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Humanities: Communication Add in library

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Write an in-depth journal on Business Communication. Critically, analyse and apply relevant journal articles and texts to your journal.



Communication models and theories have been subject to a wide body of researches. Communication, both verbal and non-verbal, can be explored and analyzed on multiple layers. Quite often, certain verbal and non-verbal messages are conveyed to suppress or conceal contradictory psychological inclinations and mindsets (Eunson, 2011). The origin of these conflicts between the conveyed messages and the actual mindsets can be explored through effective communication models and theories. Some of the more effective communication models are designed on the basis of psychological inclinations of individuals (Spector, Merrill, Elen & Bishop, 2013). In this case, an individual, who lacks proper skills of communicating in English language, opted to stay silent even when he realized that the person, with whom he was speaking over phone, has mispronounced his name. The actual psychology behind this attitude has been analyzed through appropriate communication models and theories.

Case analysis

1 Message flow analysis

The case represents some distinct symptoms of lapses in the overall communication process. Certain biases and preexisting mindsets are quite evident on the part of the receiver of the conveyed messages. However, there are certain elements that have induced the receiver to react in a certain way. The reactions and other symptoms are quite typical of a communication occurring between two parties, belonging to different cultures (Dwyer, 2012). The foreigner, in this case, is unaware and unsure about the colloquial communication structure and patterns. As a result, certain communication gaps are quite prominent while interacting over the phone. The pattern of communication, in this case, can be explained, to an extent, with the help of the following basic model:

Information source- In this case, the person who called to update the contact details can be considered as the originator or the source of the information.

Transmitter (Encoder) – This part of the communication process is often considered as one of the most important stages (Beck, Bennett, & Wall, 2013). Quite often, the intended message gets affected by certain characteristics that are specific to the originator. In this case, the agent who called for certain details must have used specific accents, tones and sentences that are part of the professional etiquettes while interacting with the customers. Thus, the entire texture of the agent’s communication has been formal and professional.

Channel- The medium through which a message is delivered is termed as the channel. The intended meaning of a message may get affected significantly, due to the quality of the channel used during communication (Baldwin, Coleman, González, & Shenoy-Packer, 2013 ). In this case, the channel plays a vital part. The channel in this case is the phone. The recipient of the message was not proficient in speaking or listening to English. Moreover, while interacting over the phone, some other noises were audible, that further distorted the message.

Receiver (Decoder) - The ability of the recipient to interpret the conveyed message is considered as another important aspect of the entire process of communication. Specific characteristics of the recipient come into play, while decoding the conveyed message (Cobley, & Schulz, 2013). In this case, the recipient had certain preconceived notions and mindsets which ultimately affected his interpretation of the entire situation.

Destination- Ideally communication is viewed as a two way process. However, in this case, the communication pattern mostly turned out to be unidirectional in nature.


2 Factors affecting communication


The communication model gives a basic idea about the entire pattern of interaction that has been stated in the case. However, there were certain key factors that shaped up the dynamics between the two parties and the overall conversation. Berlo’s model may be used to demonstrate and analyze the different factors that affected the communication process.

Communication skills- The initiator of the message is a professional and well versed with communicating in fluent and professional English. However, the recipient of the message, on the other hand, does not have a strong background of either speaking or writing fluent English. Thus, there was a discrepancy in the basic communication skills of the two parties, as far as English language is concerned.

Attitude- The agent displayed a strictly formal attitude, while interacting. However, the recipient on the other hand, was unsure about his own skills of listening and interpretation of the messages. Moreover, the formal attitude displayed by the agent further discouraged the recipient to ask to repeat when he was unable to comprehend certain parts of the message.


Knowledge- There was clear discrepancies in the levels of proficiency in English language of the recipient and the conveyer of the message. This, quite naturally, contributed to the communication gap between the two parties involved (Jensen, 2013).

Certain qualities of the messages conveyed, contribute to the direction and flow of communication.

Structure- The message conveyed by the originator had a formal texture. Thus, the recipient, who was unsure about his own listening skills, felt even more uncomfortable because of the formal tones and attitudes displayed by the originator.

Code- The message was conveyed in fluent English, which is not the native language of the recipient. This acted as a significant obstacle in the process of interpretation of the message.

The channel in this case has further limited the scopes of proper communication. The recipient could only depend on his listening skills while interpreting the messages (Mills & Barlow, 2014).

There were clear symptoms of post-editing in the behavioral pattern of the recipient during the entire communication process. The recipient chose not to correct the caller on certain points. This is because of the fact that the recipient perceived that it would be indecency on his part, if he asks the caller to repeat certain parts of the questions. Thus, he chose to ignore certain facts as that would have exposed his lack of proficiency in English. Thus, the interpretation was affected by the recipient’s tendency to post-edit the messages according to his own convenience. This can also be considered as a prominent symptom of cognitive dissonance (Fiske, 2010). Assertiveness and active listening could have compensated for the disparities in various aspects, between the two parties involve



Quite clearly, the preexisting mindset of the foreigner shaped up the pattern and flow of the communication initially. However, interaction over the phone has further distorted the flow of message from the originator to the receiver in this case. The technology, in this case, has further hindered the decoding of the intended message due to some surrounding noises, while interacting over phone. Moreover, the recipient of the message has consciously tried to divert the topic when he realized that the person at the other end has made some mistakes while collecting the personal data, thus displaying signs of repression or cognitive dissonance. Furthermore, the significant disparity of the attitude, knowledge and communication skills deepened the communication gap.




  1. Eunson, B 2011, Communicating in the 21st Century, 2nd, John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Milton QLD
  2. Spector, Michae, Merrill, M. David, Elen, Jan & Bishop, M. J 2013, Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology, Springer Science & Business Media, USA. 
  3. Dwyer, Judith 2012, Communication for Business and the Professions: Strategies and Skills, Pearson Higher Education, USA.
  4. Beck, Andrew, Bennett, Peter& Wall, Peter 2013, Communication Studies: The Essential Resource, Routledge, UK.
  5. Baldwin, John R, Coleman, Robin R. Means, González, Alberto & Shenoy-Packer, Suchitra 2013,Intercultural Communication of Everyday Life, John Wiley & Sons, USA.
  6. Cobley, Paul & Schulz, Peter J 2013, Theories and Models of Communication, Walter de Gruyter, Germany.
  7. Jensen, Klaus Bruhn 2013, A Handbook of Media and Communication Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Research, Routledge, UK.
  8. Mills, Brett & Barlow, David M 2014, Reading Media Theory: Thinkers, Approaches and Contexts, Routledge, UK.
  9. Fiske, John 2010, Introduction to Communication Studies, Routledge, UK.
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