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HSN735 Essentials Of Food Science 2

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Learning Outcome

1 Describe the compositional and technological properties of food commodities

2 Evaluate the health aspects of food commodities and their effects on diet related diseases.

3 Distinguish between consumer, public health and industry perspectives relating to recent changes in both the food supply and food regulation, specifically around nutrition, health and related claims.

4 Communicate emerging local and global food trends in the in relation to product innovations and the industry response, using relevant technology

This task enhance your knowledge and understanding in

  • local and global innovations in food products in relation to nutrition and
  • Innovative food ingredients, processing methods, packaging materials and design and regulation of a novel

Select a novel processed food product (from your local supermarket/health shop or available online) which you consider to be innovative mainly, in the use of functional ingredients or combination of bioactive compounds to provide functional or health benefits. This product may also have other innovative aspects such as use of a novel processing technology or novel packaging.




‘Go Natural’ is a food manufacturing organization based in Australia, established by David and Kate Worth (1). The following report emphasizes on the key features of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’, shedding light on its various packaging, processing and product innovations presented.

Product Overview 

‘Go Natural’ was formulated 25 years ago, based on the principle of manufacturing healthy, wholesome products with the conductance of procuring natural, organic ingredients from various localized sources. The organization advocates the importance of indigenous agricultural sources, as mentioned in their foundation policy of obtaining ingredients from localized farmer markets, overfilled with wholesomeness and freshness (2). ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ is a sliced amalgamation of a range of nutritionally beneficial ingredients such as dried fruit and nuts, mixed with indigenous oats sources from Australia (3).

Target Group

The emerging trends of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, have grown to be a concerning problem amongst the adults, as well as children of Australia as well as worldwide, as opined by the World Health Organization (4) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (5). A reduction in the ingestion of cholesterol-lowering compounds such as whole-grains, act as resultant factors in the increasing serum cholesterol, triglycerides and the subsequent incidence of cardiovascular diseases (6). Further, high parameters of occupational stress and unfeasible work schedules, further result in dietary misconduct and food avoidance by workers, further implicating detrimental effects on overall physiological and as well as psychological competencies (7). Hence, focusing on the growing advocacy concerning the necessity for inclusion of core dietary groups, ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ is a nutritionally innovative food product, aiming to target Australian, working adults, further inflicted with the fatal symptoms of metabolic disorders, with beneficial dietary and nutritional outcomes (8).


The following paragraphs aim to shed light on the various processing, packaging and nutritional features followed by innovations of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’.


Product Description and Ingredients

The key ingredients involved in the manufacturing of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ are tabulated below in Table 1. ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ is a bar comprising of whole grains such as oats, dry fruits and additionally supplementary ingredients (3). The functional benefits of oats have been documented as an essential whole grain, with low glycemic index, hence gifted with the property of encouraging sustainable, gradual increments in one’s energy and blood glucose profile. The consumption of low glycemic foods has been known to be beneficial for individuals inflicted with diabetes, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (9). Oats are also overfilled with the soluble fiber beta-glucan, a component known to reduce serum cholesterol levels and the resultant susceptibility of cardiovascular diseases (10).Nuts and whole grains are also essential reservoirs of dietary antioxidants such as Vitamin E that is, ‘tocopherol’ with noticeable free radical scavenging properties and the resultant reduction in inflammation and metabolic syndrome occurrences (11). ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ are also enriched with additional dry fruits such as bananas, strawberries, apricots and yogurt (3). Bananas are popular tropical fruits known for their energy enhancing and soluble fiber capabilities (12), whereas strawberries are a rich source of antioxidants known as ‘anthocyanins’ – compounds responsible for imparting color singlet-oxygen quenching principles, resulting in reduce internal inflammation and subsequent decrease in susceptibility of metabolic and carcinogenic disorders (13). The recent research on the beneficial functioning of gut micro-flora has advocated the requirement of consumption of pro-biotic foods such as yogurt, which has been known to enhance digestion and immune processes through colony enhancement of the same (14). ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ also contain sugar as a supplementary component which aims to impart quick energy, and impart desirable textural and organoleptic qualities through caramelization (15).The muesli slices also contain additional ingredients such as coconuts, cinnamon, dates, apples and cranberries (3).Apples are a rich source of the soluble fiber pectin along with beneficial flavonoid quercetin, which possess considerable health cholesterol-lowering and anti-inflammatory health benefits (16). Dates act as provision of concentrated energy and essential iron (17). Further, the electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium provided by the above fruit grain ingredients, enhance blood circulation, reduce muscle cramps and improve cognitive and memory functioning (18).

Table 1: Role of Key Ingredients in supporting product technological functions in Go Natural Muesli Slice



Whole meal wheat flour (fortified with Thiamin and Folate)

Source of fiber, essential b-vitamins and vitamin E, acts as binding agent (19)

Diced Apricot pieces

Source of vitamin A, fiber (17)

Brown Sugar

Adds sweetness and texture (15)

Rolled Oats

Rich source of fiber, sodium and potassium, beta-glucan with cholesterol lowering effects (10)


Binding agent, improves digestion (14)


Flavor enhancement (20)


Source of energy, fiber and potassium (12)


Source of energy and Iron (17)

Cranberry pieces

Source of antioxidants, fiber (21)

Strawberry pieces

Source of antioxidants (13)

Coconut (Shredded)

Source of fat and energy (18)

Whey Protein isolates and concentrates

High source of protein for high-protein muesli bar (22)

(Source: As designed by the author)


The flowchart mentioned below highlights the salient features of the manufacturing process of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’. The major components of the manufacturing process involve mixing of the dry ingredients with liquid sweeteners, followed spreading, cooling and baking of the slurry with the aid of controlled heat transfer (23).



The purpose of imparting consumer awareness and purchasing with regards to the promotion of a food product, is impossible without the presence of adequate packaging. The packaging of a food product aims to transmit information, concerning its nutritional information, the usage of salient ingredients, the precautionary data of potential allergens, the availability of sufficient feedback, as well its price and origins (25). One of the key features of packaging is the presence of a protective layer enclosing the key components of the food product from potential damage during transport and delivery, along with conservation of its freshness and nutritional quality and enhancement of its attractiveness, further resulting in increased customer buying practices (26).‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ consists of flexible and durable packaging wrappers which not only impart adequate product data to the consumer, the product from damage and nutritional loss (27). For the purpose of a horizontal flow wrap of a concerned product, various heat sealing as well as cold sealing technologies can be utilized which conserve key product characteristics as well as enhance opening of the product package with ease (28). The various health claims of ‘High protein’ and ‘97% fat free’, along with nutritional information, allergen warnings and ingredients are printed vividly on its front face packaging as evident from Figures. (29, 30).






FSANZ Standard Compliance


Sealed flexible horizontal flow wrap packaging

Easy to open

Protection and conservation of product freshness and nutritional quality (27, 28)

Brand and product name

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(a)

Labeling requirement, Name of food (41)




Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(e)

Labeling requirements, statement of ingredients (41)


Standard 1.3.2, Schedule 17, Voluntary fortification, permitted vitamins and minerals and amounts (41)



Allergen Warnings

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(d)

Labeling requirements, warning statements (41)




Weight of Product

Standard 1.2.1-8

Labelling requirements (41)




Nutrition Information

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(i)

Labelling requirements, nutrition information


Standard 1.2.8

Nutrition information requirements (41)

Standard 1.3.2, Schedule 17

Voluntary fortification, permitted vitamins and

minerals and amounts (41)




Manufacturer details

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(c)

Labelling requirements, name and address of

the supplier (41)

Standard 1.2.2

Food Identification requirements (41)




Material and disposal

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(g)

Labelling requirements, directions for use (41)

Standard 1.2.6

Directions for use and storage (41)




Bar Code

Standard 1.2.1-8 (1)(g)

Labelling requirements, storage conditions (41)

Standard 1.2.6

Directions for use and storage (41)

Table 2: The ‘Packaging Matrix’ Intersections in ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’


The following section of the report highlight the innovative procedures involved in the packaging, processing and nutritional principles of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’.


Packaging and processing Innovation

One of the key innovations highlighted by ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’ lies in their product processing principles, which highlights the necessity of advocating the wholesomeness. Freshness and healthiness of ingredients which are procured indigenously through locally conceived sources, for the purpose of manufacturing of the concerned food item. The oats required as a major component in the manufacturing of ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ are procured from Australia itself, through establishment of supportive communication networks with localized farmers markets (1).Hence, through the conductance of such principles, as prior step before commencement of product manufacturing, ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ presents a rare and novel innovation by the executing the simultaneous advocacy of locally manufactured goods and agricultural practices, along with the conductance of production of varied flavors of energy bars (2).

‘Go Natural’ also underwent key innovations and modifications in its packaging and labeling with regards to the inclusion of fruit pieces within the coatings of yogurt, as supplementary ingredients added to its various innovative breakfast and cereal bars. Prior to the amendments, there was prevalent consumer confusion where it was considering that the organization was implementing the usage of fruit ingredients devoid of any procedures of processing. However, upon expression of concerns by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, ‘Go Natural’ actively executed the required amendments of clarified mentioning regarding the usage of dried or processed fruits, along with concentrated fruit based products, in

its packaging and labeling, as well as website based information content (31).

Table 3: Packaging and processing innovations of Go Natural Muesli Slice




Advocacy of freshness and wholesomeness of ingredients

Procurement of ingredients from indigenous Australian sources and farmers markets (1, 2)

Increasing awareness of localized food production groups (1, 2)

Modifications of product packaging

Highlighting usage of fruit based concentrates in product labeling (31)

Enhanced customer awareness regarding product ingredient profile (31)

Nutritional Innovations

Proteins have been advocated widely for their beneficial nutritional implications enhancing the process of muscle repair and regeneration, as well in the enhancement of satiety with resultant benefits in reduction of faulty food cravings and increased insulin resistance, further beneficial for the optimum functioning of diabetics (32). Hence, on the major nutritional innovations highlighted in ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ is the addition of a novel variety of muesli bar in the form of ‘Baked Protein Lumberjack’ (30). The concerned muesli bar is concentrated in essential protein-rich components such as whey proteins which will not only enhance fullness and satisfaction, but also muscle recuperation (33).

Further, there has been an increased nutritional recommendation in the reduction of consumption concerning fat-rich processed and cooked products which are key factors in the resultant increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, further paving the way for susceptibility to the occurrence of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases (34). ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’ considers this imperative nutritional concern and aims to mitigate the shortcomings by addition of another novel variety in its muesli slices labeled as ‘Baked 97% Fat Free Banana Muesli Slice’. The concerned product provides over 11 grams of saturated fat, which is significantly lower than the rest of the available variations (29). The concerned muesli slice also incorporate cinnamon - a warm spice known to aid in weight loss and fat reduction, through the enhancement of the body’s metabolic rate (20).The incorporation of fiber dense ingredients such as dates and bananas, further reduce the incidences of weight gain through increased satiety by regulation of the transit time of the gastrointestinal system (12, 17), a benefit also implicated by the incorporation of whole grains such as oats. Further, the increased satiety is also advantageous for the enhanced regulation of glucose metabolism, further resulting in improved metabolic control during the occurrences of diabetes (10).

Another additional product manufacturing innovation formulated by ‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’ is the incorporation of the fundamental principle of manufacturing of ‘on-the-go’ snacks, which reveals to be a convenient food consumption solution for employed individuals who encounter comprise in adequate dietary habits due to ongoing occupational stresses and lack of flexible or feasible work timings (2). The availability of adequate nutritional options along with the opportunities for food consumption, have been reported to inculcate beneficial health implications upon the overall physiological health and cognitive performance of the concerned employees. (35).


Future Opportunities

‘Go Natural Muesli Slices’ presents itself as an innovative and nutritionally beneficial product, aimed at incorporating the consumption of wholesome food ingredients, aiming to reinforce the importance of obtaining high quality ingredients from locally grown, farmers market and agricultural products (1). ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ has engaged in the inclusion of nutritionally advantageous innovations, which proves to be a major adequate dietary food product for Australian employed individuals, engaged in grueling employment frameworks (35). Recent research has advocated a strict avoidance in the consumption of the above sugar-based ingredients, which are widely prevalent in processed products such as breakfast cereals, cereal and granola bars (36). This is due to the rising occurrences of obesity and metabolic disorders in Australia, which is heightened by consumption of excessive sugars. Hence, there is a need for ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ to formulate novel products consisting of avoidance of usage of the harmful sweeteners, or opting for artificial calorie-free substitutes. Celiac diseases and gluten intolerances are commonly prevalent, and considering the presence of gluten-rich cereals in its products, ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ should aim to incorporate gluten-free counterparts of the same (37). Adequate implementation of such promising future opportunities, would be an effective way for ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ of increasing its market positioning, brand awareness and consumer purchasing, by inclusion of the varied needs of today’s diverse customer population (38).


Hence, to conclude, ‘Go Natural Muesli Slice’ presents itself to be an innovative processed food product with documented health and nutritional benefits. However, conductance of possible modifications would further enhance its marketing and consumer buying opportunities in the future.

Table 4: Evidence for health benefits of Go Natural Muesli Slice’s characterizing ingredients and compliance to FSANZ standards


Health Benefit (stated health claim marked by *)

Study Outcome

Study Type

Standard 1.2.7 and Schedule health claim compliance

Whey protein

*Source of high protein beneficial for the human body

Consumption of 32 grams of whey protein per day along with exercise enhances fat free muscle mass, strength and wellbeing (33)

Randomized clinical trial (33)

Notified general claim (41)

Rolled oats

Reduction of serum cholesterol

Consumption of 3 grams of oats beta glucan reduces LDL cholesterol levels (39)

Randomized controlled trial (39)

Not a stated health claim

Dried fruits

Rich in antioxidants and fiber and reduces blood glucose

Consumption of fiber and antioxidant rich dried fruits along with green tea, reduces insulin and pos-prandial blood glucose levels (40)

Randomized controlled trials (40)

Not a stated health claim

(Source: As designed by the Author)



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Worest report, they didn’t know the anything. At least they don’t read the template and waste of money and time


User Id: 451873 - 08 Jul 2020


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User Id: 283077 - 08 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?