Storage Area Network (SAN)
SAN comprises a high-speed network which connects storage devices such as tape libraries to the servers, allowing storage, back-up and easier disaster recovery. To access storage devices on SAN, the host sends a block request to a storage device (Australian Government, 2016).
Internet Area Network (IAN)
IAN refers to a network which connects voice endpoints to data end points using their IP address. IUPN connects the data and end points via the internet (Kuribayashi, 2013). This facilitates information interchange and communication. IAN networks facilitate information and internet access to the internet from anywhere.
SONET/SDH are multiplexing protocols, which allow sending of circuit-mode communication signals, that is transferring multiple bits via LED’s and lasers (Rittinghous & Ransone, 2010). This method is developed to transfer data over the optical fibers.
Wireless Wide Area Network
Wireless Wide Area Network refers to a wireless network in which separate cells are connected to provide internet access to large areas such as across towns and cities (Kuribayashi, 2013). WAN’s cover a wider geographical area compared to the LAN.
Low Power Wide Area Network
Low Power Wide Area Network is used for connecting devices based on power efficiency with low bandwidth. Low Power Wide Area Network has low power requirements, which means they have a longer range (Hakiria, Berthoua, & Gokhalec, 2013). Therefore LPWAN has resulting low cost.
Wide Area File Services
Wide area file services refer to a file access and storage technology in which, centers access the internet over Wide Access Network (Kaur & Gurm, 2015). WAN allows for file and internet access over the wide access network, which is users can access files over the network.
Wide Area Application Services
Wide area application services refer to a technology which enhances WAN performances by combining WAN coding and TCP applications across the network (Ibrahim, 2014). This technology allows web designers to manage bandwidth-intensive networks such as the Web.
Why is there a need for Network Translation Address (NAT)?
NAT refers to the process which a firewall dedicates address to a computer or other network devices connected to the private network (Kaur & Gurm, 2015).
Types of Cables
Straight-through Cable: Straight-through cable is the most commonly used cable used to connect computers to the switch normal port or cable modem’s LAN port. Examples include the green and orange cables.
Crossover Cable: Crossover cable operate similarly to straight-through cables. However, the RX and TX lines, are connected in opposite positions to both cable sides. Examples include the cables connecting the Cisco routers and switch.
Rollover Cable: Refers to a cable used to connect console port of the router to a computer to make programming for the device possible. Examples include cables connecting the host cables and the USB port cables.
Seven layers of OSI Model.
Physical (Layer 1): send bit streams, that is light and radio signals over the network.
Data Link (Layer 2): controls how computers obtain network access to data. Data packets, therefore are encoded/decoded as bits.
Network (Layer 3): allows for switching and routing.
Transport (Layer 4): transports data between the hosts, and end points.
Session (Layer 5): controls, coordinates connections between different applications.
Presentation (Layer 6): provides encryption, that is, translates applications to network formats.
Application (Layer 7): allows user authentication and supports applications of the OSI model.
Media Access Control address refers to a unique address on your host hardware number, for instance, a computer. MAC address is used by telecommunication protocols, such as Data-Link Layer (DLC)
The Largest WAN in the world?
The internet is the largest World Access Network in the world.
The Normal Telephone Diagram and how it works.
The telephone consists of two major parts, the transmitter, and the receiver. The transmitter consists of the diaphragm and is located behind the telephone, that is, it receives sound waves from the user. The diaphragm vibrates depending on the magnitude of sound waves. Behind the diaphragm, lies a small cup of carbon grains which facilitates passing of electric current carrying the sound by making the electric current to be either stronger or weaker. Electric currents are generated by the batteries of the telephone system. When the diaphragm vibrates, for very loud sounds, the pressure generated presses the diaphragm against the carbon grains and sound waves travel through the telephone wire to the receiver of another phone. For low voices, sound waves pressure transmitted against the diaphragm is small. Less pressure is applied on the carbon grains, and less current flows through the grains.
DSL diagram and Explain how works.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) refers to a high-speed connection with a very wide bandwidth responsible for internet connection. However, DSL utilizes the same wires as normal telephone lines. When the modem is connected to the telephone line, the modem locates the DSL provider, then, the DSL light on the modem indicates green. The DSL provider sends your username and passwords provided to the Inter-Switch Link (ISL). If accepted, the internet light turns green. The ISL then connects the modem to the internet that is the internet light is turned green.
Cable Internet and how it works?
Cable Internet refers to a broadband internet connection which utilizes lines for the cable TV in providing fast internet access services and TV services such as TV shows. Speeds of the cable internet depend on the bandwidth of the cable network allows, however, the bandwidth can be limited. Cable internet works by transmitting data through TV channels that are coaxial cables. Cables and internet modems are used to facilitate fast internet access through TV channels.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Point-to-protocol refers to a networking protocol which facilitates standard transportation of multi-protocol data across point-to-point links. Comprises of three components, the link control protocol (LCP) which establishes, configures and tests the connections between two points, the Authentication protocol which provides a technique to encapsulate multi-protocol datagrams, and the Network Control Protocol which configure different network protocols.
Frame relay refers to a network technology which facilitates data transmission between wide area networks and local networks at reduced costs using packet switching techniques such as the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
VPN. What is it? How does it work?
Virtual Private Network refers to a private network connection comprising of public wires to enable the user to access the Web safely. VPN enhances security to this private network by safety measures such as encryption to prevent unauthorized Internet access.
How DHCP works
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol refers to a protocol which sends IP addresses to the Internet protocol host. DHCP also enable the server to automatically send information such as subnet mask to the client computer.
Network Address Translation. What is it? How does it work?
Network Address Translation involves changing network addresses for internet protocol (IP) and improves security. Information on the network address for IP packets is changed. IP address of a computer is changed using the IPv4 system, in which 32-bit numbers are subdivided and categorized into four binary octets. This changes the IP address and enhances security for the network.
What is IPV4? IPV6?
Internet Protocol Version 4, refers to a common internet protocol which connects a device to internets. It’s the fourth revision of IP which identifies devices connected to the internet through address systems.
Internet Protocol Version 6, refers to a new 128-bit IP system which replaced the IPV4. IPV6 has advantages such as auto-configuration and facilitates efficient routing.
ACL and what is its purpose?
Access Control List (ACL) refers to a method in which, access and denial to network services such as files are regulated (controlled). The Access Control List facilitates filtering of traffic, and packet services in devices connected to networks such as routers.
Methods of connecting to WAN.
The method of connecting WAN involves a dial-up connection, in which dial-up modems have low bandwidth. Synchronous serial involves a point-to-point connection and requires no set-up for transmission. Packet-switched, which is synchronous consists of a shared bandwidth, having speeds of 56Kbps to 2048 Mbps.
Research: Define and briefly describe ADSL.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line involves the transmission of digital data on existing telephone lines to various destinations, such as homes. This technology allows for faster data transmission across the lines. ADSL allows internet access through the ADSL modems and involves internet access speeds of between 512Kbps and 6Mbps.
Watch the video: NAT explained and answered the following questions
a. Why is IPv4 being replaced by IPv6?
IPv6 provides auto-configuration, which is simpler and provides manageable installation. Also, IPv6 is more secure.
b. Briefly, explain the function of NAT.
Network Address Translation involves assigning a public address to the host, for instance, a computer. NAT changes the IP address of the computer for economic and security reasons.
Why is the source IP address 192.168.1.3 changed to 18.104.22.168 when communicating with 22.214.171.124?
For security reasons.
Australian Government. (2016). Configure, verify and troubleshoot WAN links and IP services in a medium enterprise network. Melbourne: Industry Skills Councils.
Hakiria, A., Berthoua, P., & Gokhalec, A. (2013). Supporting End-to-end Scalability and Real-time Event Dissemination in the. Preprint submitted to Elsevier, 2(1), 2-32.
Ibrahim, M. B. (2014). Evaluating the performance of MPLS and Frame-Relay. Al-Nahrain: Al-Nahrain University.
Kaur, H., & Gurm, R. K. (2015). Comparative Analysis of WAN Technologies. International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology, 3(5), 9-20.
Kuribayashi, S.-i. (2013). Improving Quality of Service and Reducing Power Consumption with WAN accelerator in Cloud Computing Environments. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, 5(1), 41-52.
Rittinghous, J. W., & Ransone, J. F. (2010). Cloud Computing: Implementation, management, and security. CRC Press LLC.