is high because these people are more vulnerable than other Australians.
Diabetes: The prevalence of diabetes amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is quite high. It is higher than the rest of the Australian populations because of the unhealthy eating habits, physical inactivity and such like lifestyles.
12. Hospitals; nursing homes; hospices.
13. Physiotherapist: The roles of a physiotherapist are to provide the patient with the support in the management of physical pains that they are going through. The physiotherapist is suitable for this role because they have a specialised training on the management of pains
Dietician: Dietician is an expert who is knowledgeable on diet issues. The roles of the dietician, therefore, include the provision of guidance on diet and other nutrition-related issues. All the patients need to get the services of a dietician because nutrition plays a significant role in determining the health of a patient.
14. Environment: The environment in which a person lives might determine the health. If the environment is safe, the people around it enjoy a healthy life. However, if it is not, the people might be unhealthy because it can expose them to diseases. That is what happens in a polluted environment.
Cultural barriers: Culture can also be a barrier to healthy living because there are cultural practices which expose people to diseases and hinder them from leading healthily (Braveman & Gottlieb 2014). For example, if people have a culture of unhealthy eating habit or risky behaviours like unprotected sex, they might be exposed to communicable diseases like AIDS.
Community acceptance: Community acceptance is a factor that influences health because if there is acceptance to modern healthcare services, there might not be diseases because there would be treatment and appropriate interventions. However, whenever this does not happens, the situation might be worsened.
15. Politics affects healthcare because it plays a central role in policy-formulation and decision-making. If there is political discrimination, there might be health inequality since the available resources might be availed to some sections of the population while depriving others no matter how essential it might be to their health (Duckett & Willcox 2015).
16. Lack of community involvement in decision-making
Lack of representation
Resistance from the community
Lack of enough education by the community members
Cultural backwardness and conservative beliefs
Poverty and inaccessibility to healthcare
Poor training of the medics on the provision of culturally-safe care
17. The service can be gotten from Travel Clinics Australia. To get the service, one has to process all the necessary travel documents such as passport and the visa. At the same time, one has to seek for medical assistance from registered Australian medics who examine the condition as recommended.
19. Beyondblue: Beyondblue campaign has been effective because it has created the desired behaviour change on the Australians. The campaign has been credited for making positive contributions towards the decline of mental illnesses such as anxiety, suicide, and depression through the creation of awareness.
National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: This promotion was effective because it created awareness on cancer disease. The campaign was fruitful because it helped in creating awareness to the people and convincing them to undergo cancer screening. It was such a brilliant idea because through such screenings, it would be easier to address the problem of cancer which has been a major issue of concern in Australia.
20. Neuman’s System Model is focused on the realization of a positive client outcome. Meaning, whenever a patient seeks for medical intervention, the patient should get holistic care that meets the physical, social, spiritual, and psychological needs (Ahmadi & Sadeghi 2017). However, to achieve this, the practitioner should identify, understand, and appropriately react to the available stressors in order to provide the desired primary, secondary and tertiary interventions that are required.
21. If I were to deal with this situation, I would rely on three skills-interpersonal communication, cultural competence, and conflict-resolution. I would create time to talk to m colleagues and teach them on how to be effective interpersonal communicators who embrace the practice of cultural competence. At the same time, I would resolve the conflict by ensuring that I act as a good and impartial mediator who does not favour any side, but focuses on bringing peace in the workplace.
22. Indeed, the Australian healthcare system has been changing over the years. The healthcare system is today not what it was in the 19th century during which it was not as organized as it is now. Initially, the healthcare system was not as elaborate as it is today. There were a few healthcare facilities managed by the government. However, as time went by, the government came up with new policy frameworks through which several changes and reforms were adopted. For example, in the early 20th century, the government introduced the private sector and gave it authority to play a role in healthcare delivery (Brownson 2017). Later, in the 21st century, the government has enhanced the funding system through involving the use of insurance services. At the same time, the government has been improving accessibility by developing healthcare facilities and training enough personnel.
23. The first role of interdisciplinary team is collaboration. Here, the team members can cooperate with one another by consulting one another whenever necessary. Besides, the team can also provide mentorship to the junior colleagues who are still learning many things about healthcare service-delivery.
Flexible and liberal healthcare composed of government and private sector
Availability of well-trained, accredited, and regulated healthcare providers
Health inequality and uneven distribution of healthcare services to different parts of the country
Lack of affordability
25. Universal access to care and coverage on the basis of need (principle of primary healthcare): The Enrolled Nurses (ENs) should be ready to serve in any part of the country even in the remote areas to ensure that everyone gets access to PHC. At the same time, the ENs can be advocates who pile pressure on the government to avail services to every part of the nation.
Positivity is empowerment (principle of wellness): The ENs should do whatever they can to empower the patients. This can be done through providing appropriate education that they require. At the same time, the ENs should involve the patients in decision-making processes and enable them to be heard whenever attending to them.
26. Higher income and social status: High income and social status is one of the socio-economic factors which play a significant role in determining the health of individuals. The people who have high income and occupy a high stratum in the social hierarchy are better-off when it comes to health matters. They are empowered, knowledgeable, and can afford quality health care.
Low education levels: The people who have low education levels are worse-off when it comes to matters of health. Lack of education disadvantages people in two ways. First, it deprives them of an opportunity to get jobs and high income. Meaning, it becomes challenging to afford health care. Secondly, lack of education implies that there is no knowledge to use in making rational health-related decisions (Runciman, Merry & Walton 2017).
Greater social support networks: Greater social support network also counts a lot when it comes to matters of health. Where there is social support, individuals can enjoy a holistic care because their social needs are addressed. Meaning, a person who is close to and gets support from the family members, friends, colleagues, and other relatives can be assured of a safe social life.
27. Healthcare is all about funding. Funding determines individuals’ accessibility to healthcare services. Therefore, if there is a good funding and resource allocation, the country can attain the much desired equity and equality in its healthcare system (Braveman & Gottlieb 2014). This can happen because the fair distribution of funding and other healthcare resources might means that many people get access to healthcare services irrespective of their social and economic status in the society.
28. As a matter of fact, there has been a long history of health disparity in Australia especially between the indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and the rest of the non-indigenous communities across the nation. The indigenous are worse-off and have higher prevalence of diseases like obesity, HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, heart attack, and mental illness than their non-indigenous counterparts. However, these people can still be helped to change their ways of living and improve their health. If appropriate measures are taken, these indigenous people would be relieved of the burden of such diseases (Couzos & Thiele 2016). At the same time, the mortality rates would also decline. Meaning, the country would attain health equity amongst its populations irrespective of their social, economic, geographical, and cultural diversities.
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