Media credibility is a multifaceted concept for which researchers uses different types of approaches to understand and evaluate its components. While adding online news to it, public have become more concerned about credibility of online news perceptions and easy availability of news sources. With easy access to online news, consumers are also getting concerned about trustworthiness of information and other physiognomies that seeks sources are more reliable and credible. For traditional media, the leading feature of denomination shows that it is alleged to be conversant. Television news are found to be most up to date and time oriented on the other hand newspapers are seen more credible in terms of honesty, balance and currency with having an additional feature of story telling style. Therefore, it can be said that citizen journalism and news media are constructed on integrity. With online news and websites, the traditional news media has made a competitor in news field which arise further question for the mainstream journalists in traditional media whether to react to the new competitor or become use to it. Generally, journalists have negative outlook towards internet but again they are concerned about the credibility and reliability of online world also. Such reactions confirm the institutional ability of traditional media and the legitimacy of models of traditional journalism (Kova?i?, et al., 2009).
Research in credibility of journalism and mass communication since past few decades shows concentration of credibility to contemporary variations of new media channels. The rise of online networking and social sites have made shut down few of newspapers and magazines that have created negative headlines about traditional media prospects over the past few years. However, significant increase of readers in electronic newspaper sites shows that traditional media is more credible in relation to information on contemporary affairs. Paid newspapers and electronic newspaper sites receives high ratings than online media inclusively and online media creditability are recorded lower as their average score is found to be the lowest among all other media channels.
From past few decades, overall trust of public and press has declined over online media news. Even many organisations declined the surveys made by online media news channels and even newspapers believability declined from 80% to 59% in between 1985 to 2002. For television news, the decline was seen in 81% to 65% during that time. Regarding media credibility, the online information generally finds that people rates online news in the similar fashion as they rate other media. Politically interested media users examine the news media for viewing internet publications as credible as traditionally delivered corresponding items. They believed that online newspaper; magazines or politically based websites were evaluated by credible respondents (Cassidy, 2007). In spite of the fact that print media and traditional news outlets are significant for organisations, people and digital public relations, most of the newspaper websites are either published by credible sources or recognised publications. From SEO standpoint, because of the trustworthiness of these sites, they have a tendency in gaining high metrics and thus a back linkage from a traditional media news publication can provide support with SEO rankings even.
Study shows that traditional media are more credible than internet news in which newspapers perceived more credibility than television, magazine and radio. However, across all four traditional media, the differences between them are not significant but consideration of credibility given by mass media to moderate credible source is more important. However, some of the internet users reported that online news was more reliable than traditional media as they felt that online news were more credible. While other study showed that news sites credibility was significant reason behind the growth of media channels (Tanta, et al., 2017).
Many people criticise their dissatisfaction with traditional media as journalists may tend to become less self-critical. Many journalists nationwide gave opinion that the new media was doing a nice work and were improvising on journalistic quality. In contrast, other half suggested that their work was going in wrong direction and that there were many realistic errors in news reports. Many of the local and national journalists scaled credibility as most important issue that was faced by journalism professionals. Credibility to traditional media can be given in mixed form indicating that online media are more credible than traditional media only if information in them is offered by traditional organisations. Credibility can be associated with dependence on the web rather than how much individual uses the medium. While some traditional media over online sources, newspapers were given much credibility, for teenagers, online media as well as television proved more effective. Therefore, it can be said that traditional media established by traditional publications are given more credibility than online news media channels (Chung, et al., 2012).
2. The main credibility of journalistic reports of traditional media are based on reputation and tradition in which they are attributed to editors and reporters. People make decision about particular news medium trustworthiness having in mind about particular publication or journalist in mind. Who has written the report and in which manner is more crucial for them in which majority emphasised more on journalistic reports. The main reason behind giving credibility to journalistic reports are based on criterion of source assortment like including sources involved in particular event or those who have somewhat significant saying about the event. This makes the report more logical and impartial. According to authors, news material is significant to be seen from ‘all sides’ and that ‘different sides’ of the story is included in the report. It is also necessary that search signs indicates the news materials and journalists have verified that information before putting it in front of the public.
People crave for exclusive news where they demand to get clear picture about issues and information’s that are sparse. Traditional media reports capitalise on such people desires, providing their viewers with credible contents that are well researched. Facts attached with familiar faces along with stories provide additional interest among readers. The basic role of traditional journalistic reports is often overlooked by people who scream in media to capitalise on online media craze. (Speakman, 2011).
Credible journalists write the reports in a way that makes clear about the certain event and that it is confirmed or is divergent from other news sources. Other significant reason behind its credibility is that many people find in-depth information about news or reports that relates to structural relations of society or those information’s which uncover relationship powers of society that are offered with data along with context. This media offers those pieces of data that may not be linked with each other or are published to fill the space only. It also helps in gathering criticisms of public as journalists get themselves engaged with discriminated groups where they either stand with them or fight against them which makes their materials more credible. In other words, journalists of traditional media are focussed more upon maintaining authority and power to fulfil their core objective of finding accurate materials for their reports (Speakman, 2011).
Traditional media are undoubtedly declining in readership where newspapers no longer limit putting information in hard copies only. Internet has changed the ways of news delivery where traditional media reports have become blurred through television and online media. Struggling of traditional media is apparent given that unlimited contents are available online. However, traditional outlets are still recognised as authoritative source whereas online media acts as an entertainment factor where series of opinions and expressions are collected rather than reliable facts (Turner, 2015).
In spite of increasing threats and risks facing traditional media, the research field validates that journalistic reports offers a variety of prospects based on social, economic and technological developments through innovation. For both professionals and citizen journalists, the augmentation of sophisticated mobile phones for sharing news information has brought in new possibilities that can enable reporters gather information from distant locations by empowering subjugated groups. The traditional media journalistic reports contain material of entities that employs journalists with magazines, newspapers, and news stations broadcasts (Hayes, et al., 2007). The reports prepared by individual reporter deals with primary and secondary data of public in large as a part of traditional media organisation and not as an individual. Although ethical stance can be seen here from individual authenticity but, the traditional media provides them with mainstream media outlet. The degree of information credibility succeeds with the reputation of the media companies where journalists may come up under public attention. The brand of traditional media is also an important factor that succeeds in getting credible reputation in public image. The information provided in journalistic reports is associated with authenticity in other ways also where emphasis is given on accountability for gathered information. Accountability can also be associated with transparency to offer avenue to the credible sources and creating mutual trust among media environment. At the end, it can be said that personal disclosure along with evidentiary supports gives much credibility to traditional media journalistic reports (Hayes, et al., 2007).
Cassidy, W. P., 2007. Online News Credibility: An Examination of the Perceptions of Newspaper Journalists. [Online] Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00334.x [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Chung, C. J., Nam, Y. & Stefanone, M. A., 2012. Exploring Online News Credibility: The Relative Influence of Traditional and Technological Factors. [Online] Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2011.01565.x [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Hayes, A. S., Singer, J. B. & Ceppos, J., 2007. SHIFTING ROLES, ENDURING VALUES: The CREDIBLE JOURNALIST in a DIGITAL AGE. [Online] Available at: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/3459/6/2007RolesValuesJMMESinger.pdf [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Kova?i?, M. P., Erjavec, K. & Štular, K., 2009. Credibility of Traditional vs. Online News Media: A Historical Change in Journalists’ Perceptions?. [Online] Available at: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/88479 [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Speakman, B., 2011. PRINT vs. ONLINE JOURNALISM: ARE BELIEVABILITY AND ACCURACY AFFECTED BY WHERE READERS FIND INFORMATION?. [Online] Available at: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=journalismdiss [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Tanta, I., Selmic, S. B. & Levak, T., 2017. The Level of Credibility of Traditional and New Media in Reporting on Human Rights Issues. [Online] Available at: https://www.collantropol.hr/antropo/article/viewFile/1586/1525 [Accessed 17 05 2018].
Turner, S. S. a. G., 2015. Why Traditional Media Still Matters. [Online] Available at: https://frank.jou.ufl.edu/2015/01/why-traditional-media-still-matters/
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