Human resource management is described as the management of most valuable and unpredictable living assets of any organization. Human resource has the capacity to add value to any organization with the magnitude of infinity. To get the best result from this resource, proper planning is required in different field of operation starting from selection, appointment retention and creating situation to motivate the workforce in order to get the best result from them. In this article, we will concentrate on the issue of motivating human resource through different available theories. This article will emphasize on the issue of motivating employees with the direct effort from employer to provide them best possible work environment so far job satisfaction and compensation factor is concerned. Main inspiration of employees is to be identified for excellent service to accomplish the objective set for them. There are short, long-term objectives assigned to the employees, and it is their duty to accomplish such objectives. For this purpose, the employees need motivation from the superiors or the colleagues (Heathfield, 2016). Motivation can make an ordinary employee a superlative one, because the assessment of the ability of human resource is not yet derived in scientific manner, even if it was tried to. There is always some benchmark set for each employee and it is expected from the management that the employees should meet that basic expectation. When they fail to deliver that level, the management should ask for the reason from the human resource management department with the identification for the specific cause for non-performance. During earlier period, consideration of employees was nothing but an input in operation management of any organization. The concept changed through research which was referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, which was conducted by Elton Mayo during the period from 1924 to 1932(Dickson, 1973). The observation of this study had considered factor of motivation of employees is not only money instead; the same is connected with their attitudes. Hawthorne Studies had started the approach of human relation to the management of human resource through which the requirements and motivation factor of employees had become the basic focus of the managers (Hrmpractice, 2016).
The following equation represents the quantification of Job performance with the significance of motivation, ability, and environment:
Performance = Motivation X Ability X Environment
Hence, performance is represented as a function of interaction between motivation and ability of an individual and environment of work (Github, 2015).
Theory of motivation
There are different theories explored through researches related to motivation by social psychologists and management theorists to explore the successful approaches to HR management:
- Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
- McGregor’s Theory- X and Theory-Y
- Existence Relatedness Growth ( ERG) Theory
- Reinforcement Theory
- McClelland (Needs for Affiliation, Power and Achievement Theory of Motivation
- Adam’s Equity theory
- Herzberg tow factor Theory
Out of the above, we will consider McGregor’s Theory-X and Theory Y for discussion of motivation factors controlling human behavior and management. McGregor is exploring this theory from MIT in the period of 1960’s (Neoenglish, 2011).
McGregor explored and promoted Theory Y to be considered as the basis of acceptable management practice, with the argument that workers are not only the considered to be the components of the company operation system, which is believed by the organization of X-Type category. These theories are emphasizing on the perception of managers about the motivational factors for the team members is controlled as per the belief of the manager. The assumptions of the manager related to manage team members can be influenced by the adaptation of the approach to ensure appropriate and effective approach to manage team members with the coveted level (Economist, 2008).
The manager should understand the implication of his management style, which is being influenced by his assumptions, and beliefs related to the motivation factors for his team members. If it is found that the team members do not like work, the manager has to act in authoritative mode. On the contrary, if it is assumed that the team members are feeling proud of being the part of the team with liking the work, the manager should adapt for more participative mode.
Theory X is an assumption, which endorses the concept that employees are not motivated in natural way with not liking the work. It is the job of the manager to get the job done, whatever be the situation. Therefore, the manager has to exercise the authoritarian style of management due the demand of the profession of manager, which ultimately demands to get the job done. Basic assumptions of managers as per Theory X regarding the attitude of workers are:
- The workers do not like working;
- The workers need to be forced, controlled and even threatened to get the job done;
- The workers tend to avoid responsibility and the situation requires directions;
- Subsequent action by managers needed is to supervise at every level with proper control to be placed in the correct position;
- The workers need to be excited by the manager with action to entice them for result, otherwise, they will not ready to produce coveted result;
The organizations falling under X type are normally with the feature of top heavy hierarchical ser up which never promotes the worker to go for work with self motivation. Manager or supervisors of these organizations require exercising monitoring at every step of operation due to lack of delegation of authority at every tier of management with existence of centralized control (Empxtrack, 2008).
Observation of McGregor shows that the workers of X-Type are normally proved minority in a big organization like large-scale production entities where the application of X Theory is to be applied, as it is unavoidable.
This theory promotes the situation of workers as opposite to the factors prevailing in X Theory. Y theory is promoting the concept of participative style with existence of decentralized control and proper delegation of authority in the hierarchical set up. This theory is based on the assumption of workers feeling happy with the job and that enhances the scope of self-motivation and creativity. The worker of this theory is assumed to enjoy working with greater level of responsibilities bestowed upon them. Basic assumptions of workers under Y Theory:
- They are working with happiness and with proactive attitude to honor their responsibility in order to accomplish given objectives;
- They are prone to acceptance of responsibility with lesser direction to complete the job;
- They usually consider their work as part of their daily life with proactive to solve work –related constraints with own imagination.
Y theory is promoting more participative style of management, which is applicable in wider manner in present style of organization. This type of organizations find self motivated worker in lower level who are willing to take responsibility so far decision making and execution of work is concerned (Hrmpractice, 2015).
Positive Work Environment
To determine the success of any work, another important factor is the work environment for the worker as they feel. Work environment determines the constitution of involvement of employees with the work assigned to them. They are depending upon different factors like relationship with colleagues and supervisors, culture of the organization, scope of individual development, etc (Ashtoncollege, 2016).
A positive work environment is elementary to make the workers feel comfortable at their work, which provides coveted level of motivation to ensure sustainability for their service period.
Following features are determining positive work environment in any workplace:
Communication with prudence and openness
In fact, transparent and open type of communication addresses the requirement of the employees to feel that their suggestions have positive value to the betterment of the organization. This factor proves that the workers feel their togetherness with the organization. This factor also helps to understand the meaningfulness of their contribution to the organization with expected level of value addition to the organization. This factor can be successful when the workers are aware of the mission statement of the organization with the objectives-both short and long term, the values and the culture and philosophy of the organization that can define to the workers their micro objectives to accomplish for the continuous development of the organization. This can be possible through open and transparent communication with the workers.
Transparent and open communication helps to mitigate the confusion within the worker and the management, which might prevail due to hierarchical or bureaucratic attitude of the organization. This level of communication can facilitate to increase the trust between the internal stakeholders of the organization. With this type of transparent communication, the workers feel free to add value through their suggestions for the organization for its betterment (Manker, 2015).
Work life balance
When one is a worker for any organization, that same individual has his personal life, too. This philosophy is to be honored by the employer as this balance of work and life is elementary to maintain the job satisfaction of level of the employees due to their feeling of giving due importance to other aspects of personal life which are basic feature of human life.
When fulfillment of different requirements and objectives of life in the sphere of family, friends, and other priorities including self- growth are confirmed, the workers feel more confident about their own accomplishment, which reflects in their work. Work life balance can add value to an individual with ability to promote creativity with out of box thinking ability (Heathfield, 2016).
Work life balance should be encouraged by the employer by promoting the workers through acknowledgement who can manage their work in the stipulated duty hours with efficiency, as this initiative can promote the thought of maintain good work-life balance by the employees. The employer can also train the employees about the concept and procedure of maintaining work-life balance, which can be supported by the mission statement.
Focus on Training and development
Present technological environment always needs for frequent change in working style and the same can be achieved by proper training for development. This training is to be initiated from employer’s end. It is demand of the era, which is supported by Darwin’s Theory of Survival for the Fittest. Hence, the virtue of adaptation is the main criterion and the employer has to ensure that willing workers to adaptability must be given a fair chance through training. Training is mainly emphasizing on development of hard and soft skills while hard skills are more concerned with productivity, soft skills mainly involved in the development of the morale of the organization through interpersonal skills. A positive work environment can ensure routine process of training for improving efficiency with positive attitude amongst the employees (Hrwale, 2012).
Recognition of work
Rewards are the best option for recognition of hard work by employers to ascertain the positive behaviors of the employees. This consideration of employer is known as positive reinforcement in the domain of psychology under operant conditioning. The recognition for hard work through rewarding can enhance the possibility to create instance, which encourages other employees to act in same manner. Recognition is not always be through monetary terms, but even a simple verbal recognition by the supervisor can be a good boost for level of deliverance with enhancement of employee’s motivation. Recognition of hard work creates a healthy working competition within the organization with the feeling of valued by the employer for the effort the employees give.
Strong Team Spirit
This is the human trend to seek support from the people of sale group and thinking. It is the demand of the situation, which promotes that during tough time, team spirit plays a vital role to face the threats or challenges. This situation promotes the feeling of sense of unity in the team where employees never feel that they are single. Team spirit helps to face the challenge together and find the way to success. Strong team spirit is not an easy thing to acquire as involvement of acceptance and tolerance of differences in working styles and perspectives in work between team members. The feeling of working for a common objective is the prime necessity to generate team spirit. To enhance the feeling of strong team spirit, the need is to ensure that whatever is done should be done as a team. Strong team spirit promotes the attitude of the acceptability of any decision irrespective of its probable outcome of positive or negative (Recklies, 2015).
With the provision of positive job environment, the employer can find it easier to get the best result from the employees with the power of bonding as a team, recognition for the right candidate, work-life balance that can be possible with proper and transparent communication along with training for development (Hongkiat, 2016).
Let us consider the example of Qantas Airlines for this purpose. The company is fulfilling the above criteria of positive work environment. The employer-employee relationship always promotes the feeling of transparent communication. The regular requirement of training for development is being provided for the employees by the employer. The concept of work-life balance and recognition of job is always endorsed and promoted by the company. Moreover, all these factors can generate the ideal situation of team building with strong team spirit, which makes the company successful in home and abroad.
Job Characteristics Model
Job characteristics model is elementary to enhance the motivation level of the employees. The basic idea of job characteristics model evolved by Hackman and Oldham promotes the concept that task assigned is the key factor for motivation of employees. The routine job at times proves to be monotonous and boring to the worker and that situation can lead to reduction of motivation to perform well. On the contrary, the job with challenging in nature with variety, decision-making capacity, and autonomy can make the motivation of the employees higher. There arises the requirement of job enrichment and job rotation, which can add challenge and variety to the employees.
There are five basic job characteristics normally reckoned which are elementary to impact three critical psychological states. These two factors ultimately produce personal outcomes.
Five job characteristics:
- Skill variety,
- Task identity,
- Task significance,
- Feed back.
Three critical psychological states:
- Experienced meaningfulness,
- Experienced responsibility of outcomes,
- Knowledge of the actual results.
Work and Personal outcomes
- Work outcome- related to how successfully the work has been completed and to learn from mistakes;
- Personal outcome- to satisfy personal involvement with the end users of the products or services completed(Yourcoach, 2012).
Table of job characteristics model
Core job dimension
· Skill variety,
· Task identity,
· Task significance,
· Feed back.
Critical psychological status
· Experienced meaningfulness,
· Experienced responsibility of outcomes,
· Knowledge of the actual results.
Personal and work outcomes
· Work outcome- related to how successfully the work has been completed and to learn from mistakes;
· Personal outcome- to satisfy personal involvement with the end users of the products or services completed.
Maslow’s Theory is known as Hierarchy of Needs. This theory is known as a motivational theory in psychology, which is formed with five-tier model of needs of human being, and projected in the form of a pyramid by emphasizing the priorities of needs in hierarchical model.
As per Maslow, human being is motivated to accomplish specific needs with some needs take precedence of others. Basic priority of need is survival of physical existence, which motivates our behavior to advance in the next steps, which are given below in the presentation:
This model of five stages is normally divided into two types of needs- deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four tires are normally considered as deficiency needs and the top tier is known as growth or being needs. The impact of deficiency needs normally instrumental to motivate people until they are met with the desire to meet those needs getting stronger if they are not met in longer period (Sylvester, 2016).
The five tier needs, as specified by Maslow, are connected to the factor of motivation referred to employment. The first tier of physiological needs can be ensured through employment of subsequent remuneration. The second tier of safety needs can be ensured through the job security that can give security to run life with proper level of requirement in monetary terms. The third tier of belongingness and love needs are mostly connected to family and friends related which also can be accomplished through proper and steady source of money, which can be achievable from the job. Fourth tier represents esteem needs, which can be achieved through accomplishment and prestige. The ultimate or last tier is self actualization which can be achieved through realization of individual potential, fulfillment of self-objective, looking for own growth and peak experiences.
Regarding requirements of individual from any organization where he is employed, all deficiency needs are to be met with the ultimate accomplishment of self-actualization is targeted. Motivation plays a big role in achieving these needs. Steady progress in escalation of tiers will make one more motivated so far deliverance is concerned.
This present article emphasizes on the needs of motivation for human being in his work field. It is the reciprocator expectation from the employer to meet the needs so that self-motivation generates within the employee. Although human nature is, most complicated, but standard path of escalation normally adds motivation to the employees with recognition of his efforts. The Maslow’s theory had emphasized on the five tier needs, while the job characteristics also discussed the different phases of job accomplishment, which can generate work and psychological satisfaction for an individual as worker. Positive work environment is also necessary to get the coveted result from the workers and this can only be ensured through the efforts of employers. To conclude, motivation is only generated through the work ambience, job satisfaction, proper recognition, and meeting the needs of the workers. Hence, motivation can be ensured by the extended support from employers and this can only be the route to motivate employees for long-term sustainability in the workplace with proactive attitude empowered with decision-making and thus adds value to the organization.
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