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In this assignment you are required to:

1. Research and review the key theories, models and concepts for human resource development in relation to training and development

2. Identify the importance of training and development to sustainable organizational outcomes

3. Use this research to recommend how training and development should be implemented in a large multi-national organisation.
 

The Theory of Learning Types

The aim of this paper is to discuss the essentiality of the training and develop process for the employees of the organisation. In this global business context, the training and development of the work force in a company has become essential. It is the only way to develop the company and reach the common goal. In case the employees are not properly trained and do not possess needed knowledge they cannot perform properly which does not allow the companies to have the competitive edge. Therefore the employees are actively participating in various program organised by their organisations and observing demand for arranging more training and development programs like those (Bamberger and Belogolovsky 2010). The successful organisations of today have been to there workforce as a highly valuable asset so that any changes can be accepted without question and these result in positive outcomes. There are several theories that emphasize on the essentiality of training and development in organisation and provide different alternatives for this process. These theories influence the design, delivery and measurement of learning. The seven major theories of training and development are theory of learning types, theory of experiential learning, Theory of social learning, humanist approach, theory of critical reflection, theory of adult learning and transformational learning.

The theory of learning type is based on the study of Gagne that emphasizes on the learning of intellectual skills. There are some skills then I found rare among the persons therefore can you suggest to use different learning types in this theory and each of the learning type contains some external and internal conditions. This theory deals with the kinds of things people can learn and how they can learn them. There are two main components of this theory which include techniques needed to teach people and taxonomy of learning outcomes which means the material what is being learnt. There are five categories of human performance and each of these require different sets of conditions which can help them maximizing the learning process, attention as well as transfer. These five categories include verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive categories, attitude and motor skills.

The theory of experiential learning relates to the two levels of learning and is concerned with the internal cognitive processes of the learners. According to this theory there are four stages of learning cycle which include concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The concrete experience relates to the new experience and situation which the learners encounter and ready interpret for existing experience (Ju 2019). Reflective observation relates to the consistency between the experience and understanding. The abstract conceptualization gives rise to the new ideas and modify the existing abstract concepts from which the learner might have learn from their experience. Finally the active experimentation relates to the application of ideas of the learner to the world surrounded. 

The Theory of Experiential Learning

The social learning theory emphasizes on the reciprocal interactions of environment the person and his behaviour. Each of this component influence another from which the learner learnt. The theorist of this concept, Albert Bandura has pointed out that directory reinforcement like training process of the organization may not address all types of learning. This is due to the fact that there are some social factors which may not be taught. These elements are actually learnt by the learner from their surroundings which is called observational learning and associate with the understanding of various human behaviour. For an example, a new employee can learn a huge from the environment and surroundings of his organisation which are very much professional and supportive of learning (Nolan and Garavan 2016). This theory explains about the psychological states that play vital role in this learning process (Seidle, Fernandez and Perry 2016). It is the mental status of the person is positive regarding any type of learning activity then he will be able to be a part of the learning process and again positivity from that particular process. Therefore the organisational training programs may be effective for learning other things by the employees but these cannot be taught as mental state of different people are different. However these programs can motivate the employees and build positive mental state so that the learners can learn from their environment and their supervisors or co-workers.

The humanist approach of learning routes from the field of humanistic psychology where the importance are put on self-esteem, self-development and motivation of the persons. The humanistic approach relates to the learning from the reflection on personal experiences. It is purely related to the search for the self-definition (Nolan and Garavan 2016). Hence in this type of learning process, motivation plays an essential role that drives the individuals in endeavours.

The critical learning theory is completely different from the critical reflection theory. According this theory, the learning needs to questions which can lead the individuals to learn to use the logical process of learning (Dochy et al. 2012). The logical process change the personal knowledge and use factors like creativity, logical reflection, problems solving abilities, evaluation and dialectic thinking process. The theorist of the concept of adult learning and transformational learning, Mezirow has pointed out that there are three levels of adult learning that include instrumental, communicative and emancipatory. On the other hand, the three stages of transformational learning includes identification of dilemma or crisis, establishment of the personal relevance and critical thinking.

The Social Learning Theory

Training and development of the workforce can lead the organisation to have sustainable outcomes. It is important for maintaining a healthy work culture and cultivate longevity of the business. The process of implementing proper training and development process for the employees of the organisation can grow scopes for learning which engage the employees with the organisation more effectively (Konings and Vanormelingen 2015). In this competitive world most of the employees like interest and contribution in their work but when the organisations motivate and inspire the employees to get growth opportunities comma the employees get recognition and fair benefits that act as stimulus for sustainable performance. This is the positive passion and ability to learn new things which make great progress as well as innovation in the business therefore the leaders must try to cultivate both these factors within the work culture. It is important that the employees feel connected to the mission and vision of the organisation (Belogolovsky and Bamberger 2014). The training process allow the teams of employees to share information which helps in progress of both the employees as well as the organisation. This is also a process for keeping negative work culture from the workplace and incorporate the process of interaction and productivity for encountering all the negative effects of external as well as internal challenges.

The training and development of the employees in the organisation can significantly impact on the work ethic, productivity, performance and the potential of the employees. They are able to build a sustainable work culture by opening up and creating various opportunities to know one another (Bamberger and Belogolovsky 2010). This nurtures their growth as well as developed constructive and positive feedback based on which the company policies are changed in support of the workforce. Training and development is essential for sharing knowledge and eliminating any probability of bottleneck challenge (Colella et al. 2007). It gives the company a scope for depending upon the teams and face any type of external or internal changes within the organisation. The sustainability factors get promoted through training and development of the employees and they can build themselves to have necessary skills that give the organisation a competitive edge.

Implementing training and development programme for the employees is not an easy job for the multinational companies. There are various factors affecting the growth and structure of the workforce in different subsidiaries operating in different market. The multinational organisation like Google where the employees are expected to have high efficiency matching the need of the industry as well as Global customers. In this regard improving or implementing employee training in different branches become difficult for the company as the organisational culture are different for the localisation of operation management (López?Pérez, Melero and Javier Sesé 2017). There are few steps which can help Google to implement training and development process which include establishing program goals or capturing needs, choosing the right employee for training creating useful and engaging learning experiences for the employees deliver training to the employees at right time finally tracking and improving the learning process. By analysing feedbacks of the employees, the company will be able to understand the need of knowledge and arrange perfect training to their employees.

Therefore, it can be concluded that there are various concepts and theories present in the training and development aspect of the human resource departments of the companies. These lead the companies to develop a strong yet flexible workforce that can adapt changes quite effectively and support the organisations to attain sustainability. However, implementing perfect training and development learning for the employees become difficult for the multinational companies sue to difference in culture of different markets but by following some necessary steps, the companies can effectively support their employees to gain a competitive edge. 

References:

Bamberger, P. and Belogolovsky, E., 2010. The impact of pay secrecy on individual task performance. Personnel Psychology, 63(4), pp.965-996.

Barrouillet, P., 2015. Theories of cognitive development: From Piaget to today.

Belogolovsky, E. and Bamberger, P.A., 2014. Signaling in secret: Pay for performance and the incentive and sorting effects of pay secrecy. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), pp.1706-1733.

Colella, A., Paetzold, R.L., Zardkoohi, A. and Wesson, M.J., 2007. Exposing pay secrecy. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), pp.55-71.

Dochy, F., Gijbels, D., Segers, M. and Van den Bossche, P., 2012. Theories of learning for the workplace: Building blocks for training and professional development programs. Routledge.

Konings, J. and Vanormelingen, S., 2015. The impact of training on productivity and wages: firm-level evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics, 97(2), pp.485-497.

López?Pérez, M.E., Melero, I. and Javier Sesé, F., 2017. Does specific CSR training for managers impact shareholder value? Implications for education in sustainable development. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 24(5), pp.435-448.

Seidle, B., Fernandez, S. and Perry, J.L., 2016. Do leadership training and development make a difference in the public sector? A panel study. Public Administration Review, 76(4), pp.603-613.

Nolan, C.T. and Garavan, T.N., 2016. Human resource development in SMEs: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 18(1), pp.85-107.

Ju, B., 2019. The roles of the psychology, systems and economic theories in human resource development. European Journal of Training and Development.

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