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This assignment is designed to provide practical experience of carrying out an analysis of usability requirements and priorities, performing a systematic usability evaluation using a standard method, and producing a presentation reporting the findings.

application for an extension or deferral being approved by the appropriate member of staff, then the following tariffs apply: Work which is submitted unauthorised up to 14 calendar days after the original submission date will receive a mark that is capped at 50%.Regardless of how the work is submitted, submission constitutes an assertion by the author that the work is neither plagiarized nor otherwise committing any academic offence.

Usability Analysis and Systematic Evaluation

Plan choices which administer the operability of human?machine frameworks ought to be made by individuals who completely comprehend human components standards, techniques, and information. Practically speaking, in any case, these choices are regularly made by individuals prepared in other outline disciplines.

These people may not know about, misjudge, or not esteem this data. To guarantee that human variables data is better coordinated into the outline procedure than is at present the case, we have to comprehend the specific situation, points of view, and exercises related with framework plan. In light of a survey of plan writing and eight field thinks about, this paper describes human?machine framework configuration as far as its social and hierarchical setting and the exercises of its individual members.

Key issues in the design of any system should be well considered (Oinas-Kukkonen & Harjumaa 2018). Data access and usage is viewed as the shared factor crosswise over people. Be that as it may, because of contrasts among configuration trains in how wonders, issues, and arrangements are spoken to, data crosswise over controls is frequently misconstrued or abused, Implications of this investigation for configuration bolsters that can enhance data incorporation into outline, particularly from the human elements area, are talked about. This paper ought to find out the human factors involved the milk companies’ mode of payment in relation to in the CCTV design and its functionalities.

Automated Vending Machines in Milk Companies

A CCTV framework (Closed Circuit TeleVision) comprise of a chain, running from the outside world by means of cameras, transmission, shows, picture introduction, and work areas to the administrator. This chain is as solid as its weakest connection. With the quantities of surveillance cameras developing and systems accelerating, the human administrator figures out what's in store from a CCTV framework. A solitary fiber optic can transport several pictures. On the other hand, human factors are concerned with the understanding of the interaction among humans and the other elements of a system, together with the profession that he or she applies the principal theoretically, the information and the methods in a manner that optimizes the human well-being and the overall system performance.

The CCTV system is mainly tasked with the duties of surveillance (Malmenbratt & Brooks 2015). In line with the insurance companies, where a risk may occur or fail to (Economy Watch, 2009) and the level being insured may be covered in a guaranteed regular manner as per (Matthews & Horacek 2015). In many large institutions including banks and schools, networks of CCTV are put in use to reduce the need for the human personnel as the providers for the security. The behavior of the prisoners within a prison are being monitored plus the regular patrols from the central location as a way of monitoring their activities hence reducing the risk occurrence within. All this videos taken are automatically recorded for later reviewed. There exist some types of the CCTV cameras including:

Static systems; where their main focus is only one single view.

Human Factors in System Design

Fixed systems; installed and operates in one location.

Mobile systems; for instance, placed in vehicles and transported to placed where need arises.

The users of the system are the managers within the organization, most of the technicians required for the installation, the controllers of the design project and any other operator or an engineer who wish to take part in the design process.

The use Cases

Human factor guidance in the design of a CCTV for a milk vending machine is showed by research done that indeed its very limited. The milk vending machines are controlled by the relevant authorities in order to increase the competitiveness among the milk producers (Mikulec et al 2016). Surveillance, security and the traffic control used to be carried out manually but later on its been subdivided into two broad classes where operators used to look for specific events as a way of providing security and the later the control of objects remotely where a CCTV supported activity is being triggered by a signal concerning the occurrence of a threat.

Unlike some other special cases, the milk vending machine allows the use of a CCTV in monitoring the flow of the customers within the location of the machine. In areas with conditions that are unfavorable for human health, for instance most chemical processing plants, a CCTV is of great importance since as the work needs to be done, correct measures should be made and the flow of the processing activities should be monitored, (Lin, Khong & Liu 2015).

The basic components of a milk vending machine that are used while considering the consumer prices are:

  • The procurement process, that is from the farm to the plant, the actual buying price plus the transport cost.
  • Processing, this include the cost associated with the packaging and transporting to the final retailer where the vending machine is located.
  • And finally the margin between which the company is operating (Karantininis 2017).

The milk vending machines has a variety of components including the; RFID reader which is used by those customers with a smart card accounts in purchasing the milk. The tag is scanned and its information concerning payment is captured. The other main part is the GSM which is connected to the computer in the main office for communication since it has a Subscriber Identity Module card. The lactometer made of cylindrical vessel tests the milk quality before the final sale is made since is measure the actual testing of the density (Angelidi et al 2016).

The CCTV has four main components that function in relation so as to produce the fine final output desired by the system managers, that is; the camera, lens, monitor and finally the video recorder. CCTV camera unlike all the other cameras works on its own to capture and collect the images required for the overall system functioning. Movement of some parts that needs to be zoomed is done by the monitor attached to the camera by the help of the lenses which are later on recorded in the tape.

Once special case of the CCTV cameras is that it can operates in such a manner that the camera uses wireless transmission in a case where the monitor is not installed direct with the camera and once the images are received, proper recording in the video tapes takes place, (Ullah et al 2010).

Components of Milk Vending Machine and CCTV System

Any vending machine comes deals with the coin’s payment as a currency of transaction, ordering the CCTVs in most cases could look tiresome but through this machine, the over process is handled properly. For instance, in purchasing a drink like milk, the person directly visits the location from the vending machine and transact. On the event that the milk level goes down below such that no more purchases can be made, the involved persons comes to add u the stock levels. Through this experience, we get to know the need for standard services to all the personalities involved.

Evaluation Methodology

The management team has put measures in place to ensure that the storage is being utilized well, this is taken care of by the type of tanks are being used to storing the milk. The vending machines should be assessed as per the methodology of (Mathews & Horacek 2015). The choice of low quality of images has been found to the most appropriate. Since the milk level does not need any much high quality images. As a proper evaluation methodology, the mangers are able to arrive at a best option through considering the following factors;

  • The mental exertion needed for the task performance.
  • The user’s characteristics.
  • The performance context and
  • The measurement and the information to be gathered

From the overview, the methodology involved in the milk vending machine is generally classified into two broad categories, the Qualitative and the Quantitative research. The quantitative research in our point of concern is the most appropriate here because we will be able to understand the need of each and specific personnel, (Chen et al 2012).

From research done, bills were generally paid using either notes or coins. Through payment the automated system should be able to make decision to compare between the available stock and the requested amount. Every user of the system is given a unique id such that on the time of operation, (Ondieki et al 2017). The individual data is being processed and analyzed by the system. As more and more users there is need to automate the whole process where a notification is sent to the overall manager notifying of the milk levels.

Overall Evaluation

Milk is a very sensitive product to be handled. (Laurin et al 2017) assesses the milk sensitivity relatively to for the Mycobacterium detection. For system to work well, a number of factors should be evaluated here to ensure the best outcome is realized. For instance, the room layout should be in a way, the processing speeds and the screen numbers in a room. Given that not all the information is relayed by the CCTV, the need to consider the other non-CCTV information and how best it can be utilized, (Bergvall-Kåreborn & Ståhlbrost 2008, October). During this stage of evaluation, the task being handled should be either seen as caused by an alarm or the general scanning normally interrupted by an event that is non actionable, (Angelidis et al 2016).

The evaluation process involved a lactometer that detects the quality of the milk being sold, (Jones et al 2012). Through the evaluation, there was a need to have a toll free number where the customers could easily communicate with the manager of the involved personnel just in case the system failure occurs. By reducing the personnel required to work in a milk vending machine, a smart city environment is easily created, (John 2016). The working of the vending machine was affected by the situation where the notes or the coins could not be read well by the machine of total failure. This resulted to situation where the sales level went down.

Use Cases of CCTV System in Milk Vending Machine


Even though the cost of purchasing the vending machines and the measures that come along its operations (McKinnon et al 2009) could seem to be very high, there is need to invest much since it guarantees equally in all aspect. The topic of concern being the milk vending machines, the scope is of much importance to the other aspects of life. From the design made, the solutions provided should indeed be real time as a way of improving the efficiency of all the operations considering the cost, (Kong, Bae & Tomizuka 2009). Apart from the single data of the customers, many databases should be put in place to reduce the customer interaction with the individual personnel.


The milk vending machines are positively essential for offers of the addressed drain makers. Some of them offer an exceptionally irrelevant some portion of their generation along these lines (under 1%). Those makers see the working of a distributing machine as an open administration. Be that as it may, there is too a gathering of respondents who offer over half or on the other hand even 100% of the created drain along these lines. All of them work stationary drain distributing machines (aside from one) with the regular drain (aside from one) that was not warm treated (with the exception of two). The day by day offers of the drain fluctuate from 15 to 200.

The need to deploy the vending machines was as a result of the low buying prices of the milk if it was sold directly to the customers. Even though the prices could be lower than that if given directly this provides room to guarantee continuous flow at all times. The benefits realized through the use of this machines were:

  • Quality milk was provided to the clients.
  • Interaction of the personnel reduced greatly.
  • Flexibility was highly witnessed.


Angelidis, A.S., Tsiota, S., Pexara, A. and Govaris, A., 2016. The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk sold by automatic vending machines. Letters in applied microbiology, 62(6), pp.472-479.

Bergvall-Kåreborn, B. and Ståhlbrost, A., 2008, October. Participatory design: one step back or two steps forward?. In Proceedings of the tenth anniversary conference on participatory design 2008 (pp. 102-111). Indiana University.

Chen, J., Wang, Y., Guo, D. and Shen, B., 2012. A systems biology perspective on rational design of peptide vaccine against virus infections. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 12(12), pp.1310-1319.

John, M.N., 2016. Microbiological and compositional quality of raw milk delivered by small scale dairy farmers to the milk collection centres in Hai District, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, University of Zimbabwe).

Jones, E., Alexander, J., Andreou, A., Irani, P. and Subramanian, S., 2012, April. GesText: accelerometer-based gestural text-entry systems. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2173-2182). ACM.

Karantininis, K., 2017. Markets. In A New Paradigm for Greek Agriculture (pp. 37-60). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Kong, K., Bae, J. and Tomizuka, M., 2009. Control of rotary series elastic actuator for ideal force-mode actuation in human–robot interaction applications. IEEE/ASME transactions on mechatronics, 14(1), pp.105-118.

Lin, C.W., Khong, M.H. and Liu, Y.C., 2015. Experiments on Human-in-the-Loop Coordination for Multirobot System With Task Abstraction. IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Engineering, 12(3), pp.981-989.

and system features. In Routledge Handbook of Policy Design (pp. 105-123). Routledge.

Laurin, E.L., Sanchez, J., Chaffer, M., McKenna, S.L. and Keefe, G.P., 2017. Assessment of the relative sensitivity of milk ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 100(1), pp.598-607.

Malmenbratt, J. and Brooks, D.J., 2015. CCTV surveillance: The differing aims and functions of CCTV within the corporate stratum.

Mikulec, N., Radeljevi?, B., Zamberlin, Š., Špoljari?, J., Kesi?, I.H., Krga, M., Antunac, N., Dobrani?, V., Filipovi?, I. and Zdolec, N., 2016, January. Quality control of milk from milk vending machines in order to increase the competitiveness of milk producers. In 42. hrvatski simpozij mljekarskih stru?njaka s me?unarodnim sudjelovanjem.

Matthews, M.A. and Horacek, T.M., 2015. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review. Appetite, 90, pp.176-186.

McKinnon, R.A., Reedy, J., Morrissette, M.A., Lytle, L.A. and Yaroch, A.L., 2009. Measures of the food environment: a compilation of the literature, 1990–2007. American journal of preventive medicine, 36(4), pp.S124-S133.

Ondieki, G.K., Ombui, J.N., Obonyo, M., Gura, Z., Githuku, J., Orinde, A.B. and Gikunju, J.K., 2017. Antimicrobial residues and compositional quality of informally marketed raw cow milk, Lamu West Sub-County, Kenya, 2015. Pan African Medical Journal, (ARTISSUE).

Oinas-Kukkonen, H. and Harjumaa, M., 2018. Persuasive systems design: key issues, process model

Ullah, S., Richard, P., Otmane, S., Naud, M. and Mallem, M., 2010, March. Haptic guides in cooperative virtual environments: Design and human performance evaluation. In 2010 IEEE Haptics Symposium (pp. 457-462).

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