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You are to prepare a preliminary report for the Australian Federal Government describing the benefits of information-centric design and Enterprise Information Architecture Reference Architecture (EIA RA) for developing a national E-Government system. The intended audience for this report are government officials who may have knowledge of the government operations but limited computing knowledge. 

Components of ICN

This report aims to provide a preliminary discussion for the Australian Federal Government that describes the benefits of the information centric design and the Enterprise Information Architecture Reference Architecture for the development of the national E-Government system. Lastly, this report concludes with an appropriate conclusion for the report.

The choices of design is compared and discussed and the features of the proposed architectures of ICN that focusses on the following major components like the data objects, API, transport and routing, security and naming, and finally caching along with transport.

Information centric network design

The major abstraction of the ICN is NDO or Named Data Objects. Some of the examples are the web pages, movies, documents, songs, photos and interactive media and in all other words the kinds of objects that is stored and accessed using the computers (Carofiglio, Gallo and Muscariello 2016). NDO is considered to be independent of the location, method of storage, transportation method and the application program. It denotes that the NDO maintains the name and therefore identify irrespective of the location and irrespective of the methods by which it is copied, communicated and stored. This also denotes that any of the two copies of any NDO is equivalent for all purposes.

Advantages of information centric design

The distribution of the content that is efficient is one of the major advantage of ICN approach but in the recent times, it has been observed that it is not sufficient for motivating the migration from any old infrastructure to a new one (Pang et al. 2015). Some of the benefits of having ICN design approach are:

Cost-efficient and scalable content distribution: As per the recent predictions, the worldwide IP traffic would increase by the factor of almost four in the coming years. Particularly, the global traffic of the mobile data is considered to increase by almost 26 times in the present times (Vasilakos et al. 2015). This is majorly associated to several forms of video that would continue to increase and consume significant traffic in present times. The increase in the demand for the mass replication and distribution of the large amounts of resources has led to the major developments that are the content distribution networks and the P2P networks. Both of these approaches presents the move towards the increased content based model of communication that are the Uniform Resource Identifiers and the DNS names are interpreted in the way that permits the accessing of the cached copies of the content in network (Xylomenos et al. 2014). Moreover, some of the issues still prevails that results to the expensive inter-provider traffic and inability of effectively leveraging the in-network storage for reducing the overhead for both of the P2P and the CDN scenarios. 

Benefits of ICN design approach


Unique naming and persistency: The most of content URIs in present network are actually the objects locators that afterwards the resolution of the DNS exhibits the IP address of the web server, which is serving the requests by the resolving of the local part of the URI. This leads to the easy breaking of the binding among the name-object as when any object is being moved, the site changes its domain or that site for any of the reason is presently unreachable (Amadeo et al. 2016). However, if the replicas of the similar objects are positioned at various web servers, they would be accessible using the various URIs and they would essentially appear as the distinct objects to that system. The approach of ICN overcomes this particular problem with the persistent and the distinct naming of the NDOs and with the service model that performs the decoupling of the producers from the customers.

Security model: Present network security provides the required protection to the communication to the channel among the server and the client that uses the Transport Layer Security or any similar technique. The security model needs the trust of the clients to the server for delivering the correct information over any channel (Lee et al. 2014). ICN security model offers the integrity among the name-data and the verification of the origin of the NDOs, independent of immediate source. The model provides the ubiquitous caching with the retained authenticity and the name-data integrity, an aspect that the present model could not offer.

Multihoming and mobility: The nature of host based of the present networks denotes that the multihoming and mobility of the networks and nodes could evolve as the problem of managing the connections among the end-to-end points and selecting the appropriate path or the interface for using the connections (Baccelli et al. 2014). The approach of ICN does not include the end-to-end connections that needs to type of the connection management. This problem therefore evolves as being increasingly simpler. Any moving client just prevails to issue the requests for the NDOs on any new access. The requests on new access are commonly served form any distinct source rather than the requirement of maintaining any connection to previous source. Any multihomed client could similarly select the things that is required to be sent on any request on any one, many or all the accesses (Grieco et al. 2014).

Cost-efficient and scalable content distribution

Tolerance and disruption: The end-to-end communication with the sessions of transport to the origin servers is frequently difficult for achieving the challenged works with the sparse connectivity, disruptions and the high-speed mobility (Wu et al. 2014). When any of the application protocol sessions are bound to the transport sessions, they would fail when there is a failure of the transport session. Several applications does not require the seamless communication with the end-to-end paths (Saino, Psaras and Pavlou 2014). If any of the primary objective is the access to the data objects, the ICN with the in-network caching could provide the forward after store approaches that is similar to the architecture of the data transport networking with the concept of the convergence layer for the hop-by-hop transport. This could provide the increased reliability and the improved performance by leveraging the optimised transport of hop-by-hop and the in-network caching. 

Benefits of evolving from historical reporting to anticipate and shape

The organisations are aiming to evolve from the historical reporting to the anticipation and shaping for being prepared for the unexpected situations. Some of the benefits of this technique are:

Detecting any kind of fraud: The combining of the methods of multiple analytics could improve the detection of the pattern and then prevent any kind of criminal behaviour (Psaras, Chai and Pavlou 2014). The cybersecurity grows to be the major concern, high performance behavioural prediction examines all the actions on any network in the real time for spotting the abnormalities that might indicate any kind of fraud, zero day vulnerabilities and the advanced persistent threats.

Optimisation of the marketing campaigns: The prediction are utilised in determining the responses and purchases of the customers and then promote the opportunities of cross sell (Kurose 2014). The predictive models assist in helping the businesses retain, attract, and then grow the most profitable customers.

EIA RA approach 

EIA has been presently considered as the component of the any enterprise architecture. Enterprise information architecture is aimed to offer the common framework for data sharing in the cost-effective method all across the various units of the organisation that are taking extensive care of privacy and security of particular information (Chen et al. 2017). It is commonly recommended to utilise enterprise information architecture in the situations like the redundancy assessment of the organisation, redundancy assessment of the processes and for the design along with the development of common language of the business or the redundancy assessment of the technology. Enterprise information architecture consists of the three sub-components that are:

  • Organisation architecture
  • Business architecture
  • Technical architecture

Unique naming and persistency

The business architecture offers the consolidated view of data from any perspective that is business oriented (Liu et al. 2014). The technical architecture offers outlook of the current technical environment and the plan of migration for bringing the required technical environment. The organisation architecture majorly deals with the increased level of the organisational structure and the processes that is done by every individual unit in units of the organisation in that company. 


The enterprise information architecture reference architecture is a section of enterprise architecture process, which describes using the present state, guidance and the future state on the basis of set of the requirements, models and principles that are required for the flexible sharing and the exchanging of the information assets for achieving the changes in the enterprise (Amadeo, Campolo and Molinaro 2016). The connection of the strategic plan of any enterprise with the data architecture of the enterprise, the application architecture of the enterprise and the technical architecture of the enterprise leads to the information architecture of the enterprise. Any well documented architecture is the logical organisation of the information that is pertaining to following enterprise range, corporate standard elements:

  • Relationship among the data elements and the applications
  • Technology infrastructure
  • Strategic goals, strategies and the objectives
  • Requirements of information
  • Business measures and rules
  • Application systems

Characteristics of the EIA RA approach

The primary characteristics that could be utilised for distinguishing the well-defined implementation of the EIA includes the following:

Gaining of transparency: Information prevails independent from the specifications of the application, implementations of application and the interfaces of the user. It offers the layer of transparency among the application and information domains (Pentikousis et al. 2015).

Consideration of the requirements of the enterprise business: Architecture considers the complete requirements of the information of the complete enterprise and the particular LOBs or the individual organisations.

Avoiding the inconsistencies: It assists in identification of the conflicts, inconsistencies, aps and the overlaps in the information and the data and it offers the concept, methods and the framework for resolving this and it could be immensely useful for selecting the satisfactory solutions (Dabirmoghaddam, Barijough and Garcia-Luna-Aceves 2014).

Managing the Service Level Agreements: this offers the mechanisms for management and the definition of the information centric SLAs that could be enforced and monitored.

Allowing the decision making: This architecture allows the increasingly consistent and the efficient decision making of IT that is associated with the business requirements. This task is executed as it is increasingly extensible and flexible.

Addressing the data scope: Information Reference Model utilised by enterprise provides the description of the scope of used data and the information that is supported by EIA.

Security model

Defining the strategy of technology: This establishes the framework using which the strategies of the technology has been adopted by enterprise depends (Wang et al 2014. Additionally, the set of the principles is defined that could guide the manner by which the information systems and the technology infrastructure of the organisation have been engineered. 

There are several benefits that are attached with the enterprise information architecture. Initially, the enterprise information architecture provides the mutual understanding that is required between the lines of business with the help of models that are created from the perspective of the complete organisation (Wang et al .2014). Using corporate data model, it facilitates evaluation of the prevailing structure of the data and the planning for re-engineering of the information for maintaining the combined set of the structure. One more huge benefit that is connected with the enterprise information architecture is easy integration of the innovative corporate data to the prevailing environment of the system with the data that is mapped to particular data models of the company instead of the databases. It permits the validation of the packaged applications required in the company. The quick orientation could be offered to the new resources as it have the ability of accessing the selected section of the important models of enterprise information architecture. The enterprise information architecture establishes the standards, guidelines and the operational services, which defines the development environment of the enterprise systems (Amadeo et al. 2016). The time when the architecture of the enterprise has been documented, it could be utilised for accomplishing the following:

  • Facilitation of the change management by the association of the strategic requirements to systems who provides the required support and by the linking of the business model to the designs of the application
  • Enables the strategic information for being accurately and consistently derived from the operational data
  • Promote the effective data sharing and therefore reduce the redundancy of the data and the reduce the costs of maintenance
  • Improves the productivity from the development of the component, reuse and the management.
  • Simplifies the assessment of the packaged application for accurate within the organisation by assuming that the development of the function model and the corporate data model has been done
  • Simplifies the integration of the acquired data of the companies in the environment of the system as the mapping of the data in the logical corporate model of the data instead of the direct placing in the physical tables
  • Provides the development of any mutual language among the lines of the businesss as the development of the models is done from the perspective of the enterprise vast range
  • Increases the speed of the process of orientation of the new employees as it could quickly become acquainted with business using the analysis of the chosen sections of the model
  • Offers the roadmap using the Corporate Data Model for the assessment of the prevailing data structures that are into operation and then planning accurately for the re-engineering within the combined set of the structures

Diagram of the proposed systems

 

Conclusion

Therefore, it could be concluded from the above discussion that the national e-Government system could be developed for allowing the information flow and the connection among the various departments. The major abstraction of the ICN is NDO or Named Data Objects. Some of the examples are the web pages, movies, documents, songs, photos and interactive media and in all other words the kinds of objects that is stored and accessed using the computers. NDO is considered to be independent of the location, method of storage, transportation method and the application program. The distribution of the content that is efficient is one of the major advantage of ICN approach but in the recent times, it has been observed that it is not sufficient for motivating the migration from any old infrastructure to a new one. Some of the benefits of having ICN design are Cost-efficient and scalable content distribution, Unique naming and persistency, Security model, Multihoming and mobility, Tolerance and disruption. EIA has been presently considered as the component of the any enterprise architecture. Enterprise information architecture is aimed to offer the common framework for data sharing in the cost-effective method all across the various units of the organisation that are taking extensive care of privacy and security of particular information. 

Multihoming and mobility

References

Amadeo, M., Briante, O., Campolo, C., Molinaro, A. and Ruggeri, G., 2016. Information-centric networking for M2M communications: Design and deployment. Computer Communications, 89, pp.105-116.

Amadeo, M., Campolo, C. and Molinaro, A., 2016. Information-centric networking for connected vehicles: a survey and future perspectives. IEEE Communications Magazine, 54(2), pp.98-104.

Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Quevedo, J., Corujo, D., Molinaro, A., Iera, A., Aguiar, R.L. and Vasilakos, A.V., 2016. Information-centric networking for the internet of things: challenges and opportunities. IEEE Network, 30(2), pp.92-100.

Baccelli, E., Mehlis, C., Hahm, O., Schmidt, T.C. and Wählisch, M., 2014, September. Information centric networking in the IoT: Experiments with NDN in the wild. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (pp. 77-86). ACM.

Carofiglio, G., Gallo, M. and Muscariello, L., 2016. Optimal multipath congestion control and request forwarding in information-centric networks: Protocol design and experimentation. Computer Networks, 110, pp.104-117.

Chen, Z., Lee, J., Quek, T.Q. and Kountouris, M., 2017. Cooperative caching and transmission design in cluster-centric small cell networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 16(5), pp.3401-3415.

Dabirmoghaddam, A., Barijough, M.M. and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J., 2014, September. Understanding optimal caching and opportunistic caching at the edge of information-centric networks. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM conference on information-centric networking (pp. 47-56). ACM.

Grieco, L.A., Alaya, M.B., Monteil, T. and Drira, K., 2014, March. Architecting information centric ETSI-M2M systems. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops (PERCOM WORKSHOPS)(pp. 211-214). IEEE.

Kurose, J., 2014. Information-centric networking: The evolution from circuits to packets to content. Computer Networks, 66, pp.112-120.

Lee, E., Lee, E.K., Gerla, M. and Oh, S.Y., 2014. Vehicular cloud networking: architecture and design principles. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(2), pp.148-155.

Liu, H., Chen, Z., Tian, X., Wang, X. and Tao, M., 2014. On content-centric wireless delivery networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 21(6), pp.118-125.

Pang, Z., Chen, Q., Han, W. and Zheng, L., 2015. Value-centric design of the internet-of-things solution for food supply chain: Value creation, sensor portfolio and information fusion. Information Systems Frontiers, 17(2), pp.289-319.

Pentikousis, K., Ohlman, B., Corujo, D., Boggia, G., Tyson, G., Davies, E., Molinaro, A. and Eum, S., 2015. Information-centric networking: baseline scenarios (No. RFC 7476).

Psaras, I., Chai, W.K. and Pavlou, G., 2014. In-network cache management and resource allocation for information-centric networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 25(11), pp.2920-2931.

Saino, L., Psaras, I. and Pavlou, G., 2014, March. Icarus: a caching simulator for information centric networking (ICN). In SIMUTools (Vol. 7, pp. 66-75). ICST.

Vasilakos, A.V., Li, Z., Simon, G. and You, W., 2015. Information centric network: Research challenges and opportunities. Journal of network and computer applications, 52, pp.1-10.

Wang, Y., Li, Z., Tyson, G., Uhlig, S. and Xie, G., 2016. Design and evaluation of the optimal cache allocation for content-centric networking. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 65(1), pp.95-107.

Wang, Y., Xu, M., Feng, Z., Li, Q. and Li, Q., 2014, December. Session-based access control in information-centric networks: Design and analyses. In 2014 IEEE 33rd International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC) (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Wu, Q., Li, Z., Zhou, J., Jiang, H., Hu, Z., Liu, Y. and Xie, G., 2014. SOFIA: toward service-oriented information centric networking. IEEE Network, 28(3), pp.12-18.

Xylomenos, G., Ververidis, C.N., Siris, V.A., Fotiou, N., Tsilopoulos, C., Vasilakos, X., Katsaros, K.V. and Polyzos, G.C., 2014. A survey of information-centric networking research. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(2), pp.1024-1049.

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