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Questions:

1.Why there is so much interest in Quantum computing?

2.Find and summarise a resource that describes the features and advantages of open source software?

 

Answers:

Most computer experts have remained optimistic that they could develop a miniscule computers that are very power and can work efficiently. The Quantum computing technology is used to develop powerful computers that perform computational task in a simplest manner, fast, and efficient than those computers that we apparently use. According to the research done by the University of Manchester experts, there is a breakthrough to develop computational devices that use large molecules of chromium and nickel to store and process information in an advanced manner.

The Quantum computers have powerful computational capability than the traditional computers. Considering the two, the traditional computers store information in binary form (in bit) which are long chain of numbers between 0s and 1s. For the case of quantum computers, these computers use qubits to store information. The computers use the numbers 1, 0 or any other digit between the two numbers at a particular instance. Therefore, this gives these computers an extra feature of carrying out more complex and powerful computations.

Studies have proven that the qubits stores information for a long time hence, allowing manipulation of information hence algorithms. The coherence time in Quantum computers is long hence allows voluminous executions simultaneously.

Gentoo Distribution features and advantages

Silberschatz, A., Galvin, P. B., & Gagne, G. (2013). Operating system concepts. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

One of the greatest thing about Linux is it offers various platform which suit the need of the user. For instance, Gentoo Linus. This is a distribution for those people who want to prove to their peers that they have a prowess when it comes to using the Linux operating system. Gentoo is designed for those people who are pros of using Linux. Unfortunately this operating system is not suitable for beginners because it requires an extra skill from the Linux expert. Simply put, this operating system is so far the most power and only a few people can be able to maneuver through the system.

 


Gentoo is a source-based operating system that requires the expert to customize the features that are suitable for you right from the beginning. To undertake all this requires knowledge of high notch in Linux, patience and a lot of time to design the best features possible. The ultimate result would be getting the quality of the distribution system that suits your needs. Actually, this is good distribution because it can help you to start building your Linux skills mutually and in the long run you become conversant with the requirements.

2. Some of the advantages of using open source software include but not limited to reliability, stability, cheap, support and accountability, and flexible. The open source software developers are attracted by the features of open source software hence they always try to maintain the standard of the software to keep its good reputation.  Open source software are very reliable in the sense that whenever a bug is realized in the software the developers kicks out the threat in a short time. Also, it in terms of security the chances of data loss due to bugs is very minimal or failure to meet the specifications and minor problems that are rarely observed in the open source software.  As an advantage those defects that pose a threat to the system and dealt with immediately they are observed. The developers are able to locate the bugs using the source code to do debugging.

The software is stable hence it is not panacea. For this reason businesses opt to acquire the software to assist to perform various tasks within the business process. Also, using open source software is prevalent because the software offers flexibility and can be modified to suit a given environment. For instance, businesses experience a lot of dynamism hence the open source can shelter the user to attempt to make modification to add new features so as to keep the business to standard. Besides, the software allows the business to support itself because they have a gateway to the source code hence giving the user the freedom of selecting what they want.

Auditability comes in the sense that in the user can scrutinize the nature and the quality of service. With the aid of the open source, the user is able to audit the system to check on the state of security, freedom from backdoor, and flexibility to allow future changes. By the developers providing the source code, it is a guarantee to the user when making claims because they have a basis or know the origin of the open source software.

 


The features and uses of ONE other L4 protocol that is not discussed in the text.

What is Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP, What is a URL, HTTP header format. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.omnisecu.com/tcpip/http-hypertext-transfer-protocol-what-is-http.php

The application layer is responsible in conveying the packets to the required destination.  The layer controls how the packets move from the source, checks for bugs and then filters the packets to the right destination.  

The hypertext Transfer Protocol is a protocol that links the webserver with the client. It is a protocol that aids in the distribution of in the Web. This is a protocol that is based on the client server architecture to facilitate the interchange of information. Usually, this protocol uses port number 80 in the web server to access the network.  This protocol works in the manner that once the client server in this case the web browser (Mozilla Firefox, Google chrome, Internet Explorer) sends a request to the server for a given information, the server responds by providing the information if it is available.

In general, the http protocol provide a window for the users and access point that provides feedback for the information asked. The universal functions of this Hypertext markup protocol include: providing remote file access, network management services, directory access services, resource sharing, and performing network management tasks.

Recent cyber-attack (within the last 3 years) against a government website or asset.

 When attacking stable websites like government websites, the hackers usually deploy the denial of service on the website which bombards a lot of traffic on the site hence making the site inaccessible for some time.

In the year 2015, hacker attempted a cyber-related attach on the department of United States Defense security reported an attack on the CIA website. Just like other government sites receive Trojans, the attacker pulled down the site for a couple of hours irrespective of its high standards of security. Among the many incidents recorded the activities of the CIA were compromised however no significant damage was realized. One day after the other, there are millions of attack attempts on government sites which aim at paralyzing the activities or perform malicious activities on the website. In the incident of attacking CIA the attackers used bogus traffic to pull down the service of the website.   The federal agency receives numerous cases of cyber-attack attempt and with the aid of the Department of Defense security they are implementing the DOS policies which could at least curb and uplift the security engine of the government websites.

 

Example of an organisation’s ICT infrastructure being impacted by data center fires

Data center fires is a common catastrophe in most that happens and tampers with large volumes of data. For instance, data center fire cases have been experienced in India. One of the organizations in India was affected by fire whereby the organization suffered loss of personal data and the biometric finger print records of the stakeholders. The catastrophe destroy all the servers that were installed in that building. In the same note, the damage was immense such that even the servers in the building were compromised. Among other crucial properties damaged were the networking equipment and storage equipment. Also, in other places like Calgary, fire incidence outbreak has been realized in the recent time. The fire curtailed the operation of the government activities including destroying the lines of communication in the city. Since the time the incident happen, Most Indians fear about the security of the data centers security where their information is stored.

An organization using crowdsourcing and the outcomes of the engagement.

Crowdsourcing in the latest enterprise model that most companies are deploying to ensure they involve other groups from the virtual community to give view or provide insight and information about a particular issue. Crowdsourcing has been known to offer vast information in regard to societal and corporate issues. Precyse Technologies is a company that is engaging in the production of DFID tags. Since this was a new product in the market, the company marketing team wanted to ensure they save on the cost hence they opted to use a direct marketing and sales approach which was less costly unlike the traditional approach of R& D.

The big challenge for this company is that they needed the tags to reach the customer destination with fully functional. Thus, through the use of crowdsourcing the marketing team worked to ensure they gathered information from the internet on how to improve the durability to prevent the batteries from draining easily. In the long run, the company was able to get ideas and opinions which helped them to produce durable tags and even allow the company to add more features on the product.

The result of using crowdsourcing was that precise increased the range and efficiency of the products and it was observed the Smart agent tags lowered the cost of keeping track of physical assets and improving workflow for the clients. Also, the technology streamlined the communication between various variables within the production chain.

An example where data has been stolen from a private company or corporation and explain the impacts on the customers.

11 Major US Data Breaches | Bankrate.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.bankrate.com/finance/banking/us-data-breaches-2.aspx

In most cases companies experience fraudulent activities as they pursue to offer the best services of products to their clients. Usually data theft results to an awful outcome because the exercise is meant to terrorize the clients or the host organizations.

 


The health insurance Anthem is among the companies in US that has suffered from data breach and malicious attack on their system. In the year 2015, the company`s patient records were compromised by attackers. In the event the patients and employee records were at the stake of attack. The data infringement went viral because the attack exposed the persona credentials of employees like their names, email addresses, their income, date of birth and the official names. The data breach cost the firm approximately over $100 million. In the attack, the company assumed that the personal credentials of employees like credit card information was not compromised which could have led to a vigorous cyberattack on the banks and swindling of funding from bank accounts of employees illegally.

An example of an organization that failed to adapt to changes in technology and explain what the organization failed to do/respond to.

How Kodak failed to hit the market is still a shock to many people after controlling the market of photography in the 90s before the evolution of digital technology. It is notable that Kodak misunderstood the future of photography and failed to put measures to maintain a competitive edge in transforming its business process by integrating new technology and innovative ways of producing quality photographs.

Looking back, in the early 1990s the company invented their first digital camera even before the market rivals could realize the technology. Unfortunately, Kodak failed to take advantage instead they stopped carrying out research about the digital photography and that is where the problem started. Competitors took the technology serious and made efforts to advance in the digital business hence Kodak remained staggering due to its resistance to change.

The rival companies like Nikon, Canon, Sony, and Fujifilm moved with the wave of technology and discovered more features in digital photography like face and smile detection which have made the companies to hit the market. Kodak Company did not focus on future but rather they were just remained in comfort zone with that little they had discovered but little did they know things would change.

It is evident Kodak failed to respond appropriately to changes in technology. The Company did not do keen research on digital evolution.  Also, the reluctance of the company`s innovativeness demonstrates the inability of the company to implement new products which could hit the market.

An example of an ICT project that failed and its implication

The National Health Service Civilian IT project is one of the mega project that has failed in England since the beginning of time. The NHS was attempting to create a database electronic record system which could serve all the British citizens. This projects was expected to serve more than 300 healthcare centers. However, the objective was curtailed due to the various reasons are stipulated below:

Right from the onset, this project was too big to start so quick without putting the right mechanism in place. It is noted there was poor contacting process, multi-sourcing, and accountability issues.  The NHS engaged in contracts which were not flexible at all. The approach of take-it-or-leave-it brought the discrepancies during the ignition stage of the project. This led to the emergence of wrangles between the contractors and the stakeholders over some term of agreement. Therefore, NHS failed to incorporate negotiation terms by setting up a one sided contract to favor them.

Another factor that led to the failure of the project is the interoperability constraints. The main issue here was that there were wrangles between the authority and the health practitioners in the verge of acquiring and assembling the IT infrastructure when they were hiring contractors. The hullabaloo on who will facilitate the project brought about the conflict hence the project was not properly implemented.  Notably, the team of experts who never deployed the right model for executing the mega project bit by bit. Their intention was to achieve too much, within a short period of time. The experts failed to employ the evolutionary acquisition model such that they specify, implement, deploy, and assess the IT systems at each phase. All these led to poor workmanship hence the system developed was below standard, above budget, and did not serve the intended purpose.

 

References

Abandoned NHS IT system has cost £10bn so far | Society | The Guardian. (n.d.).Retrievedfrom https://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/sep/18/nhs-records-system-10bn

Carroll, P., & Mui, C. (2009). Billion-dollar lessons: What you can learn from the most inexcusable business failures of the last 25 years.

Precyse Technologies. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.innocentive.com/files/node/casestudy/case-study-precyse-wireless-wakeup-call-challenge.pdf

Fire brings down data centers in India and Canada | News | DatacenterDynamics. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/content-tracks/colo-cloud/fire-brings-down-data-centers-in-india-and-canada/68499.fullarticle

THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CYBER STRATEGY. (2015, April 17). Retrieved from www.defense.gov/Portals/1/features/2015/0415_cyber-strategy/Final_2015_DoD_CYBER_STRATEGY_for_web.pdf

Chaganti, P., TotalBoox,, & TBX. (2007). Xen Virtualization. Packt Publishing.

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