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ICT700 System Analysis And Design For Adaptive Methodologies

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Questions:

Question 1: Report

 
Your manager Colin Grey is sure an adaptive systems development methodology would be useful in this project but there is little knowledge about these in the organisation. Therefore, they want you to write a report discussing adaptive development and two methodologies Scrum and XP. State under what circumstances each one would be used and then make a recommendation for this project. To do well in this report you must use the detail from the case study in your report as examples, rather than given general information.

The following sections need to be included;
oAdaptive methodologies – general introduction to the methodologies, including when you would use an adaptive methodology.
?General discussion
?Advantages
?Disadvantages
oScrum
?General discussion
?Advantages
?Disadvantages
oXP
?General discussion
?Advantages
?Disadvantages
oRecommendation
 
Your target audience is executive business people, who have extensive business experience but limited computing knowledge.  Your report should be no less than one thousand (1000) words and it would be best to be no longer than one thousand five hundred (1500) words long. Appropriate referencing is required. The textbook Satzinger et. al is a valid resource, however it is expected that at least five (5) other resources will also be used.

Question 2: Memo

Review the OJL case study and answer the following question with reference to the information in the case study.

OJL have requested that you write a brief memorandum commenting on and setting a plan for the requirements gathering. Briefly discuss requirements gathering in general, introduce your plan and then state why you would recommend this plan. You are expected to use information from the course in your answer, for instance lecture three such as how you will gather information, what questions will you ask. Please cover the make or buy decision, could you buy already existing software to solve OJL problem (you must justify your answer). It is expected that you use the detail from the case study in your essay and failure to do this will reduce your marks

 

Answer:

Introduction to Adaptive Methodologies

The required system needed for the OJL can be developed using a variety of different methods and approaches. However, each of the methods may or may not be the most optimum method and the resulting output may as well differ based on the methods and approaches that were followed. Also, the approach that is followed also plays an important role in deciding the behaviour of the system and also, it’s attributes. One of the choices of system development methodologies is known as adaptive methods for development system. Each of these methods have their own set of guidelines and approaches, however in the case fo adaptive methods, the defined approaches are not static and it changes from project to project. This is because, each of the project have their own unique requirements and differ in types. Methodologies like the one suggested here help the developers in developing robust and scalable system by making use of ad-hoc process. The most famous class of development methodologies under these methods are the Agile frameworks. These methods are meant to provide projects as well as their respective team members with the abilities and benefits of producing scalable products which are in according with the expectation of customers. The project in this case is about developing a system that will run on mobile devices for an organization known as Odd Jobs Limited or OJL. The main users of this system would be the contracting staff that have been employed by the company. The report would further address the right choice of development methodology while comparing SCRUM as well as XP methodology for system development.

Scrum Methodology 

General Discussion 

SCRUM is a type of adaptive software development methodology and is primarily based on the previously mentioned Agile Frameworks. SCRUM does not have any fixed steps or sequences that has been defined as per it’s methodology and the overall development process that has to be followed is based on ad-hoc process. The requirements for the project are also mainly analysed and stored as user stories. The project work and development is executed on the basis of variety of sprints that are completed one after the other. Also, a sub-set of user stories are extracted from the backlog of the product and are then placed in sprint backlog in order to execute them. One cycle of such runs for over a period of 14 days and it goes to a maximum of 4 weeks. Typically SCRUM based project has small team size that varies from 5 to 9 members (Sachdeva, 2016). Customers are in the end provided with a product that works and they are supposed to test and give their feedbacks.

Advantages

SCRUM methodology has certain key advantages over other methodology and can prove to be quite valuable in similar cases.

  • The customers would get the product delivery in very short intervals and they would also be able to receive hands-on experience for working on the product towards the end of each of the sprint. Furthermore, customers will be able to interact with the system even before the final release of the product.
  • The customers would also be able to provide their feedback and their responses after working on the product and these feedbacks and comments are then incorporated in sprint which enhances the quality and overall abilities of the final product.
  • The project under SCRUM is also highly scalable and any changes requested for the system can be easily scaled up and down during the development of the project (Mahnic, 2012).
  • There are many risks associated with an IT Project. For the same, risk analysis and identification shall be handled in the initial sprints itself. Further head, the dynamic risks would be executed.
 

Disadvantages

  • SCRUM requires lot of attention and devotion from the developers and project managers. In efficient team or team with no SCRUM experience may hinder the complete benefits that SCRUM provides (Rajasekaran, 2015).
  • SCRUM does not require an END date and as a result, certain activities such as go-live, training and support becomes vague and ambiguous in the case of SCRUM base  projects. There’s also an issue that the project may fall into limbo and continue indefinitely.
  • If any member of the project team leaves the team, then the new member who will be added to replace him would face certain difficulties in catching it up.

Extreme Programming (XP)

General Discussion 

XP or Extreme programming is a software development methodology which is also based on the Agile frameworks. The main standout feature of XP is it’s ability to incorporate frequent changes within the project at ease. The initial phases in XP requires the team members to work on analysing the project outcomes as well as results. After that, the development-oriented tasks are executed and simultaneously, parallel testing is also carried out. The methodology is famous for it’s shorter development lifecycles as well as enhanced team productivity (Wood, Michaelides & Thomson, 2013). XP incorporates the use of checkpoints in order to manage project needs as well as modifications done on those requirements.

Advantages

  • The intensive tests within the project would ensure that identified risks and gaps are resolved as and when they occur.
  • The code being produced under the XP methodology would follow principles of simplicity and ensure that the developers could easily make the changes and when needed.
  • Software development cycles within the XP are quite short in XP and it allows customers to be able to test out the product in development rapidly (Fotjik, 2011).

Disadvantages

  • There could be certain cases in which the team member working on the project are not working from a common location. As a result, remote access as well as telecommunication facilities are required. Now, in the case of XP methodology, remote working sessions and teleconferencing abilities do not work well with it.
  • The quality assurance for the code being developed is not managed (Erickson, Lyytinen & Siau, 2005).
  • System design is primarily considered as secondary here and the development code is offered main preference. This results in issues when the product is launched in terms of user experience levels.

Recommendations

The 2 methodologies mentioned earlier XP (Extreme Programming) and SCUM have been detailed earlier. They both have certain pros and cons. However, it has to be analysed that which one of them are more suitable for the OJL’s system development needs. The drawbacks of SCRUM do not much affect the OJL case. On top of this, the advantages provided by SCRUM does affect the OJL’s case in a positive way. Whereas on the other hand, the drawbacks of XP does affect significantly to the OJL’s case. This is because, for such a complex project, there would be various teams working remotely on the project. At the same time, there would be off-shore developers and contractual workers who may not visit the premises for working on the project. Given the drawbacks of XP in case of remote employees, it becomes difficult to recommend this methodology. On top of this, the project requires a simplified user interface and design logic to contribute towards a good user experience. XP also lacks in this area and this would negatively affect the outcome of the project (Sobiech, Eilerman & Rausch, 2016). SCRUM also provides the principles of adaptability which would be quite helpful in this case.

Event Table

Event

Type of the event

Event Trigger

Origin

Use Case

Output

Destination

Adding a customer

Internal

Renting a skilled labour or vehicle

By customer

Registration of customer

Details of customer added

OJL and customer

Adding contracting staff

Internal

Adding contracting staff

The staff itself

Addition of the said contracting staff

The staff is added

OJL and Skilled labour

Adding a new vehicle

Internal

A new vehicle

Vehicle

Vehicle addition

The vehicle is added

OJL and vehicle

Renting by customer

Internal

Renting of a vehicle

Customer

Placing of a job

New job created

OJL and Customer

Hiring a skilled labour by customer

Internal

Hiring of a labourer

Customer

Placing of a job

New job created

Job, Customer and OJL

Allocating tasks to workers

Internal

Creation of job

OJL

Assigning of either vehicle or labour

Either a vehicle or labour being assigned

OJL and Job

Creation of an invoice

Internal

Job invoice upon completion

OJL

Creation of invoice

Creation of invoice

Invoice and OJL

 Use Case

 

Creation of job

Scenario

Creation of a new job

Triggering Event

Hiring of a new vehicle or a labour

Description

Customer can create a new job in OJL system

Actors

Customer

Related Use Case

“Assigning of either a vehicle or a laborer”

Stakeholders

1. Customer

Pre-Condition

Successful registration and log-in

Post-Condition

Job creation by the customer.

Flow of activities

 

Actor

System

1) ‘Add Job’ button clicked by customer.

3) Details entered by the customer
6) Staff opens ‘Pending task list’

7) Staff selects an appropriate resource and assigns to it.

 

2) System returns with the following details: Job end date, number of jobs available, fields of job etc.

4) Displaying of the reference identification for the respective order

5) Automated notification sent to the staff

 

 

 

 

 

8) Automated notification sent to the customer

Alternate Course of Action

3.1 Incorrect data submission results in an error.

 

 

 

References

Adi, P. (2015). Scrum Method Implementation in a Software Development Project Management. International Journal Of Advanced Computer Science And Applications, 6(9). doi: 10.14569/ijacsa.2015.060927

Carvalho, B., & Mello, C. (2011). Scrum agile product development method - literature review, analysis and classification. Product Management & Development, 9(1), 39-49. doi: 10.4322/pmd.2011.005

Erickson, J., Lyytinen, K., & Siau, K. (2005). Agile Modeling, Agile Software Development, and Extreme Programming. Journal Of Database Management, 16(4), 88-100. doi: 10.4018/jdm.2005100105 

Mahnic, V. (2012). A Capstone Course on Agile Software Development Using Scrum. IEEE Transactions On Education, 55(1), 99-106. doi: 10.1109/te.2011.2142311

Rajasekaran, V. (2015). Issues in Scrum Agile Development Principles and Practices in software development. Indian Journal Of Science And Technology, 8(35). doi: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i35/79037

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