Describe about the Human Place In Nature for The complete Essays?
Machiavelli’s ‘The Prince'
Machiavelli’s work, the prince, though has a princely title yet it is a dedication to all the princes to how to rule. Machiavelli has seen in the past how corrupt politics is. Though Machiavelli knows that being truthful and moral is the key factors to success, yet he imparts the idea that cheating and immorality is the key factors to success when it comes to politics. To keep the people under the control of power and to ensure the safety and security of the post, a ruler should indulge in unfair means, should make false promises and lie to the people. In his subtle way, Machiavelli tried to humiliate the corrupted politics sarcastically that he had witnessed in the past (Machiavelli).
The main idea of Machiavellian is a person who is clever enough to be in politics. A person who is cunning, have the idea of every nook of politics and can know how to gain opportunity through a proper political act can be called a Machiavellian. A person who does not adhere to the morality of the act and can be identified as a personification of duplicity and bad faith can be called a true Machiavellian (Murty).
Tom Ripley’s act in the film by Anthony Minghella and the novels by Patricia Highsmith, The Talented Mr. Ripley can be called similar to Machiavellian act. Though Machiavellian acts are purely on political purpose, Ripley ensures success to achieve personal gain through act of deception, ruthlessness and not letting the emotions control the behaviour is a true Machiavellian act ('10 Of Popular Culture's Best Machiavellian Characters').
Montaigne’s ‘Of Cannibals'
The people who looks towards the society from a different cultural viewpoint and do not adhere to the accepted social norms of the society are called avant-garde thinkers or writers. The avant-garde thinkers think differently about the society or certain population in the society from a different cultural viewpoint. They present their theory about certain cultural strata of society in their way, or from a different angle that has already been accepted in the society. Montaigne can be considered as an avant-garde thinker and writer. Montaigne’s thought regarding the barbarians has been entirely different from what the society thought them about. The barbarians are considered to be a group of people who are uncultured, uneducated and do not belong to the cultured population of the society (De Montaigne, Michel). However, Montaigne presented a different view of the barbarians. According to him, the lifestyle of the barbarian is complex from various angles; however, the barbarians do hold morals that are at par with the civilized Europeans. To explain the topic in a broader way, Montaigne wrote ‘of cannibals’ to present the viewpoint in a stronger way (Blogs.dickinson.edu).
Even today, the society faces cultural differences in Australia regarding the indigenous population in Australia. The indigenous populations are mainly the populations who come to the country as refugees. As they hail from a different country, the civilized population of Australia are not ready to accept them in the society. The indigenous populations are not civilized or amoral but might be different culturally from the main population. Though the government has implemented various policies for the indigenous population, yet it is the duty of the people to help, the people mix with the main population.
To carry out the work, Shakespearean Sonnet 55 and 56 is chosen for the analysis.
The entire 154 sonnets written by Shakespeare have the unique characteristics of possessing 18 lines.
The Shakespearean sonnets follow the rhyme scheme iambic pentameter. The unique characteristic of iambic pentameter is that every line of the sonnet has ten syllables. While the syllables are divided into pairs, five pairs are formed, and the pairs are called iambic feet or iambs. The iambs are consists of two syllables where the first syllable is an unstressed syllable while the second syllable is a stressed syllable (MILLER).
However, exceptions from the above rule of sonnets can be seen in three sonnets out of 154 sonnets. The sonnets that do not follow the regular criteria are sonnet 99, Sonnet 126 and Sonnet 145. Sonnet 99 and Sonnet 126 have 15 lines and 12 lines respectively while Sonnet 145 does not follow the iambic pentameter rule and the lines follow the tetrameter rule (PoemShape).
Figure 1: Sonnet 129 showing the rhyme scheme of the sonnet.
For example in the Sonnet 55:
Not mar/ ble nor/ the gil/ ded mo/ nu ments
In the above scansion, when the words are divided into syllables, it can be seen that the line had five pairs of syllables with a unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.
In the sonnet 56 also, a similar division can be seen:
Sweet love/ re new/ thy force/ be it/ not said
A normal Shakespearean sonnet consists of fourteen lines. The initial 12 lines are divided into three parts that are called the quatrains, and the sonnet ends with two lines at the end which is called a couplet. However, the rhyme scheme of the sonnet follows the pattern, abab cdcd efef in the three initial quatrains and gg in the final couplet. In the initial three quatrains, the poet stresses on the theme of the poem or talks about the problem that the sonnet will discuss (Schoenfeldt). However, the problem or the theme of the sonnet is finally solved in the couplet. In the first three quatrains, the poet expresses his idea and point of view of writing the sonnet, to whom it is directed and why the sonnet is important to the person being referred. Finally in the couplet he resolves the entire viewpoint in the sonnet in two lines. For example in Sonnet 55, Shakespeare ends the sonnet with the lines,
So, till the judgment that yourself arise
You live in this and dwell in lovers’ eyes.
The word ‘judgment’ gives an idea that the couplet is closing the entire theme of the sonnet that the sonnet will help to save the beauty of the person through the lines.
In Sonnet 56 as well, the poet compares the interval with the winter and finally prefers to wait till the summer arrives and the thing again turn beautiful and colorful.
'10 Of Popular Culture's Best Machiavellian Characters'. BBC NEWS 2015. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
Blogs.dickinson.edu,. 'Montaigne Â« Human Place In Nature 2014'. N.p., 2015. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
De Montaigne, Michel. "Of cannibals." The complete essays 152 (1958).
Machiavelli, NiccoloÌ€. The Prince. Chichester, West Sussex: Capstone Pub., 2010. Print.
MILLER, STUART. Shakeî€„peareâ€™î€„ Sonnetî€„, All 154, Reimaginedthrough A New York Lens. 1st ed. 2015. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
Murty, GRK. Leadersâ€™ Ethical Dilemmas: Shakespeareâ€™S Analysis: A Lesson For Todayâ€™S Business Leaders. 1st ed. 2015. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
PoemShape,. 'Shakespearean, Spenserian, & Petrarchan Sonnets'. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
Schoenfeldt, Michael Carl. A Companion To Shakespeare's Sonnets. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.