The aim of this essay is to discuss the importance of change management in a smooth running of organization. Therefore, the organizations need changes in their processes supported by all the stakeholders and management. This essay will also discuss the internal and external factors that affect the organizations and bring change, the role of the senior manager and other managers paly in this change. There is some resistance in applying the change management in an organization which is analyzed in this essay. This essay concludes with the steps and strategies need to be used to implement changes in the organization.
Internal and external factors affecting organizational change
Change within organizations is influenced by both internal and external factors. It is important to learn the types of internal and external factors that influence organizational change because it allows the manager to understand the required changes that need to be made. In this regard, the scholars have indulged in a debate where one set feels that the external factors are important for bringing changes in the organization and on the other hand, some of the authors feel that the internal factors are more important for bringing changes in the organization.
The authors like Rizescu and Tileag (2016), support that the external factors like technological, social, political and some marketing conditions paly vital role in initiating the changes in the organizations. To these authors, changes in the political environment directly affect the legal policies of the market that result in changes in the import, export policies, taxation and other factors with which the market is directly connects. This is the reason why the methods that the management of a company utilize or follow to govern business, are urging for change either in the products or in the processes. In addition to this, the author like Nasim (2018), in this constantly changing scenario, the technological changes are taking place in the markets. The organizations therefore, need to incorporate the technological assistance in the institutions. In order to do so, the organization need to implement changes in the investment plans for technology. These complexities result in changes within the business environment as well and organizations must realize it in order to adapt to change.
However, to Schulz, Martin and Meyer (2017), the internal factor of the organization is also responsible to bring changes in the companies. To these authors, the internal factors like change in the managerial personnel, deficiency within existing organization, nature of the work force and avoidance of inertia development are to internal factors that affect the company’s highly and gradually require for bringing changes in the organization. A change in the position of manager in an organization influences its functioning. With the replacement of old managers, new ideas and experiences are also witnessed by the organization. Therefore, organizations have to adapt to the changed working environment. On the other hand, Josefy et al. (2015) state that the aspects like lack or absence of coordination amongst personnel, greater number of managerial levels, communication problems and lack of consistency in the existing policies ignite the needed changes for the organization.
To Banit (2017), The workforce within the organization are also important to consider the need of changes. They experience change with the inclusion of employees in the organization. While employees above 50 are most loyal to their employers, the middle-aged employees are loyal to themselves and younger ones are concerned only about their career. However, most of the employers try to keep their companies young in aspect of workforce as with experience come the saturation which affect the speed of the production of companies. The young employees are much more creative and innovative in their ideas which help the organization to flourish and gain competitive advantage. On the contrary, the authors like Rahim, Mansor and Anvari (2014) completely stated against the need of the organization of changes in the workforce. This is due to the fact that to the employers, the experience of the employees in support to the production process is important for which the retention of the old employees in the organization. Avoidance of inertia development is one of the most common internal factors that affect organizational change. Managers across organizations implement change in order to avoid inactivity. According to Schaffer, Sandau and Diedrick (2013), managers bring in new changes within organizations as they believe that no single policy or tool is best and that it should be changed.
Role of senior and line managers in implementing change
The employees of an organization expect to learn changes through the managers to whom they are answerable. This can be senior managers or the line managers. Now there are contradictions about from whom the employees will get the formation. Chew, Cheng and Petrovic-Lazarevic (2006) state that the perception of senior managers also play an important role in the implementation of change because employees look up to senior managers’ actions and behavior. The senior managers are responsible to train and support the employees during the change process. They provide awareness and knowledge about the change and help the employees inhibit the change successfully.
On the contrary to Farndale and Kelliher (2013), the line managers paly important role in making the lower division employees to understand the important of change management. This is due to the fact that these managers are responsible to appraise and enact the procedures to reach these employees. This provides an initial evidence about the effectiveness of the line managers where the authors have supported the line manager actions in gaining direct employee?level outcomes. To these authors, the employees are more affected by the line managers as they are closer or directly associated with them. Hence in case the organization needs any change in the production or process, they need to employ the lime managers to convince the employees so that any resistance do not upsurge in the companies.
Causes of resistance to change
In an organizational setting, the overt or covert opposition to change are always constant. In this regard the authors like Lines, Sullivan and Wiezel (2015), have pointed out various resistance to the organizational changes which are mainly related to the internal factors of the companies. This include the oppositions of the senior managers who find the change as a threat to their power. To these authors, the senior management holds the utmost power in the companies and if change takes place, they may be given less power than that of their subordinates.
In support of the internal factors of the resisting changes, Ceptureanu, (2015) has stated that the absence of effective communication in the organization become the factor of resisting change in the organizations. The senior management does not involve the subordinate employees in the discussions relating to change implementation, it causes a gap within the organizations and employees then resist the change. In addition to this, the employees also resist changes because they fear their productivity might suffer resulting in cut of wages.
In opposing this view of change in the organization, the critics like Al-Haddad and Kotnour (2015), have pointed out the external factors that resist change in the organizations. To these scholars, the economic and technological factors also prevent the growth of the companies by resisting necessary changes within the organizations. Due to financial inabilities, the companies fail to implement necessary changes as they cannot arrange for new instruments to enhance the productivity of the firms (Holland, 2016). Moreover, the unviability of the highly advanced technological instruments in the market and lack of infrastructure in the country to support those highly technical machines do not support change in the process of the firms operating in the market.
Strategies organizations should implement to ensure change capable culture:
Organizational change must involve well-planned strategies to makes sure that it leads to development. There are numerous strategies that the firms implement in their workplace and gain successful outcome. Regarding the strategies’ relevance and efficiency, there are debates among the scholars. The authors like Abdelgawad et al. (2013), state that team spirit increases the effectiveness of work and clarify roles and objectives. Reengineering is another strategy that influences the capability of the organization to change. In order to understand the need of the change these team help the companies a lot and they are the backbone to transform the change successfully to enhance the operation of the companies. Hence the team spirit mainly helps the organizations to bring a successful change by supporting the culture.
on the contrary, the authors like Cameron and McNaughtan (2014) believe in completely different view where they have supported the factor of downsizing. This refers to activities that are centered on improving organizational efficiency and productivity. To these authors, the companies only get support from its employees about implementing change, when the implementation process is capable to convince them that there are some needs to change the process in the organization. Thus the companies can ensure that they will get all the positive outcome from the changes they are going to make in the firms.
Therefore, it can be concluded that whatever the scholars have pointed out in this matter of change in an organization, have supported the fact that it is important for organizations to know the kind of change and the time of change needed. The essay provided a systematic explanation on the importance and influence of organizational change management. It was revealed from the discussion that organizational change is a long and complicated yet important process. The findings of the review further explain that changes within organizations are influenced by several factors both internal and external. It is recommended that further research on organizational change management be carried out.
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