The normal body temperature lies between 36° C to 37.5° C. Any deviation from this range is considered abnormal and may lead to conditions like hypothermia or hyperthermia (fever/pyrexia) based upon the extent of temperature fluctuation. The difference in temperature occurring due to differential heat generation and heat dissipation is generally reflected upon by the body temperature. The hypothalamus of the brain acts as the chief thermoregulatory centre that operates this biofeedback mechanism for maintaining the temperature homeostasis within the body. Factors such as circadian rhythm, age, gender and environmental temperature are capable of regulating the body temperature through definite heat production or heat loss methods. Temperature less than 36° C causes hypothermia while greater than 37.5° C leads to hyperthermia (ebookcentral.proquest.com, 2017).
Indicators from the case study support the fact that Tony may have temperature above normal. These include warm skin on touching alongside runny nose that may be attributed to fever or hyperthermia (Romanovsky, 2014).
Systolic blood pressure refers to the maximum arterial pressure during ventricular systole. Contrarily, diastolic blood pressure accounts for the minimum arterial pressure during ventricular diastole. The lateral pressure exerted by the circulating blood on the wall of the blood vessels is responsible for the blood pressure. Vital information regarding the functioning of the heart and the overall cardiac health is retrieved through blood pressure measurements. Blood pressure recording below 120/80 mm of Hg is considered optimal. However measurements above 120/80 mm of Hg and up to 139/89 mm of Hg are considered to lie within normal to high normal range (heartfoundation.org.au, 2017).
Indicators from the case study stated evidences of maintaining sedentary lifestyle by resorting to unhealthy food habit comprising of deep fried food, soft drinks, increased intake of coffee coupled with lack of physical activity for Tony. All these factors are considered to be potent hypertensive. Therefore it is more likely that Tony have blood pressure above normal range (Cornelissen et al., 2013).
Based on Tony’s lifestyle, the two modifiable risk factors that have been identified include behavioral factors such as insufficient physical activity and poor diet. These two factors pose threat for cardiovascular disease and further increase the propensity for harboring cardiovascular problems for individuals who are genetically predisposed to develop such condition in addition to other non-modifiable and biomedical factors (health.gov.au, 2017).
Intervention following the poor diet may be easily regulated to prevent the modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cutting down the consumption of fat foods, soft drinks and other unhealthy beverages might offer resolution under such circumstances. Inclusion of a balanced diet containing plenty of high fiber foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes and nuts are found to have beneficial effects. Mitigation of the calorigenic and nutrient poor foods and beverages has also been found to harbor positive outcomes. Fishes and other leafy vegetables that are rich in minerals and vitamin also offer cardio-protective roles thereby curbing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore lifestyle modification through maintenance of healthy diet is an economical yet feasible option for preventing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The healthy eating habit thus has the potential of offering effective resolution to this thwarting problem (Estruch et al., 2013).
Cornelissen, V. A., & Smart, N. A. (2013). Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(1), e004473.
Ebookcentral.proquest.com. (2017). Fundamentals of Nursing and Midwifery. Ebookcentral.proquest.com. Retrieved 30 April 2017, from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/wsudt/detail.action?docID=4745565.
Estruch, R., Ros, E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Covas, M. I., Corella, D., Arós, F., ... & Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. (2013). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(14), 1279-1290.
Health.gov.au. (2017). Department of Health | Cardiovascular disease. Health.gov.au. Retrieved 30 April 2017, from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/chronic-cardio#ris
Heartfoundation.org.au (2017). Heart attack risk factors. The Heart Foundation. Retrieved 30 April 2017, from https://heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/know-your-risks/heart-attack-risk-factors
Romanovsky, A. A. (2014). Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation. Acta Physiologica, 210(3), 498-507.
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