Transport sector plays a significant role in the growth of the economy and enhances development which is socially sustainable. Transport can determine the huge difference in heightening women’s productivity, and ameliorating equality in gender. Now that the transport sector facilitates socially sustainable growth, it widens the access to employment, education and health services, and improves information exchange and social.1 Ensuring the transport sector policy is more forthcoming to the needs of the women, it should have a structured approach which seeks to understand what their needs are, define the channels to respond to such needs, analyze the benefits and the cost of the channels identified, and develop effective policy frameworks.1 Women require being represented at every stage of the design as well as planning process in transport investments. Factors such as community growth and development, labour and human rights, social support, cultural competency, livability, social justice, and social equity may be easily determined by the transportation accessibility to employment, social services, as well as information, gender sensitive issues about transport are many and majority of them seem relevant.3
Traditionally, the transport sector is dominated by men whether employed or not. Nevertheless, the effect of gender on transportation policy should be considered and dealt with on time and effectively. The issue of balanced involvement of women in the transport sector should be held at every level from the local all the way to national point.
- Aviation Transport Association of Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.atac.ca
- Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) “National Profile of Transport, postal and warehousing workers, Information Sheet 54,” BITRE, Canberra, 2014.
- Australian Logistics Council “Contribution of Transport & Logistics to the Economy:Dispelling the Myth,” ALC, Canberra, 2014.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics”Labor Force, Australia, August 2014,” ABS, Canberra, 2014
Understanding education as well as the knowledge of men and women mobility and transport are the core of policy development and research. Since in urban space policies require to be sensible, and adequately responding to both women and men, informed research should be conducted.5 The policies developed should give a productive environment for an effective share of the mobility advantage to men and women, as well as for effective engagement of females in the transport sphere.
The gender program that is associated with equal access to resources, authority, and power for women and men, has started to concentrate on transport concerns on its schedule. Additionally, gender has started to be considered as a significant issue in transport planning and policy, transport as well as gender are now becoming new fields of study.6 Currently, it is adequate to debate that there is no proper gender involvement process for transport, neither in the designing and programing systems, equipment as well as services nor participation or training of experts. As a consequence, it gets easier to leave out the gender. There are no procedures set in place, and no endorsement are applied in a situation where individuals do not consider the transport needs. In most cases, women are often seriously restrained in their accession to transport services and this always applies in limited access to labor markets, minimizes a number of products which can be delivered to the market, and makes the production cost go high.
The Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) are aimed at ameliorating gender equality while responding to the world poverty. However, it has not identified the transport sphere as one of the ways in which poverty can be lowered.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. “Average Weekly Earnings, Australia, May 2014,” ABS, Canberra, 2014.
- Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council (n.d).
It rather mentions issues to do with environmental sustainability as well as women empowerment.
These reflections, supported by many types of research, case studies, and analyses, has resulted in development of organizations, international growth banks, and the help community in common to conceive new strategies to gender issues in the transport sector with specific concentration on the connection between transport and its support to heightening the productivity of women and promote social equality.7 By empirical evidence, this reflection begins from the realization of the needs of the women in transport, examination of the gender-related efforts benefits, and their cost, and the definition of the potency program analysis.
Women are beneficial to the transport sector even though their needs require to be addressed effectively. Based on gender dissimilarities in travel forms and the use of transport modes, women involve themselves here in different ways. They perform daily tasks which are more complex than those men engage themselves on a daily.8 Such tasks involve social and community-oriented obligations, income-generating tasks like caregiving activities, and domestic obligations. As the principal family caregivers, their possibility of being responsible is high compared to men. For instance, they often accompany or escort their children to school, take them for medical services, and buy fresh groceries as well as produce. As a result, their daily movements will engage travel to and from one place to another to ensure such services are undertaken. Further, women are probable of taking care of the elderly people who for example require the medical visits.
- Canadian Trucking Human Resource Council (n.d.).
- “Why Diversity Matters,” Catalyst, New York, 2013.
On the other hand, men engage themselves in short, but direct trips every day especially at the rush hours. Men as well as women are also associated with dissimilar transport modes. In some cultural environments, where women are not socially allowed to drive, more males are likely to have many private vehicles. Therefore, men are probable to generate more earnings than what a family can generate to pay for public and even private transport. Since women are the main caregivers in various families, they are restricted on the travel distances as well as times while men are not limited and so they have more mobility.9
Now that the women need to do numerous daily activities, they are short term and require to be organized, plan where to go next, for what reason and how long. Always, numerous of these activities cross and require to be undertaken concurrently with others. Therefore, the handiness and execution of public transport burden women and men in a dissimilar way. Women are probable of preceding their movement so that they can save their time. A good example is that women will not take job opportunities if the place of employment is too far from their homes and if the travel system does not permit them to move to and from a job in time, so that they fulfill other domestic family tasks. Another problem which faces women is that the public transport does not appropriately permit women who carry households’ products or travel with dependants. As a result women end up accepting jobs which are lowly paying or income sources which are informal, but near their homes. Thus, transportation can highly affect the ability of women’s potential to manage their time, job opportunities, social interaction, as well as service access.
- Canadian Urban Transit Association (n.d.). From: https://www.cutaactu.on.ca/
- Chamber of Shipping of British Columbia (n.d.). From: www.chamber-of-shipping.com/
Taking our focus on mainstreaming gender parity as well as gender dimensions of transport issues into program involvement, transport project design is one of the main strategies towards women empowerment and gender equality. Studies show that men and women have considerably dissimilar transportation needs. Women are used to traveling for distances which are shorter, near home, and are likely to engage in more trips in a day. Consequently, they travel for many reasons. Among them include elder-care, child-care, and employment. They always get access to minimal private vehicles, therefore, they are the key users of the public transport. At the same time, they are involved in more chained trips. However, they are much cautious to safety issues as well as attempt to restrict themselves to activities and mobility because of risk perceptions. Typically, women’s comparative disadvantage regarding the access to transportation services negatively impacts their personal wellbeing, leisure times, economic status, as well as professional growth. Those who engage in travels and take more trips with the dependents, need to adopt a system which is likely to charge fairly on each journey and per every individual basis. Further, in a women group, it is significant to know that not every woman falls under the bracket of privileged white, wealthy or educated women. Instead, the majority of women fit the intersectionality depiction where numerous identities cut across one another to give rise to a further disadvantage for certain women groups or women in the community.11
In third world countries remote areas, where transport forms are much expensive or always not available, women depend on walking and other forms of movement which are a bit slower.
- Canadian Supply Chain Sector Council (n.d.).
- Canadian International Freight Forwarders Association (n.d.).
Such modes of transportation include animal-drawn carts, rickshaws, tricycle, motorbike-taxi, as well as bicycle. In particular social-cultural set ups, there is a serious sexual separatism in the public spaces, and the public arena is mainly dominated by men, whereas women are restricted to the private domestic sector. It implies that women mobility on congested public transport as well as beyond the home is disallowed without going with another elderly female or a male from within the family.13
In the 1990’s traditional notions, where women were economically relying on men and the women’s innate place child care and home, a few women were engaged in labor force city planning contemplated these beliefs and standards. In the townships where more focus was projected on CBD development, there is an unmistakable opposition between the residential as well as downtown neighborhoods, which were unimaginatively female and male.14 Women nevertheless, still to the present day, have not fitted the ideal work belief, which is distinguished by a full-time dedicated worker who performs tasks for full forty years consecutive, a condition designed for men workers. Regrettably, females on the other hand, are required to accomplish the caretaker role and spend some time off the job to undertake various domestic needs pregnancy and serve other family members.15 Thus, with the present norm in practice, women are required to undertake family care at their homes and juggle their jobs which are full-time. The modernist tradition came up with a globalizing approach on city planning, and so did not take consideration of the varying needs by the city inhabitants.
- Construction Sector Council (n.d.).
- Australian Transport and Engineers Canada (n.d.).
- Irving, P, Forder. “Improving Women’s Visibility.”Melbourne, 2014.
The second wave feminism recognized the variation between different gender as well as groups. The gender lens has facilitated the city planners to rethink about economic development, transportation, and housing as interacting fields, instead of binary domains.
There are various advantages associated with gender efforts. Such benefits are likely to build the community and foster a more coherent society. Gender-oriented efforts are likely to enhance a cooperative responsibility in the urban space, where enhanced women and men are likely to participate and contribute to various transport initiatives and planning. The gender gap existing in the transportation sector can be closed through in one way or the other. First, is by letting women participate in many transportation domains at their liberty. Secondly, is through engaging them in policy making and city planning associated with the transportation sector. In so doing, there will be a fair gender balancing in the transportation sector.16
The women’s voices as transport users are always not heard on advisory processes, and there is no vital number of females in positions which can determine transport planning. The gender domains are always neglected in road safety reactions.17 Without performing a policy dialogue as well as gender analysis, the transport agencies may not see the necessity for taking into account the gender issues and designing transport projects which are gender-inclusive. In most cases, the focus is attracted towards technical design as well as physical elements instead of focusing on the transport users, various groups of users, and social benefits.
- Motor Carrier Passenger Council of Canada (n.d.).
- Nova Scotia Trucking Human Resource Sector Council (n.d.).
- Prince Edward Island Trucking Sector Council (n.d.).
It is eminent that, a few subsectors in the transport sphere give a similar amount of opportunities for gender-conventional as well as the design of projects which mainly gender inclusive. For instance, the rural road projects which aim to directly fulfill the movement needs of the rural women are far more probable to lend themselves to the design which is gender inclusive. Consequently, the provincial as well as national highways designed mainly for transporting commodities and goods across and within the borders can provide fewer opportunities for incorporating gender equality concerns.19 Nevertheless, even the provincial and national highways need some degree of gender research to identify and understand opportunities and potency social risks, and assess constraints as well as needs. An evidenced gender analysis should be performed especially for the projects which are aimed at supporting gender equality obligations. Each opportunity, must be designed to have gender inclusive privileges, such as making the working environment for women better in the transportation sphere, giving the women jobs, where workable, and minimizing the vulnerability of women by extenuating measures.20
The gender analysis or research will focus on the following: first, gather the baseline sex-disaggregated information which can be used in monitoring project outcomes, outputs, as well as effects during the implementation of the project.21 Secondly, informing the projects which are gender inclusive by outlining the opportunities available to increase gender benefits, as well as lowering and mitigating adverse gender effects or the uncertainties through the proposed projects.
- Red Deer College (n.d.).
- Railway Association of Canada (n.d.).
- South Australian Freight Council. “Economic Impact,” SAFC, Port Adelaide, 2014.
Thirdly, the gender analysis will aid in assessing the differing constraints as well as needs of women and men who access and utilize the transport services and infrastructure. Lastly, it helps define the main gender concerns and determinants directly which are useful to the expected transport services and infrastructure to be designed by the respective project.
There are numerous factors to take into consideration when undertaking gender analysis especially in the transport sector. First, policy making; it should integrate a perspective of gender into the transport sphere and institutions, as well as improve the consideration of sectoral gender programs and transport at the national level. Such policies should be gender inclusive. Secondly, accessibility where gender analysis may be utilized to tell the technique for roads sections, and designing of urban transport services for everyone.22 Another factor is acceptability where all the gender implications of physical designs should be addressed and be able to accessed in the proposed design features within the expected timeline. Affordability should also be considered during gender analysis. It will enhance the consideration of gender concerns based on cost, the flexibility of tickets, cost regain schemes, and tariff policy of the transport services offered. The last factor is participation; effective approaches should be adopted to improve gender equity in project-generated employment, monitoring and implementation project planning and development of policy.
The public transport infrastructure should be designed with gender-inclusive physical conception features, which fulfill the females’ particular needs and encourage a universal access to them.23 A practical example is lowering the height of steps for entering into the public.
- South Australian Freight Council. “FreightLog December 2013,” SAFC, Port Adelaide, 2013.
- Shipping Federation of Canada (n.d.).
transport vehicles like busses, installing the handrails at the positions where women can access them easily, and allow space for placing shopping and parked baby carriages. Other infrastructural designs include providing female and male toilets at various stations, setting employment targeting women in higher-skilled transport jobs necessitated by the project, such inspectors, ticket collectors, and station attendees, coming up with transport schedules which are fair to women like introducing affordable group traveler ticket, multiple trips, and off-peak. Lastly, targets should be set to enhance women involvement in every training given for urban transport services management. Individual harassment and safety have been realized as another issue in transport where females are subjected to various harassment forms.24
There are various roadblocks and benefits associated with gender efforts in the transportation projects. Policy dialogue and gender analysis at the designing and planning phase is needed to engage the women in various projects. Inadequate considerations of gender needs in the sector of transportation can restrain access by some groups.25 A practical example is improving the main corridors which men use to attend their daily activities in the towns. On the other hand, women can work locally or in locations which are off-corridors. Improved transport infrastructure is likely to empower women to access information, training, child care, health services, education, markets, and employment.26
In conclusion, the results of gender associated efforts may improve movement for women, improve access to health services, ameliorate welfare, increase access to markets and
- Supply Chain and Logistics Association Canada (n.d.).
- Transport and Logistics Industry Skills Council. “E-Scan 2013,” TLISC, Melbourne, 2013.
- Transport and Logistics Industry Skills Council. “E-Scan 2014,” TLISC, Melbourne, 2014.
education, reduce workload, and increase accessibility to employment hence increasing income for women. Further, the gender oriented can foster security and safety in mobile females during travels, acquire high expertise and well-paying jobs in the transport sphere, and ease delivery of primary services near home for women.27 However, the transportation planning, has not addressed all the issues to do with the gender needs for both sexes. It is the reason as to why there are imbalances in the transport sector. Effective understanding and knowledge of men and women in the transport system and movement are the basis of ensuring effective gender analysis.28 However, there are some countries which have been able to address the needs for both sexes to some levels. For example China has managed to structure women only passengers cars designated for females only.
- Women in Supply Chain. “The Unseen Gender in Transport and Logistics: Making Women Visible,” WISC, Melbourne, 2013.
- Workplace Gender Equality Agency. “The business case for gender equality,” WGEA,Sydney, 2013.
- Western Transportation Advisory Council (n.d.).
Aviation Transport Association of Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.atac.ca
Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) “National Profile of Transport, postal and warehousing workers, Information Sheet 54,” BITRE, Canberra, 2014.
Australian Logistics Council “Contribution of Transport & Logistics to the Economy:Dispelling the Myth,” ALC, Canberra, 2014.
Australian Bureau of Statistics”Labor Force, Australia, August 2014,” ABS, Canberra, 2014.
Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/6202.0Aug%202014?OpenDocument [Accessed 18th December 2014].
Australian Bureau of Statistics. “Average Weekly Earnings, Australia, May 2014,” ABS,Canberra, 2014. Available at https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/6302.0May%202014?OpenDocument [Accessed 18th December 2014].
Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council (n.d.). From:https://www.cars-council.ca
Canadian Trucking Human Resource Council (n.d.). From: https://www.cthrc.com
Catalyst. “Why Diversity Matters,” Catalyst, New York, 2013.
Canadian Urban Transit Association (n.d.). From: https://www.cutaactu.on.ca/Chamber of Shipping of British Columbia (n.d.). From: www.chamber-of-shipping.com/
Canadian Supply Chain Sector Council (n.d.). Accessed From:https://www.supplychaincanada.org/en/
Canadian International Freight Forwarders Association (n.d.). From: https://www.ciffa.com/
Construction Sector Council (n.d.). From: https://www.csc-ca.org/
Australian Transport and Engineers Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.engineerscanada.ca/
Forder, P., Irving. “Improving Women’s Visibility – The unseen gender in transport and logistics,” Women in Supply Chain Executive, Melbourne, 2014.
Motor Carrier Passenger Council of Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.buscouncil.ca
Nova Scotia Trucking Human Resource Sector Council (n.d.). Retrieved from:https://www.bulldogcomputers.ca/thrsc/public/default.htm
Prince Edward Island Trucking Sector Council (n.d.). From: https://www.peitsc.ca/
Red Deer College (n.d.). From: https://www.rdc.ab.ca/trades/professional_driver/
Railway Association of Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.railcan.ca/
South Australian Freight Council. “Economic Impact Assessment and Strategic Analysis,”AFC, Port Adelaide, 2014.
South Australian Freight Council. “FreightLog December 2013,” SAFC, Port Adelaide, 2013.
Shipping Federation of Canada (n.d.). From: https://www.shipfed.ca/
Supply Chain and Logistics Association Canada (n.d.). https://www.sclcanada.org/
Transport and Logistics Industry Skills Council. “E-Scan 2013,” TLISC, Melbourne, 2013.
Transport and Logistics Industry Skills Council. “E-Scan 2014,” TLISC, Melbourne, 2014.
Women in Supply Chain. “The Unseen Gender in Transport and Logistics: Making Women Visible,” WISC, Melbourne, 2013.
Workplace Gender Equality Agency. “The business case for gender equality,” WGEA,Sydney, 2013.
Western Transportation Advisory Council (n.d.). From: https://www.westac.com/