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Question 1 Your organisation is based in two different countries (the UK and another country of your choice). Write a short account which briefly assesses the labour market trends in each country. In your account, briefly explain the significance of tight and loose labour market conditions and how organisations position themselves strategically in competitive labour markets.
Question 2 Give a brief description of the role of government, employers and trade unions in ensuring future skills needs are met. )
Question 3 Briefly describe the main principles of effective workforce planning and give some examples of any tools that may be used for this.
Question 4 1. Develop and provide a basic succession and career development plan 2. Provide evidence to show your contribution to plans for downsizing an organisation 3. Provide evidence to show your contribution to the development of 5ob descriptions, person specifications anIcompetency frameworks.  ay, I v. - keuq Question 5vb- Explain some of the main legal requirements in relation to recruitment and selection and briefly assess the strengths and weaknesses of at least two different methods of recruitment and selection. (.4 cos Question 6 ral t, ,Lc.40, txt,, - Briefly explain briefly why people leave or remain with organisations and provide a summary of some of the costs associated with dysfunctional employee tumover. Go on to assess the strengths and weaknesses of at least.

Overview of Labor Market Trends and its Importance in Planning for an Effective Workforce

The report is prepared to focus on the different aspects of human resource management considering the business organization Tesco in United Kingdom. The topic will discuss about the major labor market trends and its importance in planning for an effective workforce. It will show how the company can position itself in the different labor markets and even the importance of tight and loose labor market conditions. The roles played by the Government bodies and impact of trade unions on improving the skills required to create a sustainable workforce in the future will be discussed here as well. There will also be discussions related to the planning of recruitment and selection processes, which can further assist in the career development plans. Tesco operates not only in United Kingdom but also in Poland, China, Hungary, Ireland, etc. The plans for downsizing the organization will be illustrated here as well along with the most effective legal requirements that will be considered while managing the processes of recruitment and selection at Tesco, United Kingdom ( 2018).

Tesco operates in United Kingdom and China where the labor market trends change from time to time. Thus, it is important for the organization to adapt to the labor market conditions and ensure that those and dealt strategically to remain competitive within the business environment. From the recent labor market trends, it could be understood that the number of employees had increased, though the unemployment rate also seemed to get higher with time. The rate of employment is higher while the numbers of unemployed people reached nearly up to 1.5 million. The earnings made on a weekly basis considering the rate of inflation dropped as well in United Kingdom (Alfes et al. 2013).

The tight labor market conditions mean economic exchange where the workers of the organization want jobs and the employers want skilled and knowledgeable employees to become a part of the workforce. The tight labor market shows that there is availability of more jobs than the actual numbers of workers that are needed. It is because most of the candidates are unable to fulfill their roles and responsibilities properly, because of which, many of the jobs are left out in spite of the availability. On the other hand, the loose labor market means the employer’s market where there is abundant supply of skilled and potential employees who can be hired for fulfilling their roles and responsibilities (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Due to scarcity of job sometimes because of the loose labor market conditions, multiple candidates compete against each other to work for the same position.

Tight and Loose Labor Market Conditions and Their Significance

On the other hand, the labor market in China has reached a level where the growth has increased and it has resulted in labor outstripping supply, furthermore resulted in the increase of wages. The country has lost the ability to access elastic supply of labor at a specific wage, because of which, the workers are paid higher wages so that they remain committed to the organizations. The employment rate has increased as well for the private and self-employment sectors due to which, the wages sometimes may be reduced along with improper working conditions. The bargaining power is lower for the migrant workers, because of which, the average monthly wages are recorded as RMB 6045 at 2016 and RMB 3569. The wages have risen though there is significant gap between the wages provided at the SOE sectors and private enterprise sectors (Boston and O'Grady 2015).

Labor management and labor market conditions are involved in the ways Tesco has positioned itself within the retail supermarket chains. The employers within the organization at China have favored the foreign employees. To intervene with this kind of situation and manage properly, Tesco has made certain decisions regarding the employment and immigration to assure the workers about a safe and healthy environment who believed that the terms and conditions of their job roles are under threats. The new centre at China is quite large and has employed a huge number of employees, though there have been allegations by staffs regarding their lack of interest in working at the previous centre. The workers were told that they could move to the new location if they could agree about cutting a particular portion of their wages (Buller and McEvoy 2012). Due to the change in labor market conditions, Tesco UK has implemented applicant attraction strategies to gain competitive advantage within the labor market. By gaining competitive advantage, Tesco would be able to gain relevant skills to attract candidates with ease. Tesco, UK could conduct market analysis to understand the needs of clients and make sure that those were linked with the attraction of skilled workers. Labor management in a proper way would improve the performance of the company and allow the workers to perform to their potential, furthermore achieve the desired levels of profit with ease and effectiveness (Carson et al. 2012).

To develop a highly productive workforce, it would be important to involve the trade unions for facilitating the processes of learning and training and furthermore promote the skills, knowledge and expertise of employees. The poor production level at United Kingdom had made the supermarket chains suffer and due to this, innovation and skills should be promoted through learning and development sessions. There is need of improving the employability skills and make sure that the candidates who will be selected as part of the organization do possess relevant skills and can achieve the minimum standards in terms of their qualification and knowledge 9 Greiner 2015).

Role of Government Bodies and Trade Unions in Improving Skills and Creating a Sustainable Workforce

The Trade Unions’ involvement has played a major role in enhancing the efficiency of the organization by making the employees gain the ability to access training sessions and developmental scopes to survive in the competitive business environment. The trade unions have created a positive impact on the training programs delivered to the employees, which has further strengthened in the recent years. At Tesco, the unions are actively involved with the promotion of learning skills and developmental opportunities, which has strengthened the relationships between the workers and employers. It has also helped in negotiating with the employers to enable better training provision and created convenience for the employees of Tesco to improve their knowledge abilities, skills and expertise level (Hancock et al. 2013).

To apply new skills in the workplace, investments and funding should be made and here the Government should play a vital role. It is seen that Government spending have helped the supermarket chain in UK to provide better training opportunities and even made them skilled enough to meet the criteria of success and ensure maintaining the organizational standards too. By making significant investments, Tesco could allow lifelong learning programs for the employees as well as ensure that the skills development system could deliver both quantity and quality. The development of future skills should be possible for the employees and this holistic approach would provide benefits like better accessibility to basic education, increase of cognitive skills, better communication process, problem solving abilities and enhancement in learning abilities too (Hausknecht and Holwerda 2013).

Based on the labor market information, the employers of Tesco should generate and disperse necessary data and information to the employees about the need for present and future skills. The employers must fulfill their roles and responsibilities, according to the Public Employment services, provide career guidance, vocational training and counseling sessions, and create better scopes for them to access the job matching services with ease. The employers also do hold the responsibilities to maintaining relevance and quality of the training sessions. This would further improve the employability of the employees at Tesco and reduce the shortage of labor through promoting of good working conditions for them as well (Hillman and Orians 2013). The employers could empower the future workforce by setting up skills and knowledge, furthermore check the skills gaps to understand how to improve the performances of the workers in the future. The employers also adapt the talent management strategies for developing a sustainable workforce and meet the future skills required to make Tesco achieve competitive edge over its competitors in business (Hom et al. 2012).

Main principles of effective workforce planning

Recruitment and Selection Processes and Their Importance in Career Development Plans

Workforce planning is necessary to take into account for keeping the employees at the right track at right time with necessary skill towards fulfilling organisational business mission, vision and objectives on daily basis. Effective workforce planning is required for fulfilling two critical needs of an organisation. First is to ensure the alignment of employee performance of an organisation with its recent and emerging mission and programmatic objective. The second need is to develop feasible and long term strategies in terms of accomplishing programmatic objectives, development and staff retention. As opined by (Cascio, 2018), effective workforce planning has five key principles which are noted and illustrated below.

  • Human resource management of an organisation requires to ensure the engagement of top organisational hierarchy, employees and other stakeholders in promoting, communicating and implementing the strategic workforce planning (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). It is important to ensure integrity of performance within an organisation. On the other hand, for the constant growth and development of an organisation it is necessary to have a good bonding between management and staffs. In addition, these principlesare reliable and reasonable in terms of high engagement of the employees. In order to develop a cooperative work environment this principles of strategic workforce planning are necessary to take into account (Holmes and Stubbe, 2015). These principles are important in terms of developing performance of the employees.
  • For developing an effective workforce planning it is essential to determine the required skills and competencies in terms of achieving recent and future goals. It is the basic to grow concern among the employees towards fulfilment of organisational mission, vision and objectives. On the other hand, in an organization it is necessary to ensure that work is executed in a similar way by all the employees. Training and development programme is necessary to take into consideration in this reference in better employee performance. The main purpose of this principle is to set a strategic direction in representing work.
  • Effective workforce planning requires addressing gaps in figure, continuation, and alignment of human resource approaches in terms of enabling and sustaining the contributions of all critical skills and competencies. The motive of this principle is to ensure quality in organisational performance. Hence, it is important to analyse workforce gap positively.
  • It is essential to fix a standard of eligibility criteria to address administrative, educational and other requirements, which are reliable in terms of supporting strategic workforce planning. These principles aim to review the human resource strategies in terms of ensuring all the employees within organisation are able to perform work with required skilled and proficiency (Jackson, Schuler and Jiang 2014).
  • Strategic workforce planning needs to be able to detect if employee performance cannot meet requirements. Therefore, it requires to monitor and evaluate organisational development toward its human capital goals and the contribution that human capital puts in terms of fulfilling programmatic objectives. It is important principles in the context of fulfilling workforce gaps.

Two important tools for making effective workforce planning is PESTLE and SWOT analysis. Scanning micro and macro environment helps to understand the critical areas of organisational success as well as organisational risks. This understanding enables to develop a focused workforce plan (Jiang et al. 2012).

A basic succession and career development plan

Succession planning is such a process by which an organisation prepared their employees in order to lead any roles within an organisation. Succession planning is critical human resource strategy to stay prepared for an alternative option of a leading figure within an organisation. If any vital employee figure gets sick, fired, retired, die or take resign, an organisation needs to fill the vacancy urgently so that it cannot leave any impact on organisational production (Rothwell et al. 2015). Often an organisation overlooks this process. However, succession planning is necessary to take into account in the context of established organisational design. In this process, human resource personnel ensure constant development of employee performance for their career advancement within an organisation. In this process employees are led to execute versatile roles within an organisation. In this process it is ensured that an organisation never keep a key role open for such an employee who is not prepared in handling the role. Important aspects of succession planning are followed below.

  • It requires to make a list of promising employees for leadership roles (Kim, Eisenberger and Baik, 2016).
  • It is necessary to stay always alert to look for the people who have potentialities in executing commanding role.
  • Every employees needs to have a clear vision about their career development plan within an organisation (Gaudet and Tremblay, 2017).
  • It is reliable to offer daily feedback to proteges.
  • Providing training to the peak performers is also necessary in this reference (Church et al. 2016).
  • In a lean season, an organisation needs to lead their employees to go between challenging roles so that it can be perceived how much they are efficient to execute a bigger role.
  • Internal hire of potential employees is reliable for filling higher positions within organisation (Ward, 2016).

Downsizing plan has deep significance for overall growth of an organisation. Every individual manager has to pay equal contribution to execute downsizing plan effectively. One of the premium motives of downsizing initiatives is to achieve cost reduction goals. If downsizing plan cannot be executed properly, it may leave a negative impact on the engagement and morale power of employees. It is because, in order to make downsizing plan successful, it often requires to eliminate employees from organisation (Marasi and Bennett, 2016). It is needed when it is found that employees are not efficient in representing organisational workforce in any way. As a manager, I need to take always pay attention in energising employees for performance. In the workplace of Tesco, there are a larger number of employees. In order to build their morale power as a manager I need to treat them in a way so that an employee feels emotionally and economically secure with the job. On the other hand, as a manager always stay proactive for personal and technical development of employees in a team (Kim, Eisenberger and Baik, 2016). Downsizing plan can help an organisation in many ways. Cost efficient production is one of the best result of downsizing plan. Work efficiency and confidence of the staffs are considered as the good evidence of downsizing plan. Downsizing plan is reliable to ensure constant growth of organisations like Tesco. Downsizing plan is well executed in Tesco. It is because their employees are found confident, cooperated and technically efficient in representing versatile roles within organisation (Kehoe and Wright 2013).

Tesco's Operations in Different Countries and Plans for Downsizing the Organization

Job description and person specification is highly significant in order to draw attention of the right people regarding employment. A job description defines overall purpose of a role and the main responsibilities to be executed. A person specification clearly spells about the eligibility criteria for having employment within an organisation (Ward, 2016). However, competency framework is an overall framework to define individual roles, responsibilities, terms and conditions in representing workforce and maintaining organisational behaviour. In Tesco every job description is executed by talented employees and organisational behaviour is well maintained (Kroft, Lange and Notowidigdo 2013). These are the evidences that human resource managers in Tesco giving right contribution to the development of job description, person specifications and competency framework.

Legal requirements

There are various legal requirements related to the processes of recruitment and followed by the business organization to ensure managing the skilled and knowledgeable workforce with ease and effectiveness.  The legal requirements for the processes of recruitment and selection include protecting disabled people from disability discrimination, managing civil partnership, religion and beliefs and respect the values and culture of the candidates without any form of discrimination within the workplace. One of the major legislations is the Equality Act that has created a consistent and effective legal framework to prevent any sort of discrimination based on race, religion, culture or ethnicity (Marchington et al. 2016). The aim of the Act is to manage the discrimination law and strengthen the law and support for providing equal scopes and opportunities to each and every people working within the company. The Equal Pay Act, Sex Discrimination Act, Race Relations Act, Employment Equality Act and Disability Discrimination Act are implemented as well to make sure that the recruitment and selection processes are managed properly by maintaining proper values and ethics (Nancarrow et al. 2013).

The legal requirements are met to ensure that the recruitment and selection processes are managed without any bias. Not only the candidates should be selected according to their skills, knowledge and expertise, but it would also be important to make sure that every one of them were provided with equal scopes and opportunities within the workplace. Tesco, being a reputed organization in UK follows the legal procedures properly to prevent any discrimination based on race, religion, creed, ethnicity, gender or color and maintain proper values and ethics too. There are different kinds of methods that are used for the recruitment and selection processes, which have benefits as well as drawbacks (Obeidat 2012). Some recruitment and selection processes have benefits like saving of costs while employing people, development of a flexible workforce, varied range of potential recruits while few disadvantages can be lack of trust and loyalty, less motivation and difficulty for the managers to manage controlling and coordination within the workplace.

Applicant Attraction Strategies and the Importance of Competitive Advantage in the Labor Market

Two different recruitment and selection methods or techniques are internal sourcing and external sourcing. The internal sourcing allows for managing the advertisements of a position that is vacant within particular business and is mainly dedicated to the existing employees of Tesco. The internal sourcing consists of the psychometrics testing where the candidate’s suitability for the job role is identified. The abstract thinking is considered which ensures that the candidate possesses the relevant verbal reasoning skills and passes through high levels of motivation and encouragement (Pichler 2012). Often the mistakes faced during the recruitment, selection process increases the cost of this technique, and it results in bad choices. Thus, the psychometric testing is effective for fitting someone for the job role according to his or her skills, abilities and personality. There are few drawbacks as well for the psychometric test such as anxiety and lack of familiarity, which can result in negative emotions and even result in not reflecting the true potential of the candidate who is to be selected. The psychometric tests are costly and can complex, because for the recruitment and selection of a candidate for a low-level position, a online test to check his skills and interview session can be enough. There is bias because of which, candidates from different backgrounds, cultures, language barriers can face problems during this kind of test (Wallace and Gaylor 2012). Tesco has created a diversified workforce, because of which there is no discrimination and people are needed t be recruited based on their skills and knowledge and shall not be discriminated anyhow.

The external souring or recruitment is another recruitment method that conducts approaches for searching the most suitable candidates through the use of various tools including the job boards, trade publications and advertisements of newspapers. It is an useful method for recruiting new candidates and make them understand about the technicality and significance of the current job position. It will also help in selecting the job candidate that has been looked for prior to the advertisement of the job position in newspaper and acceptance of resumes. Here the candidates’ resumes are obtained first and checked whether their qualifications and skills can meet the job requirements or not, based on which they are monitored and then selected (Wright and Huang 2012). Larger pool of applicants is available, due to which increased chances for selecting the right candidate and better opportunities to find out most qualified and skilled workers to meet the diversity requirements.  Few disadvantages include longer time taken, costly methods, deteriorating of employee morale level and difficulty o understand whether the candidate is suitable for the job role or not based on the information provided (Deery and Jago 2015).

Trade Unions' Involvement in Enhancing the Efficiency of the Organization

Costs associated with the dysfunctional employee turnover

The costs include the losses faced by business when an employee leaves the organization and it can be separation costs, recruitment costs, training costs. There are indirect costs as well such as the lost production costs, company morale costs and even the costs of reputation that has been lost, The separation costs are related to the loss of an employee, extended benefits, severance packages, exit interviews while the costs incurred while collecting, responding and processing of the resumes  are considered as recruitment costs. The training costs include the working conditions and equipments that are used to manage the training sessions for the employees of the organization. Due to the loss faced after the employee exit, the workload and psychological factors can damage the performances of the staffs, which results in low productivity and further results in costing the reputation and company morale too (Bryant and Allen 2013).  Employee turnover could also lead to lesser motivation level among the workers, furthermore deteriorate their performances and degrade the organizational effectiveness.

Strengths and weaknesses of retention approaches

The strengths of employee retention approaches could be the hiring of skilled and knowledgeable employees, development of a good culture though sometimes there can be negative reflection once an employee leaves the organization. The employees become loyal, which further ensures long-term sustainability and keeps the customers satisfied as a whole. The string employee retention approaches could also benefit both the organization and its employees. Often it is seen that non-performing employees are retailed and they may not be able to grow, which creates lesser value to the team. Retention approaches result in groupism, which negatively may influence the business operations and furthermore affect the flow of work and quality. Retention policies are needed considering the impact of culture and this often makes employees not been able to perform to the expectations ( 2018). This not only creates a bad working environment but also hinders the successful accomplishment of business objectives at Tesco.

Equality laws should be implemented for making sure that one of the workers T Tesco Were discriminated according to their age, race, color, religion, creed or ethnicity. The laws, rules and regulations must be according to the codes of conduct so that the values and ethics are maintained and the quality standards are met as well. The Equality Pay could facilitate the processes of managing redundancies by providing redundancy payments according to the weekly pay of the employees , rather than the maximum pay stated in the redundancy scheme. The disciplinary procedures must not include any unlawful activities, because of which, the organizational authorities might dismiss the employees. To manage a fair dismissal, the employer should act reasonably and conduct coaching and counseling sessions to check their performances at first (Kroft, Lange and Notowidigdo 2013). The codes of Business conduct at Tesco have helped in maintaining the values into practices at work, furthermore allowed to manage the redundancies, dismissals and retirement procedures of the employees with ease and efficiency.

Role of Government in Funding Investments in Skills Development


Tesco also used certain methods and techniques to ensure that the employees were retained in larger numbers and furthermore provided advice on managing the dismissals, retirements and redundancies within the workplace. Based on the labor market conditions, Tesco had managed to remain successful both in United Kingdom and China, though there were variations in ways by which the company positioned itself within the competitive labor markets. Tesco in China wanted to hire new foreign employees and thus the local employees were recorded as quite less. It was important for Tesco, China to provide employment opportunities for local candidates and ensure that the production level could increase, furthermore enhance the growth in economy of the country as well. There were career development plans and recruitment and selection methods including the internal sourcing consisting of the psychometric testing and external recruitment and selection. The Equality Act, Discrimination Act were followed by the organization to ensure that the employees were paid equally and selected without any bias. Lastly, the strengths and weaknesses of the employee retention strategies were illustrated as well to derive a good conclusion in the end.


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