This chapter entails a clear hypothetical description of various techniques which will be applied in the field when carrying out research. Under this chapter, there is a description of techniques which were used in the entire chapter to enhance the researcher’s establishment of the gaps on organizational change. The techniques are as follows research design, research strategies, data collection methods, and data analysis. Each of these techniques is discussed in detail in this chapter.
This is concerned with the source, nature, and creation of knowledge. This idea appears profound it is part of completing the dissertation. The secondary and primary data were collected and then conduct data analysis to solve the research question. This way a new knowledge mushrooms. The research philosophy was pursuing in this research work was pragmatism as it involves quantitative and qualitative data analysis approach.
A research approach has a lot of interdependence with the hypothesis relevancy. In this research, the approach pursued involved deductive approach. The validity of the hypothesis was tested and the findings used to come to conclusions.
Regarding the theoretical studies of the research, the implication of the questions of the investigation, research strategy relies on the research design. The research will use the following strategies to gather data from the field to analyze organizational change; Case study which attempts to describe relationships which can exist on the authenticity of the review problem that is organizational change, and very vivid in the Central Administrative Services Tobago (C.A.S.T). Through the case study the information may be quantitative or qualitative, and by the approach of the researcher, information gathered and the diagnostic techniques which are employed. Authenticity is caught in larger detail by an observer, on the examination of the research variables.
Case studies enhance holistic review hence clear understanding since the researcher uses a wide range of tools for the research. Through this, there is the creation of space and a lot of time to establish clear understanding on the topic and to establish factors influencing the study. On the other hand, the case studies reduce the incidence of biases. The limitations of case studies are the restriction they are given hence difficult to generate the findings or data gathered as related case studies are with similar data that can be used during analysis are not available. Also, different research may have different interpretations. They have wider relevance since the data cannot be generalized since they are wide and they are time-consuming to study. The interpretations must be made with an open mind. Looking at the research from different dimensions help in identifying all the possible interpretation of the results of the study. (Fedor, Caldwell and Herold, 2006.).
Secondly, the researcher will use a survey to gather information in the field that is data of practical, situations or views in each point through questionnaires and interviews. The quantitative technique can be used to in drawing inferences from the information gathered depending on the possible relationship to the study. The survey has a significance since it allows the study to be carried out intensively. Intensive study is useful since it ensures that the conclusions made at the end of the study portray the truth and has minimal biases. It is not to make conclusions that are half-baked only because of the methods used to collect data. This, therefore, leads to the observation that surveys should be used to collect data. However, to have the best results, it is to use multiple methods to collect data from the field. The use of surveys, questionnaires, observations and secondary methods of collecting data would, therefore, yield the best result for most study. The methods used should, however, be directly applicable to the study. For instance, it would be advisable to use methods such as observations in an experimental laboratory setting. However, when the study involves people, questionnaires must be incorporated to reinforce the information collected through the testing. The results from the questionnaires would be useful in eliminating various assumption. The report obtained from the experiment done would, however, confirm the expectation is giving a clear view of the discussion and eliminating biases.
Research design can be described as all tactics that the researcher can select to use in incorporating various elements in a systematic and comprehensible way thus enhancing the research problem under organizational change is addressed clearly. This method involves the collection and analysis of data for describing the occurrence of the currents status or condition. The research design is a section that entails research philosophies which are quantitative and qualitative. These philosophies are described in any research. The understanding of the philosophies is important for the analysis of the research study. That means therefore that, a lot of emphases should be put in the clear description of the philosophies for easier interpretation of the research by readers.
Qualitative philosophy is a simple explanation of the research data. Through it, there is a comprehension of the underlying explanations, views, and inspirations on organizational change as the study. Qualitative has a great significance since it provides understanding on the problem of study or it helps the researcher to develop the hypothesis required for the study. It uses structured and semi-structured techniques that is focus groups, one on one interviews and observation. Through this, the sample size is relatively small, and a few respondents are selected to provide a given information. The use of small sample size and few respondents make the use qualitative methods most desirable. Ideally, most people find qualitative methods to be simple and easier to work with. It is a fact that having any respondents always analyze data to be quite a cumbersome task not only to the researcher but also to the people reading the research. Research would be less useful if it can only be interpreted by the people who conducted the research. The work of a research paper is always to report the findings of a study. This reporting become beneficial to everyone only if it is done in a way that would be easily understood. This explanation proves why the qualitative methods would be more desirable.
Quantitative methods quantify the situation by generating numerical data or data can be transferred into statistics that can be used. This philosophy is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors and another variable to obtain data of the larger sample population. This quantitative philosophy is more structured as compared to qualitative since it includes surveys, face to face interviews, longitudinal studies, website studies, polls and systematic observation (Van de Ven, and Poole, 1995, pp. 520). The use of quantitative methods supplements the qualitative approaches. This supplementation is in a sense they help in giving value to the aspects being studied. Assigning values or quantities to research makes it more realistic and applicable in real life situation.
The study uses qualitative philosophy since it requires a small sample from the Central Administrative Services Tobago (C.A.S.T, the number of respondents needed to represent the whole or the entire population is low. The philosophy has various limitations that are; the quality of the research is highly dependent on skills of the researcher, and it is easily influenced by the biases, and in addition accuracy it is hard to maintain, assess and demonstrate on the data, it is time-consuming method on the analysis and interpretation of data due to the amount of data, it’s hard to understand and interpret, and the respondents are affected due to the presence of the researcher during data collection since they cannot respond well. On the other hand, during data collection using this technique the issue of confidentiality is difficult hence some information might miss (Kumar, S., and Phrommathed. Pp. 45). These limitations can be reduced only by the researcher. To have a high-quality researcher, the person conducting the research must be highly skilled. This helps in avoiding any errors that could arise during the research. Identification of other biases of the research early enough is also useful in ensuring high quality of the research being done. As mentioned earlier, the qualitative methods always give an enormous amount of information. The challenge with this kind of data or information is of interpretation. So much effort is put in trying to make sense of the information provided by the research.
Data Sources And Collection Methods
The use questionnaires were the most important instrument which will be used to gather the primary data; the researcher used a mixture of both types of questions that are open-ended and closed-ended questions where the liker scale will be utilized that strongly disagrees, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly concur in a table form. The use of questionnaire has a greater significance since it is easy to administer, they are less costly, and they ensure a greater depth of response. Using a questionnaire, the capture of information is more efficient and useful for the study questionnaires are more economical and has appropriate reasons (Reinharz and Davidman, 1992).
The researcher used observation method to view documents and observe the behavior of participants to gather information. The researcher, in this case, viewed both published and unpublished literature based on different texts related to the topic of study that various textbooks and journals. The researcher also observed the behavior of the participants in the field. Observation is easy in access to situations and people where questionnaires and interviews can't work; they are good in explaining the content and give first-hand information, enhances depth understanding of the research hence easy to analyze data. On the other hand, observations are time-consuming, and it’s hard to study the past occurrence alternatively they don't have other option they depend on the documents available. The method of observation gives first-hand information in the research. (Goldman, Schloss, and Statger, 1976, pp. 230).
The researcher will use structured, semi-structured and unstructured interviews. In a structured interview, the researcher will use a set of questions in each order which is closed-ended questions. The formal interview is easy to test for the reality of the information or data gathered, and they are easy to conduct as it takes a brief period enhancing broad cross-section of data can be obtained. Interviews also have; limitations to the users that is they are no flexible that is the order or the schedule required in the interview should be followed, and the answers given lack required details. Sometimes questionnaires designed for the research are also administered in the form of interviews. (Aguilera, 2007, pp. 840).
An unstructured interview is where sometimes interview schedule are not used thus it only has open-ended questions some can be added or removed in the headway. They have significance since they are more flexible as some question can be added, they generate qualitative data and finally, they give a depth understanding as they give the interviewer an opportunity to ask more. An unstructured interview is time-consuming to gather information from the respondents, and it is expensive to train and employ interviewers (Zhou, David, and Li. 2007).
Focus groups it is a method of data collection where a group of people is interviewed on their ideas, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. Through focus groups, it is easy to establish first-hand information in the study, and it gives an opinion from the respondent on how to settle the problem. Focus groups do not provide information in-depth hence resulting in gaps. Focus groups are instrumental methods of obtaining information. Just the idea of having specialist in a field seeking answers from a subject of study is noble. From the focus groups, the topic of research is often exploited widely and issues viewed from different angles. As stated earlier, the information obtained from the focus group discussions can never be outdated. Errors in the research are best avoided by ensuring that every member of the focus is a specialist in the matter being discussed. This is done because having less informed people in the discussion groups may lead to false information or sometimes. Current research greatly encourages the use of focus groups especially for research on the contemporary issues in the society.
Study Sample And Sampling Techniques
The researcher will select a small number of subjects which will be obtained from accessible and representative of the population. The researcher will use stratified random approach to select the data required this is because of the population ratio in the region. The approach has no biases since it obtains information in the form of sex, age, and levels. The researcher used 60% of the population to gather data. People identified through the stratified random approach would take part of this study by filling questionnaires. The questionnaires would give their view with regards to the topic being discussed. Data provided by the questionnaires would either give results to qualitative or quantitative data. This occurs based on the type of the questions asked by the questionnaires. The questionnaire must always be provided with consent forms. Moreover, before the issuing of the questionnaires, the people to fill the questionnaires must be assured of the confidentiality of the information they provide. This procedure would help ensure the honesty of the respondents. With honesty, errors in the data are significantly reduced.
The sample size of the study is also a critical issue to look at during the study. Sample size would help in the calculation of the statistical parameter of the survey. Sample size can be in the form of classes that categorize the respondents based on the groups they belong to in the study, or it can comprise an estimated number of respondent per class. The example of the sample size given in table 3.1 classified the respondents based on their line of duty in the location of the research. The figures must have an estimate of the percentage of each class in the sample.
The researcher will use stratified random techniques to select the required data or sample size because distinct levels of respondents will be used to give information. In probability, there is the fact that every individual in the population of research will have an equal chance to be selected. Through probability, the confidence intervals and margin errors will occur invalidating the results of the research. The researcher will divide the sample into different strata, at the final stage selection subjects will be obtained by this technique of probability creates a sample. This technique produces features which are proportional to the sample gathered. Non-probability uses on- random processes for the verdict and expediency hence researcher should determine the appropriateness of the research. This technique is easy and faster making the cost of researching to be low (Kothari, 2004).
Secondary data will be gathered in the form of case studies which will be carried out in journal articles, books in the field and from the unpublished sources from within the Central Administrative Services Tobago (C.A.S.T). The use of secondary data is critical in establishing the background of the study being done. The sources from which the secondary information is obtained must be updated and relevant to the topic of the research.
Reliability and validity
Reliability is the ability to yield the result when different trials have been made, or in simple terms, it is the capacity to be depended upon by the researcher. Due to the use of secondary data from the reliable sources, the information can be regarded as credible. The researchers' reliance on the secondary information in the making conclusion further strengthens the reliability index. Most of the sources of primary data such as observation and interviews may be biased because respondents who are contacted were freely willing to give away their information to our survey in the field of study (Neuman and Lawrence, 2002). Obtaining a reliable data is the aim of any researcher during the study. Conclusions from reliable data can always be cited and even inferred in future.
On the other hand, validity is the extent to which a test accurately measures what is supposed to be measured. Considering the dynamic changes that take place in the field, it is quite a task to enhance validity over a longer period. The validity of the research may, therefore, be interfered with because of the time lapse between the time collection of data took place and the period in which analysis and conclusion were done. Validity will also be checked during piloting to ensure that all items in the main study are functioning and it enhances data obtained to be reliable in representing a concept in the field of study. The pre-test was done in an area of the survey which is not included during the actual research undertaking. Furthermore, reliance on secondary data may generate a reliability problem on the objective thus variance from the objective of the researcher who compiled the secondary data which research is relying upon. A valid and reliable data can sometimes be accurate (Amburgey, Kelly, and Barnett, 1990, pp. 162).
Data Analysis Techniques
The data will be analyzed, validated, coded, entered and cleared to detect the missing gaps in the field. The data is analyzed using the quantitative analysis process which is appropriate for the users since it focuses on large volumes of data. The first step, the researcher defined the problem of the research after which a model for the research was developed. The researcher focused on acquiring data in which the developing the solution is followed, the solution which has been prepared will be tested if it is appropriate. The results will be analyzed by the researcher, and finally, there will be need of implementing the product into the practical field. In quantitative analysis, the researcher will prepare testable proportions of data which will be gathered from the field that is turning it from images or words to numbers (Welman, Kruger and Mitchell, 2005, pp.37).
The qualitative technique is concerned with small samples of the population, where data was prepared for checking if it is relevant to the study of organizational change, after which data relationships and trends were examined by the researcher. Test such as pilot test will be carried out to test the significance of the relationships in the field and the differences that may occur. Small samples may sometimes not give the information that is expected from the study. This begs the need to use the quantitative approach in obtaining samples. In this case, the data would be significant and sometimes challenge even to collect and analyze (Koul, 2009).
Regarding categories of data analysis such as descriptive, exploratory, inferential and casual the selection, there will the use of qualitative analysis which considered the patterns, colors, and numbers. Tables and graphs will be the most appropriate techniques to be used in presenting findings on the organizational chance if it is effective. Bar graphs are suitable to represent a large amount of data and as are easy to construct, more attractive and easy to examine. Statistical interpretations are best made using calculations. The calculations would aid in the tabulation of the data and further graphical representation. Accuracy should be considered at all time to ensure the information presented is free of bias. It is worth noting that any error in the representation of data would still lead to wrong conclusions for the study. The analysis of data is what forms the basis of the discussion. The results section only presents the information that should be analyzed. This, therefore, explains the need for accuracy at every step of data collection, representation and analysis (Preffers, 2007, pp. 67).
Ethics are the prescribed procedure of conducting the research in confirmative with the written laws and expectations. The research was conducted in an honest manner. Data were analyzed and the outcome reported without any bias. The interpretation of data, peer review and writing of grants, was carried out objectively with minimal bias. The confidentiality of information and the informants was strictly respected.
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