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The report is based on installation of pod bathroom units into student accommodation buildings based on construction management methods. The construction director considers introducing of “Precedence network planning and programming software” to the construction project work. The installation of 60 bathroom pod units is commenced at the student’s accommodation buildings in the university (Lawson, Ogden and Goodier 2014). The accommodation is built in schedule for intake of the students. The bathroom pods are installed into the Block B of the ten storey building. The supplier of the construction work is Offsite Solutions which offers higher quality of student accommodation bathroom pods and experience to supply of student’s housing sector (Till and Schneider 2016). The design of the bathroom pods are selected from various footprints in their design library which is developed to meet with project requirements.

This particular paper investigates the construction methods and measures taken into the site for safe as well as effective management of resources required for the installation purpose. This paper also critically analyzes the issues for the construction management introduced into pods to different projects. A report is also prepared for the construction director to evaluate the benefits of Precedence planning and programming software. Cost items of the pod installation are also evaluated to maintain an optimum cash flow.  

Investigating methods for installation of the pods units

The construction work of the bathroom pods units are used of Cantldeck system. This particular method is used due to building’s concrete frame. The construction of the bathroom pods offer modular solutions which result into speeding up the construction time on the block B (Osrin and Wornell 2015). Cantldeck system is such a technology which is used for the construction work and manufacture off higher quality, factory finished bathroom pods offsite on the subassembly lines. It is installed as well as connected to the arrival of the site. The system has capacity to manufacture of bathroom pods per week into quality controlled factory environment based on project design, project budget as well as specifications (Samarasinghe et al. 2015). A steel framed bathroom pods is suitable for the student’s accommodation building where there is higher quality traditional tiled finish is needed. As this project is based on construction of 60 bathroom pods, therefore it is suitable for the project with higher repeatability.

Welded steel base frame: Offsite solutions provided with steel bathroom pods which is rigid precision welded steel box base frame with 18mm of WBP plywood (Gosling et al. 2016).  

Steel wall frames: The wall frames of the bathroom pods are used of computer controlled steel frame machine provided with complete control over design along with manufacturing methods (Malakauskas et al. 2016).

Skinned wall composition: The wall frame is made of steel are double lined.

Waterproof floor: The offsite solutions of steel framed bathroom pods are waterproofed with use of higher quality tanking system.


Identification of the issues into construction project work

The installation process of pods units includes a complete package with fixtures as well as fittings include of toilet, basin, pipe work as well as bath pre-installed. Demand of the bathroom pods are increasing and offering of significant benefit to the customers. They get innovative solutions in order to reduce time along with cost for the construction of bathroom and its installation (Samarasinghe et al. 2017). The installation of bathroom pod unit’s project should ensure of monitoring safety. There are issues of high percentage of time required to manage the construction site for installation of pod units, delay into project schedule and defect problems are raised. Following are some of the issues which are required to manage at the time of installation of the pod units:

No review process: At the design process of the bathroom pods, the manufacturers are not reviewing the shop drawings and inspection is not done to review the entire construction process (Malakauskas et al. 2017). Therefore, an inspection strategy is required at each installation stage of development of pod units.

Delay into delivery: Around the schedule, delivery of bathroom pods is not planned properly (James 2014). When there is lack of gap into planning process, then there is delay into project work. Pods are being shipped into enclosed trucks. The mode of transportation is based on size of pods.

Issue of kinematic nature: There are problems of electrical as well as mechanical origin which affect the performance of Pod. There is failure into the operation of bathroom pods units.

Issue in gaining plumbing compliance: The bathroom pods are manufactured off-site, therefore the manufacturer faces issue of gaining plumbing compliances. Construction work of the pod units are done under strict industry standards (Yanagisawa 2015). The manufacturer throughout a licensed plumber request the local government to complete an inspection of pods units at the construction site.

Lack of secured door: There is lack of secured door for preventing unauthorized person to access to pods at the time of final installation of the pods and throughout floor installation. When the doors are not preventing from the person, then there is failure of security policies in the installation of pods units (Scanlon, Whitehead and Blanc 2017). It is a practice used to use door of secure them from final commissioning and final completion with handover of the pod units.

Budget issues: The installation of the bathroom pods units take 8-10 percent of the budget, therefore the developer faces budget issues when they try to control weather, project contractors as well as strict deadline (Elliott 2017). Therefore, the solution is that the developer should incorporate of 10 percent of buffer into the bathroom budget. They should consider innovative and also cost effective methods like pre-fabrication.

Time constraints: Due to weather event, there is sometimes delay into the schedule and entire project work goes behind the scheduled plan (Steiner 2013). The project manager should take of time effective construction methods for delivering the project on time.

Evaluate benefit of using Precedence planning and programming software

The bathroom pod unit is ideal for the student accommodation which consists of features such as luxury showers, baths, glass enclosures, multi-cubicle and others. The installation work includes of insulation, plumbing work and electrical work which is connected at single service point to the mains (Rahman, Ahmad and Zainordin 2013). The construction director introduces “Precedence planning and programming software” for network planning and scheduling of the entire project work. The proposed software is accounted for possible changes into the project schedule which impact the project finish work. This software helps the project team members to show the order of tasks, milestones as well as planning phases (Carr 2014). Milestones are set to get idea whether the plan is on track or not. From analyzing the issues into the project, it is identified that lack of project planning leads to failure into the work. Charlesworth and Ahmed (2015) stated that project management defines to plan and oversee of the tasks which are required to achieve the project goals in installation of bathroom pods units for the student accommodation buildings. The key significant benefits of the proposed software are as follows:

Drag and drop of functionality: The project manager can create of schedule chart by dragging as well as dropping of the tasks to various points on schedule and then make the updates (Valentine 2015). Installation of bathroom pods on the site needs the pod to crane into the building structure of student’s accommodation which is integrated into the mechanical system of building.

Automatic calculations: After staring of the project plan, this software can automatically calculate the duration and make changes into the scheduled duration as per project requirements.

Integrate with other solutions: Visualization tools are integrating with project management software which allows greater visibility along with understanding of project variables like timeline, availability of resources, potential risks as well as budget constraints (Ozorhon 2013).

Version control: It becomes easier to share schedule charts with the project team members as well as project stakeholders.

Identification of critical activities: The project activities have a bad impact on the project schedule. With use of this proposed software, the project manager can determine the activities which are critical to project schedule (Johansson and Zollner Wohlfart 2017). The critical path includes of those activities which are not delayed without affecting the completion date of the project. The proposed software makes visibility of the critical path. All the critical tasks have slack time which is not affecting the completion time (Malakauskas et al. 2016). When the manager of project delays into one or more tasks, then there is no delay into entire work.

The project manager is encouraged to reduce the duration of project by optimization of critical path and using of project schedule tools to control the time of the project. Due to addition of extra resources, materials, there is possibility to rise the time of the project, therefore it is minimized and controlled with use of proposed software (Schindler 2014). Resources include into the project work are labor, finances and manager. Project planning is required to finish the work on time so as to eliminate the lack of resources. With proper allocation of resources to the project work, the cost and time both are controlled and reduced. The workers involved into the project divide their time to schedule their work as per assigned tasks (Jellen 2015). The major advantage of project scheduling tool is that project construction phases, deadlines are inputted into the proposed software. The programming software manages notifications and also organizes the tasks for the project manager (Jeremic 2013). Cost is also maintained using this software. The benefit of project evaluation as well as review techniques is not only involvement of top management but also involvement of other departments that lead to share of responsibilities across the departments.


Pods units are designed to allow bathroom to remain closed and locked at the time of installation of POD in order to defend interior finishes. The “Precedence planning and programming software” is used to schedule the following installation event for the construction process as:

  1. Pod unit drawing and project specifications are being completed for proper review as well as approval (Osrin and Wornell 2015).
  2. There is commencement of site work to install foundation and grading of initial site.
  3. A preparation is made to floor slab in order to accommodate of installation of bathroom pod units (Scanlon, Whitehead and Blanc 2017).
  4. A template for bathroom layout is provided to identify the location for installation. This particular template determines where floor outlets are located for each bathroom units (Malakauskas et al. 2017).
  5. Plumbing and mechanical works are constructed. All the branch lines outside of the bathroom areas are being constructed. In order to prepare the POD connection, waste pipes are hung.
  6. Clean and level path is provided for installation of POD. Adjustable casters are required to move the POD units into final location.
  7. Electrical hooks are being made at accessible and coordinated point above bathroom units as per schedule of the construction site (Rahman, Ahmad and Zainordin 2013).
  8. Pod unit’s connection are made along with complete inspection is done.
  9. Exterior of the pod units are taped and finished like the built room. Exterior finishes are being applied with utility connections.
  10. Final grading of the site, concrete of the work and landscaping of complete work process is finished (Samarasinghe et al. 2017).

Evaluate the management of the key cost items of pod installation which assist in maintaining cash flow

Osrin and Wornell (2015) stated that cost is the biggest driver of prefabrication which is followed by safety as well as quality. It is a driving factor when prefabrication is considered a benefit into construction strategy. Installation of pod bathroom units is accounted for 8-10 percent of capital cost of the student’s accommodation buildings. A higher level of capital cost is associated with installation of the pod units which include of mechanical, architectural as well as electrical specifications of the finish, fixture along with fittings of the pod units (Scanlon, Whitehead and Blanc 2017). Design as well as installation result into reduction of whole out-turn rate of the project. The bathroom pods cost same as site built bathrooms on direct basis of the cost. The manufacturer of the pod does tanking on walls as well as floors. With installation of pod unit, it reduces the cost of construction by reduction of construction time, improvement of quality and elimination of defects into the bathroom (Gosling et al. 2016). The cost estimation is done based on cost items such as installation cost. It consists of freight cost, handling, cost for templating and installation. The cost items consist of planning phase, construction of the base, indicative cost of the service connected and commissioning with cost of pod unit.

The installation process is provided with functions of bathroom includes of technical ones, which is essential during the construction process. The cost items for the bathroom pods units are:

  1. Structure of the bathroom pod unit
  2. Structure composed of ceiling, floor, wall, door and exterior finishes
  3. Plumbing, wiring as well as ventilation system which are built to connect with the pod unit (Rahman, Ahmad and Zainordin 2013).
  4. Interior accessories such as towel, sink, storage shelves
  5. Electrical and mechanical work (Osrin and Wornell 2015).

The installation of pod units is done at cost effective price with higher quality. The pod unit is not less expensive when it is compared to conventional constructions. The main variable selected for calculation of cost is location of project. Into the average cost market, both labor as well as materials is procured less, and then the bathroom pod units are presented at premium to the construction site (Scanlon, Whitehead and Blanc 2017). In higher cost market where the labor cost is will save direct upfront cost into the market. The following benefits show that bathroom pods will save cost into the market:

Speed: The bathroom pod accelerates of the construction timeline by 20 percent with an efficient on-site installation of pods (Samarasinghe et al. 2017).

Superior quality: The bathroom pod is built adhere to strict manufacturing guidelines so that each of the pods is designed based on project specifications (Malakauskas et al. 2017).

Simplicity: There are limited workspaces at the construction site. The bathroom pod unit is designed with use of 3D modeling for onsite compatibility. It is installed as well as connected with the mechanical system of the building.

Safety: The employees at the working site will reduce the incidents and violations of the safety and health rules.

Therefore, in average as well as above the average cost market, there is leveraging of fabrication will give positive impact on the bottom line of budget. Bathroom pod unit is the most cost effective storage options into installation work. The price is varied based on size off pod unit. Utilization of the pod unit saves the time of the construction by 20 percent (Smith and Quale 2017). It also reduces the insurance cost along with quicker generation of income. The pod unit installed is a cost effective and quality solution for the campus students.


Strict follow of quality standards: Building work of the pod unit should follow of strict quality guidelines so that it can meet with the client’s requirements. The workers should follow all the construction rules and regulations to install the pod designed for project specifications.

Proper plumbing connection: The connection point location of the plumbing is specified by builder, throughout design as well as development phase. Plumbing connection is significantly required for this installation work so as to complete it on time.

Proper electrical work: All the electrical points are being wired back to single connection points. It is terminated at junction box for the purpose of connection by the electrician and supplied to reach the closer power sources.



It is concluded that the bathroom pod units is installed based on project design, project budget as well as specifications. The construction worker followed of strict deadline to complete the project on time. The installation process of the project ensures that all the project phases are managed and monitored properly. Some of the issues are identified while conducting the installation work such as high percentage of instance required managing the construction site for installation of pod units, postponement into project schedule along with problems are raised. Cost is also managed as 8-10 percent of the capital cost is being accounted for the project work. The capital cost of the installation work includes of mechanical, architectural as well as electrical specifications of finish work of pod units. Cantldeck system is being used into the construction work to provide with higher quality, factory finished bathroom pods offsite on the subassembly lines.

The main issues to manage the installation of the pod units are that the manufacturer are not reviewing and inspecting the construction process. Strict industry standards are to be followed for this particular construction work. There is lack of secured door to prevent unauthorized person to access of the bathroom pods at the time of final installation it.  Due to some weather events, delay is occurred and therefore the result is that the project is behind the schedule. The construction director evaluates of the benefits of using the software for proper planning and scheduling of entire project work. Planning is needed to complete the work so that they can eliminate the resource risks. The resource allocation of project work is done based on project requirements. All the tasks are assigned to the project resources so that it can completely finish. Some of the recommendations are also suggested for successfully complete the project work such as strict follow of the quality standards, follow of the budget as well as time. There is proper follow of the plumbing connection along with electrical work.



Carr, C., 2014. Social and Economic Conditions of Temporary Urban Living (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati).

Charlesworth, E. and Ahmed, I., 2015. Sustainable housing reconstruction: Designing resilient housing after natural disasters. Routledge.

Elliott, K.S., 2017. Historical and Chronological Development of Precast Concrete Structures. Modernisation, Mechanisation and Industrialisation of Concrete Structures, p.1.

Gosling, J., Pero, M., Schoenwitz, M., Towill, D. and Cigolini, R., 2016. Defining and categorizing modules in building projects: an international perspective. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(11), p.04016062.

James, C., 2014. Relationship Between Residence Hall Floor Plan And Social Interaction, Community, Retention, And Overall Satisfaction.

Jellen, A.C., 2015. Vertical Expansion of Existing Buildings Using Multi-story Modular Construction Methods.

Jeremic, B., 2013. Student Residence Hall Rooms: Sense of Control, Sense of Community, Student Relationships, and Academic Achievement.

Johansson, J. and Zöllner Wohlfart, L., 2017. Sustainable bathroom design.

Lawson, M., Ogden, R. and Goodier, C., 2014. Design in modular construction. CRC Press.

Malakauskas, G., Baltramiejunas, M., Muller, H.D., Andersson, E.R., Hattig, T., Sodemann, S.T. and Muller, P., Vastint Hospitality BV, 2016. Prefabricated panel for a building. U.S. Patent 9,464,436.

Malakauskas, G., Baltramiejunas, M., Muller, H.D., Andersson, E.R., Hattig, T., Sodemann, S.T. and Muller, P., Vastint Hospitality BV, 2017. Method and system for construction of a building. U.S. Patent 9,556,632.

Malakauskas, G., Baltramiejunas, M., MÜLLER, H.D., Andersson, E.R., Hattig, T., Sodemann, S.T. and Müller, P., Vastint Hospitality BV, 2016. Prefabricated panel for a building. U.S. Patent Application 15/266,466.

Osrin, D. and Wornell, P., 2015. Backing innovation. Building Surveying Journal, p.10.

Ozorhon, B., 2013. Response of construction clients to low-carbon building regulations. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(12), p.A5013001.

Rahman, N.A.A., Ahmad, S. and Zainordin, Z.M., 2013. Perception and Awareness of Leaking for Toilet in Pre-cast Concrete Structure. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, pp.61-69.

Samarasinghe, T., Mendis, P., Aye, L. and Vassos, T., 2017. Applications of design for excellence in prefabricated building services systems.

Samarasinghe, T., Mendis, P., Ngo, T. and Fernando, W.J.B.S., 2015. BIM Software Framework for Prefabricated Construction: Case Study Demonstrating BIM Implementation on a Modular House. In 6th International Conference On Structural Engineering And Construction Management (pp. 154-162).

Scanlon, K., Whitehead, C. and Blanc, F., 2017. The future social housing provider.

Schindler, S., 2014. Housing and the Cooperative Commonwealth. Places Journal.

Smith, R.E. and Quale, J.D. eds., 2017. Offsite Architecture: Constructing the Future. Taylor & Francis.

Steiner, H.A., 2013. Beyond Archigram: the structure of circulation. Routledge.

Till, J. and Schneider, T., 2016. Flexible housing. Routledge.

Valentine, T., 2015. Lessons Learned from Nevada’s Honors Residential Scholars Community.

Yanagisawa, K., 2015. Trends in the Design and Planning of Schools from the Viewpoint of Information Technology and Communication. In Schools for the Future (pp. 173-183). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.


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