Addiction is one of the most common mental health disorders that is usually characterized by the over compulsive behaviour of certain substance and non-substance. The addiction is one of the major disorders of the brain that is related to the to the reward system that arises through the transcriptional epigenetic mechanism. With time the passing of the rewarding system mechanism becomes chronic that ultimately leads to addiction.
The current report focus, on describing the various aspects related to addiction and the substance and non-substance that are related with the addiction activities. The report will also discuss the resultant behaviour that is caused due to the addiction activities. The population of the Aotearoa region is chosen as subject area for this report to study the effects of addiction activities.
Description of Addiction issues
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorder 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) addiction to any substance of non-substance is defined as the some form of maladaptive form of practice that leads to clinical impairment or distress. There are three kinds of impairment that leads to most of the activities leading to addiction.
Tolerance is regarded as the first parameter to measure the activity related addiction. Glass (2016), has defined tolerance that can help to deal with the activities related to the increase of obsession towards achieving intoxication. Withdrawal is the second parameter that is used to describe the terms related to addiction that is characterized by withdrawal syndrome. In addiction a substance is generally taken in much greater amount than is generally required in the body.
Alcohol is one of the one of the major substance of addiction that is very common among the people. Alcohol is generally used as a source of medicinal purposes that help in the intervention and treatment of many types of disease. In much medicine like cough syrup and mouth freshener the use of alcohol is highly recommended. However, as mentioned by McGonigle et al., (2017), it is essential that the alcohol is used in trace amounts as over consumption of alcohol can leads to addiction and thereby have the effect of intolerance activities.
According to Weinstein and Weinstein (2014), alcohol dependence is one of the most common outcome of the over addiction and dependent on alcohol. The maladaptive form of alcohol consumption can lead to clinical distress that can ultimately lead to characteristic of addiction that is made in accordance with the guidelines of DSM-IV-TR. As there is a demand for higher level of alcohol is needed for the body to deal with the consequences of withdrawal syndrome. Hence the tolerance level of the alcohol is decreased with continue use of the alcohol substance. One of the most common characteristic of the alcohol consumption is the desire to deal with the unusual behavior. There could be unsuccessful attempt to deal with the consequences of alcohol behavior that can help to deal with most of the common unusual behavior. There is also unusual behavior among the people to have some unsuccessful attempt to withdrawal the common behavior associated with the use of alcohol.
Addiction can have significant impact on the behavior of an individual that can lead to Continuum of substance use. As mentioned by Kienast et al., (2014), the continuous use of drugs and alcohol can lead to various stages of abuse. The consumption of alcohol can lead to dysfunctional ability of an individual. This addiction can have significant impact on the individual life and also their relationship with other people of the community. Higher rate of on alcohol consumption can highly affect the regular activities of brain. The psychological dependence level of alcohol is the major cause of all mental disturbances among individuals.
It is very common for the people who are highly addicted to alcohol to seek support from other people of the society that helps them to deal with the consequence of addiction. They thrive to lead a normal life with in the society by seeking support of the people. With the help of most of the activity related to alcohol consumption, it is possible for the people to deal with the consequences of addiction (Lachenmeier & Rehm 2015).
The American psychiatric Association uses various parameters in order to detect the mental health status of an individual who has been addicted in alcohol consumption. The World Health Organization also have widely used research projects which helps them to measure the category an impact of Mental Health behavior with long-term exposure to alcohol. The tangta whaioro is the term used to describe the regular alcohol consumers in New Zealand. This group of people has to depend on mental and Physical health service in order to have a better life quality within the society.
According to Voges et al., (2013), the higher rate of alcohol consumption among various groups of communities in New Zealand has strongly affected the mental health status of the society. The various communities of the people of New Zealand have been highly dependent on alcohol and various addictive substances that are found in nature in the form of drugs. With the help of various activities, it is possible for the people to deal with the consequences alcohol consumption and reduce the rate of addiction within the population.
Description of common substance of addiction
According to the report of Kienast et al., (2014), the addiction activities are related to major part of the population of Aotearoa in New Zealand. Nearly 70% of the youth are addicted to few of the major substance that is related to alcohol consumption and drug abuse.
Alcohol is regarded as the most common substance of drug abuse and addiction. Alcohol can be consumed in various forms and the harmful effects can depend on total percentage of alcohol that is being consumed in each drinking substance. The alcohol and other addiction substance acts by inducing chemical change within the body. The first time consumption of alcohol can lead to one of the most of the addictive substance that can lead to feeling of euphoria, which is ultimately responsible for the most of the people to get back in the addiction activities. There is strong sense of inner pleasure that can people to deal with all the stress and pressure of everyday activity life. Drinking of alcoholic beverages is a common part of the daily activity of the people of Aterora. Hence, including in the drinking addiction is highly likely for the people.
Depressant is another form of substance that can be highly addictive. Xanax and Librium are few of the common drugs that are used as a major source of depressant among the mentally ill patients. Due to the higher level of mental stress and failure to depression is one of the common outcomes of the people in everyday life. Hence, in this context it can say that most of the people suffering from mental depression are strongly dependent on the anti-depression drugs. According to Fatseas et al., (2015), the anti-depression drugs needs to be used in correct dosage. However, with slightly higher dosage there is the risk of addiction that can ultimately worsen the condition of the mental health. The report of Nutt et al., (2015), suggests that nearly 65% of the adult population of the Aterora region of the New Zealand has suffered from depression in some point of their life due to high level of mental stress and hence, they have the risk of indulging themselves in the addiction of the common anti-depression drugs.
Opioid it is another common substance that is used as a method of intervention that is used as a pain relieving substance. This drug acts at the morphine receptor of the body and give a strong sensation of relief from high level of pain. The findings of Wiers et al., (2015), suggests that the use of common pain relieving drugs of opioid like codine have increased 8 times in the last few years due to its high effective capacity to deal with severe pain. Nevertheless direct consumption of opioid have also increased among the population of New Zealand due to the fact that it acts as a stimulating source of relieving the pain and also is a source of major addiction. There is generally high level of disorder that is generally associated with the high level of use of the opioids drugs that induces high level of dependency and also causes the effects of withdrawal syndrome.
Hallucinogens are also one of the most commonly used addictive substances used among the population of New Zealand. According to Balanzá-Martínez et al., (2015), hallucinogens such as PCD, LSD and Peyote can have behavioural disorders among individuals. Addiction to hallucinogens can have tremendous side effects on the mental state of an individual who are suffering from stress and other mental disorder. The substances act by relaxing the nerve and other muscles which in turn helps an individual to get relief from the high level of stress of everyday life. This sense of relaxation and pleasure can be highly addictive among the individuals.
Cannabis, which another source of addiction among the population of the Aterora region of New Zealand is found on the Cannabis flowering plant of family Cannabaceae. The primary effect of Cannabis is due to the chemical compound called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that is responsible for causing the addictive power among the individual. According to the report of Nikolova et al., (2016), nearly 30% of the people using the drugs of cannabis is seen to be have shown the addictive and withdrawal syndrome. This drug acts as a stimulating source within the brain that can have a sensation of pleasure, which causes addiction among individuals. Nevertheless, it is also believed that use of Cannabis in smoking can help in brain stimulating activities thereby increasing the capability of an individual in better decision making skills and also helps in the process of dealing with various challenges of everyday life.
People suffering from high level of addiction from various addictive substances often seek help from the addiction service centers. It is very common for them to display unusual type of characteristics behavior which is believed to be the effect of withdrawal symptoms that is related to all addictive substance and drugs.
Description of the common non-substance of addiction
Gambling is the most prevalent non-substance addiction in Aotearoa-New Zealand. Various types of gambling include betting on horseracing, lotteries of art unions to raise funds, pokies, and casinos (Urale et al., 2015). The addiction of gambling is refereed to problem gambling and compulsive gambling in Aotearoa-New Zealand. In gambling, an individual is associated with euphoria on winning, compulsion, tolerance on repetitions, withdrawal and carving. In this type of addiction, an individual has an intense urge to gamble despite the harmful and negative implications (such as poor work life balance, legal issues) and even desire to stop (Clark eta l., 2013). The DSM-5 has re-classified the addiction has addictive disorder and the person addicted exhibits behavior that is similar to that in substance abuse or addictions. In obsessive compulsive gambling, a gambler tends to gamble with increasing amount of money with the intention to reach desired excitement. The gambler fails to rest and attains irritability while attempting to quit gambling. A person highly addicted with gambling makes several unsuccessful efforts yet preoccupied with gambling. It includes persistent thinking of past gambling experiences, thinking of new ways to attain money for gambling and planning the next venture (Grant et al., 2014).
The first action for addressing gambling includes reaching for medication and support groups as drugs such as anti-depressants may help decrease compulsion (Grant et al., 2014). The second action involves cognitive behavioral therapy where an individual’s coping strategies are developed by addressing the unhelpful thoughts, behavior and negative attitude. The unconscious meaning behind the attitude is identified and specific action is designed such as reducing stress (Earle, 2016). The third action to address gambling behavior is to seek family and friends support in giving up the behavior. The love and affection of the family members increases self-esteem to control gambling, feeling of helplessness (Bond et al., 2016).
In Aotearoa-New Zealand, sex addiction is other commonly prevalent addiction next to gambling (Wahab & Abel, 2016). This behavior is associated with feeling of good, reinforcement, and consequent imbalance with other aspects of life. This process activates the pleasure pathway of brain that releases dopamine which intensifies the addictive behavior of the individual. It is also known as hypersexual disorder, which is characterized by escalating and persistent thoughts about sex. In this type of addiction, an individual makes several unsuccessful efforts to postpone or control sexual feelings and actions. In this type of addiction an individual’s sexual activities becomes destructive to self-respect, family, friends and career. These addictions have been found to be associated with the past experiences of emotional, sexual and physical abuse (Briggs et al., 2017).
The primary action mainly includes joining rehab to separate the addicted individual from problematic behavior and delineate with the behavior (Kerr et al., 2017). The second action includes patient education on health consequences and relapse prevention tools that may motivate the individual to give the behavior (Hill, Granado & Stotts, 2016)). The third action includes psychotherapy where the therapist supports to build strength and support system for client that helps breakdown resistance to giving up sexual activity. It helps addict gain full insight of the behavior and reduce denial to enhance self-stabilization (Garcia et al., 2016).
In Aotearoa-New Zealand, internet addiction disorder is very common. It is also referred as problematic internet use, and internet dependence. An individual addicted to internet continues to spend hours on this non-work technology and is accompanied with the changes in mood. The addict has persistent thinking about previous online activity and continues to anticipate new online session (Fountain & Slaughter, 2016). In order to achieve new session, the person increases the amount of time spent on web browsing or continues stay online longer than originally intended. The addiction demands intervention when the person has made several efforts to stop the internet usage but in vain. Intervention is must when the individual experiences anxiety, depression, restlessness and irritability when attempting to control or stop internet use (Dullur & Hay,2017). People receiving treatment for internet dependence have already jeopardized or risked their career, loss of significant relationship, educational or job opportunity by excess use of internet. According to Yao et al. (2017) compulsive internet use in many cases of addiction has been found to be the means of escaping or relieving oneself from the feeling of guilt, helplessness. This addiction supports variable reward structure due to applications such as social networking sites, messaging, video games, and cloud applications. These applications reinforce the usage behavior when combined with mood enhancing thus, intensifying the rewarding experience (Griffiths et al., 2016).
The main actions to address this issue includes motivational interviewing in which client is motivated to give up addictive behavior by using technique such as reflective listening, questioning, affirming, and reframing of client’s thoughts (Santos et al., 2016). Other intervention includes Reality therapy where the individual is encouraged to commit to change his/her life by changing the behavior using alternative activities such as works, mindfulness meditation and food (Yao et al., 2017). The third action that can address this behavior is the cognitive-behavioral therapy discussed for gambling therapy (Earle, 2016).
Description of the addictive behaviour
According to Nelson et al., (2015), it is very common for individual suffering from high level of addiction from different substance and not substance items to display unusual behaviour real characteristics within the society. For an individual who is suffering from alcohol on drug addiction is totally dependent on the use of drugs in order to lead their daily life. It is very common for Alcohol addict person to display rough and anger behaviour during the times they are denied of their addiction substances. The brain also loses the capability to control the physical activity during the time of alcohol consumption and hence individual display high level of disordered characteristics and physical behaviour during the time of addiction.
In case of non-substance addiction like gambling and Internet addiction over obsession behaviour is highly common among individuals. Not getting engaged in the source of their addiction can have serious effect among the individual. Over desperateness among individual is also highly common behaviour that is displayed while they are denied from the source of addiction.
A person who is suffering from various substance and not substance addiction can face high level of discrimination within the society. This induces a strong feeling of getting themselves out of all types of addiction and also a feeling of depression. Poor level of interpersonal relationship with various people of the community can also increase the level of stress and mental pressure. In case of sexual addiction hypersexual behaviour is one of the common types of characteristics that are shown by an individual which can have serious consequence on individual image within the society. According to the report of Rolland et al., (2016), nearly 14% of the regular Internet users who got addicted displays the behaviour of compulsiveness that is responsible for high level of time spending in Internet and other electronic devices.
The Rehab Centre is one of the common places that help to motivate individual suffering from high level of addiction to lead a normal life. Best et al., (2016), have mentioned about the motivation and choice theory that is one of the most common intervention techniques used for treatment of mentally addictive person. With the help of proper mental counselling it is possible for the mental health workers in the Rehab Centre to provide Full support and motivation to the individual who are willing to give up their addiction on various substance and non-substances. It is important for an individual suffering from high level of addiction to live and survive in an environment of peace and calmness. It is also important for the mental health workers of the Rehab Centre not to force are imposed pressure upon the addiction patient to give up their addictive substance within short period of time. Martinotti et al., (2014), have mentioned in this context that providing sufficient timing for the addiction patient is an important part of the intervention measures that will not create the extra pressure upon the individual, which can have more negative effects.
Addiction to various substance and non-substances are one of the most common forms of Mental Health disease in the modern days. Due to high level of mental stress and tension it is very common for individuals of all age categories to indulge themselves in various addictive substances. Moreover due to high level of influence of the society it is also common for individual to indulge themselves in addiction of various non-substances.
The unusual behaviour displayed by the addictive person is highly likely that can also affect individual image within the society. High level of motivation along with mental counselling is an important part of providing supports to the addictive patients and also helps them to overcome their unethical Desire of involving in various addiction activities.
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