The entire report argues upon the labour-management relations. The labour and management riots are continuing from last three- four centuries. The Haymarket Square riot is considered to be the biggest riot in the world’s history regarding labour exploitation against rights. Concentrating on the labour management relations it depicts the bond between the employer and employee. It is been studied the more healthy working environment more will be the productivity. No employee could work efficiently if work pressure and sense of terror surrounds them. For conducting a successful business and leading in the long run employer need to maintain relations not only with the employees but with the external environment as well.
From the report, it can be cultivated that multiple riots took place out of which three selected strikes are quoted along with suggestions which if implemented could be fruitful for the industrialist and employees as well. From constructing of labour unions till maintaining the relations whole process is briefly discussed in the project. The report explains about Haymarket riots of 1886, the great railroad strike 1877 and the great anthracite coal strike 1902 which quotes the agitation and presentation done by employees demanding their rights which resulted in improving the present working situation and sustainable growth of organisation and employer-employee relationship.
Labour- management relations
In today’s scenario where people spent most of the time at work place and it becomes more familiar than the home of an individual. To spend an entire day at the work station there is an utmost need of having a cool climate and comfortable environment surrounding the employee. To enhance the efficiency of the workers and managers there is a need to increase the bond between the employer and employee (Trebilcock, n.d.). The relationship between employer and employee is crucial one and at times it turns out to be the major reason for expansion and contraction of the business. There are various ifs and buts take place when a crowd works together but there needs to be the middle way which could be opted in the case of the adverse situation. There exist healthy as well as problematic situations in an organisation which gives rise to multiple acts and policies that can be chosen when similar circumstances appear in the organisation (Katz, Kochan & Colvin, 2015). To avoid the exploitation of the workers and favouring the common interest of employee’s labour union is originated to benefit the employees by rendering them knowledge and making them aware of their rights. For that sake labour law is created to fight against the unequal treatment, discrimination on the basis of colour and country, deductions from basic pay, long working hours with less number of facilities, safety issues and much more. There are numerous events that occur concerning labour-management relations, some of them are quoted below (Shmoop, 2017).
Haymarket Square Riot
In the Haymarket, Square bombarding took place on 4th May 1886 which was conducted by approximately 8 labourers who were agitating for their eight-hour duty of work. It was started on 1st May 1886 but the frustrations of labourers were boiling since early 18th century. The cause was that the big industrialists and owners were exploiting the labourers to the great extent. They were made to work for around 17-18 hours a day and paid the very minimal amount, such that the worker could survive and work for them the next following day. Neither was they given any sought of facilities nor were they treated well. There was no thing called bonding and healthy relations between employer and employee. Another major issue that arises was that the man was started to get replaced with the invention of machines. The industrialists were focussing only on their profit maximisation and no source of humanity ever existed. All over the world revolutions were going on and labourers were agitating against the owners as at that time no labour unions were developed (Foner, 2005).
- This situation could have turned out better if the owners have treated workers as the human rather than an animal. If healthy relationship approach and labour laws were made at that time than employees would not have to suffer a lot.
- Mutual understanding may have turned the things other way round if the balance between the man and machine was made.
- Had the employees given certain facility and shorten up the working hours they would have resulted to be more productive. The happy the worker more is the output rendered. The profit was calculated in the terms of time wages rather than piece rate.
- If the basic educational facility was provided to the employee's children this would have resulted in imposing of liability over worker in a healthy manner. Initiation of uniform could have opted to treat every employee equally thereby avoiding discrimination and building up the relations for healthy and long term future (History, 2017).
Great railroad strike of 1877
The great rail road was again the situation of labour exploitation where workers’ wages were deducted to around 25%. The wages of employees were reduced twice and the workers outburst on the thrice cut off of the wages. Employees were not able to survive adequately nor were they able to run the family. Around 100 of people died in this strike which elongated for around 45 days. It was started on 17 July 1877 and many injuries were caused at that time since it was the revolution period where one or the other labour strikes and riots were continuing but the great railroad was biggest of all (Adamczyk, 2017). The socialist environment was prevailing and employees were not rendered the adequate facilities. Improvisation:
- This problem could have resolved if a union was created and patiently discussion was made at the government level. The strict penalty should have imposed on the industries who were initiating employee exploitation and discrimination.
- The railroad workers were performing the dangerous task even then they were not provided with any safety measures and nor the compensation were paid to the family. Many times the situation happens where the worker was the only earning source for entire family and the situation was that the workers were starving. They prefer to die instead of starving and dying on the daily basis. The industrialist should have provided the appropriate safety measures and wages equivalent to run a workers family. Neither the payment was made in cash nor anything in kind is been rendered.
- Building up the relationship was not the concerned point at that time. Be it the moment where arbitration could have made the issue wasn’t spread with such pace because every worker was frustrated with the employer’s attitude towards work and humanity (Grubbs, 2017).
Great Anthracite Coal Strike
This strike was conducted by the coal workers in the year 1902, in Pennsylvania. Around 147,000 workers were engaged in the strike demanding for safety measures, health benefit and appropriate working conditions for the employees. The strike was handled by United Mine Workers of America (UMWA). This was the place which provides the majority of anthracite coal. At that time winters were approaching and to heat up for warmth coal is been used. On conducting strike will affect a lot of life of general people as well thus it was the time where the government could understand the cause of concern for workers. Labour union was conducted and it represented the workers (Grossman, n.d.). It was calm warm or says the cold war between the employer and employee without causing any destruction.
- This problem could be resolved by shaking hands with government in a positive manner and providing the employees with their rights and curb the exploitation.
- Labour law needs to be followed and accordingly and on breaching up the contract penalty shall be imposed on the owner. Trials and activities are undertaken so that healthy relations between labour and management could be developed.
- When agitation was at its top President Roosevelt had to interrupt and give away labourers their rights. The result of this particular strike was such that the labours were demanding 20% increment in the wages but the final settlement was done by raising the wages of mine workers by 10% (American-historama, 2017).
- Separate law for mines labourers to be created and health benefit to the employees are must so as to compensate the family of a candidate who was injured or died during the course of employment.
- Also, it could be the aim that no discrimination should take place over income. The rich are becoming richer and poor the poorer as the income is confined in the small bunch of people. Coal is the natural resource on which every individual possess the equal right to use it, it should not be handed over to the certain people who exploit the human and natural resources simultaneously (Reference, 2017).
Hence, from the above report, it could be concluded that employee exploitation is continuing from the ages and many times the historical riots and strikes took place for acquiring one’s own right. With the increasing time and enhancing knowledge the area of employee protection broadens up and with the release of employment law relaxation was faced by the employees. Earlier industrialist was at the motive of making the profit only, now the employee satisfaction is also considered equivalent to profit as workers nowadays are aware and energetic to shut down any enterprises. Keeping in view and experiencing the history labour law was initiated which provides various benefits such as employee’s state insurance benefit. Equality to women is provided and no discrimination should take place on the basis of gender, colour and caste under equal remuneration act and maternity benefit act. Also from the part of worker unjustified strikes should be avoided and demand must be kept in a sensible manner rather than coming out on the roads and defaming the organisation. This will lead to the situation of harmony and generosity which assists in building up the healthy relations between employer and employee for successfully continuing the long run.
Adamczyk. J. (2017). Great railroad strike of 1877. Viewed on 12th August 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Great-Railroad-Strike-of-1877>.
American-Historama. (2017). Anthracite Coal strike of 1902. Viewed on 12th August 2017. < https://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/anthracite-coal-strike-1902.htm>.
Foner. P. S. (2005). May Day. International publishers co., Inc. Canada.
Grossman. J. (n.d.). The coal strike of 1902-Turning point in U.S. policy. Viewed on 12th August 2017. < https://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/coalstrike.htm>.
Grubbs. P. (2017). Railroad strike of 1877. Viewed on 12th August 2017. <https://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/railroad-strike-of-1877/>.
History. (2017). Labor movement. Viewed on 12th August 2017. <https://www.ilocis.org/documents/chpt21e.htm>.
Katz. H.C., Kochan. T. A. & Colvin. A. (2015). Labour relations in globalizing world. Cornell University Press. New York.
Reference. (2017). How did Roosevelt end the coal strike of 1902? Viewed on 12th August 2017. < https://www.reference.com/history/did-roosevelt-end-coal-strike-1902-fef0104a7cd29f6b>.
Shmoop. (2017). History of labor unions. Viewed on 12th August 2017. <https://www.shmoop.com/history-labor-unions/timeline.html>.
Trebilcock. A. (n.d.). Labour relations and human resources management: an overview. Viewed on 12th August 2017. <https://www.ilocis.org/documents/chpt21e.htm>.