1: The Hammurabi’s Code can be considered as one of the greatest historical accounts that reflected the legal codes of that time prevalent in the Babylonian society. For an instance, the social order of the ancient Babylonian society was seen in the Code of Hammurabi. According to the account, the society was divided into nobles, freeman and the slaves (Abulhab 4). The codes of Hammurabi put more severe form of punishments for the noblemen and the freemen than the slaves. As an example, if a man broke the bone of a nobleman then he would be treated similarly. However, if a man tortured his slave then he would pay half the value of the slave.
In case of the position of women, the code clearly depicted an image of the condition of women in the ancient Babylonian society. For an instance, in case of separation or divorce a man had to provide property to his wife.
Furthermore, for the professional and contractual duties, the code enacted some strict regulations. Such as, during surgery if a doctor killed someone then his hand would be cut off (Abulhab 7).
2: There are some similarities and differences regarding the Code of Hammurabi and the United States Legal system for crimes and punishments. However, the first distinction between the two legal systems can be identified as the distinction among citizens. As far as the US legal system of punishment is concerned, it distinguishes between the crimes done by adults and minors (Quinney and Randall 102). On the contrary, the Codes of Hammurabi distinguished crimes on the basis of free, rich and poor citizens.
Moreover, it can be argued that the Code of Hammurabi was more intense and violent in compare to the United States legal system. In the Hammurabi’s Code punishments were implemented in the form of cutting off hands or legs. In this context, in the US legal system only the capital punishment is related to the death penalty (Quinney and Randall 120).
Besides this, for certain crimes both the codes impose fines. For an example, in the Code of Hammurabi men would be fined if he cut off hands of his slaves. In case of the US legal system, for minimum crimes like breaking the road signals people have to fine as well (Quinney and Randall 113).
3: Wisdom literature is a form of literature that was flourished in the ancient East. It was a theological handbook comprised of the statements given by the sages and the wise men. The wisdom literature mainly connoted divinity and virtue that would consider being the guidebook for the common people to stay in the right path of humanity (Fischer 75).
Based on this understanding, it can be asserted that “The Dispute of a Man with his Soul” was an Egyptian literature dated back to around 2050 top 1800 BCE that dealt with the daily social problems and the religious believes (Fischer 78). It can be advocated that this book was written at a period when wisdom literature was its culminating point. Moreover, the term coinage in a religious mould made the story more theological and spiritual in form.
4: In his book “God and the Mystery of Human Suffering: A Theological Conversation across the Ages” the author Robin Ryan has claimed that presence of sufferings is the most challenging element in religious faith. He stated that pain in life is an obvious course and with the blessings of God man can resolve it (Uscatholic.Org 1).
In the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism the first truth is associated with suffering, pain and misery. As per the manifestation of Buddhism pain and sufferings are the cause of attachment of desires and for the emancipation one has to practice the Eightfold Path.
On the other hand, in Islam the definition of Pain and suffering is identified in a different way. According to Mohammed, pain is good for health because it ehnaces the defence mechanism of the body and soul.
However, in Islam death is defined as separation of soul from the body and the concept of afterlife is also resembled into the preaching of Quran. Moreover, according to Christianity death is identified as “sleep”. In the Daniel 12:2 the dead are described as those who “sleep in the dust of the earth”. Besides this, Buddhism opines that death is a natural part of life with an inevitable rebirth (Uscatholic.Org 1).
However, for maintaining peace and tranquillity around the world these philosophical concepts are highly relevant and meaningful that can transform the human mind from aggression to serenity.
"Where There Is Pain, There Is God". Uscatholic.Org, 2016, https://www.uscatholic.org/articles/201602/where-there-pain-there-god-30557. Accessed 13 July 2018.
Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. Blautopf Publishing, 2017.
Fischer, Andreas. "Wisdom-The answer to all the questions really worth asking." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 5.9 (2015): 73-83.
Quinney, Richard, and Randall G. Shelden. Critique of the legal order: Crime control in capitalist society. Routledge, 2018.