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What are the different types of computer viruses and worms?
How do we protect our computers, networks or systems from computer viruses and worms?
How do we remove viruses and worms from infected computers, networks and systems?
Are employees aware of the different types of surveillance techniques used in the workplace?
What concerns do employees have regarding the data collected about them through surveillance?

What are computer viruses?

A virus is a computer program that affects other computer programs by replicating itself. Additionally, a virus has the capability to duplicate itself by activation, with the intention that it is able to grow, always looking for latest host platforms. The majority risk-free viruses carry out operation in a way that they make their copies as well as extend to more computers. In addition, a computer virus code may perhaps affect additional computer software or it can totally change the data, conceivably self-devastating as performed. However, the only proof computer virus similar to this is the devastation they have caused on the affected PCs. Just because of this capability it becomes extremely hard to offer protection beside virus programs.

Moreover, during the last few decades, it is observed that computer viruses have been in action with the development of computer technology. A virus is perceived as “a self-copying computer code or program which multiplies by copying it into further documents or .exe files.” Similar to an actual virus, a computer virus changes the system of an available computer program to “control” it as well as starts its replication. Frequently computer viruses have a special task or attention, for example removing definite data files or causing harm to a computer system.

A computer worm is a type of infection which has the capability to extend itself to one or more computer systems with no need to be transmitted as an element of a host message. Additionally, a computer worm has the potential to destroy the hosted data on a computer, practical performance, or affect network utilization, at the moment it gets run. In most cases a worm does not really damage either the computer programs or hardware, as a minimum in assumption. In addition, at the present, mostly PCs are linked to the local area networks and web based technology like internet, helping the distribution of wicked programs. In addition, a number of sources utilize a substitute term in which a virus is declared as some type of self-duplicating malware program. Most well-known examples of worms comprise Melissa, Sobig, ILoveYou, Sasser and MyDoom worm.

There are many types of viruses, some of which comprise:

Polymorphic viruses: Polymorphic viruses alter their form with every attack. Additionally, these types of encrypted viruses are typically hard to perceive as they are superior at concealing themselves from anti-virus programs (Conklin,arthur et al., 2018).

Boot Sector Viruses: These viruses are the oldest kind of virus. The influence of these viruses is observed on startup programs of computer and the virus activates itself with the startup of computer. Boot sector viruses are the type of viruses that spoil the boot sector (known as master boot record) of an infected system. These viruses initially change or over-write the actual boot code, by swapping it with devastated boot code. They will then move the actual boot sector data to an additional hard disk sector, then declaring that particular disk sector like a spoiled mark on the storage disk with the intention that it will become useless for future (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2016).

Types of computer viruses

Macro Viruses: This kind of viruses utilizes commands known as macros those are fixed in further computer programs to cause harm and extend to additional related files used by that definite computer program. For example Microsoft applications such as Word and Excel use macros, and macros viruses are able to grow through the utilization of these certain commands.

File Viruses: File viruses have the capability to join themselves to further computer software programs. As the program is executed, the file virus makes its way to the memory locations so that it could be able to affect other executable files or start destructing the computer system (Easttom & Taylor, 2011).

Multi-partite viruses: These viruses affect both .exe files and boot sector of hard disk. They are the nastiest types of viruses since they are able to merge a few or all of stealth virus methodologies, through polymorphism practice to avert its exposure to various antivirus programs.

Stealth viruses: These types of viruses try to conceal from both the operating system capabilities and antivirus program. However, to perform this activity, they have to reside in computer memory so that they could be able to interrupt every effort to employ the operating system (Easttom, 2016). Additionally, a stealth virus is able to conceal alterations it usually creates to directory framework, file sizes, and further features related to an operating system. Because portion of the virus stays in memory, resultantly users will experience less memory usage.

Few cases which spread viruses are:

  • A person installs game software to use it on a PC that someone has copied from a home computer system. So without user knowledge, the game software was already infected with a virus code(Gollmann, 2011).
  • Computer viruses as well spread by means of downloading malicious programs over the internet.
  • A program acquired from a seller in agreement cover is spoiled since the actual consumer had attempted to use the software on an infected computer.
  • Virus is extended by offering an infected storage media to a user.
  • Someone provides us a disk consequently we are able to test the latest software.
  • Virus is spread by means of host files which are attached to anelectronic mail as well as transmitted over the web based technology like internet (Gregory, 2015).

There are a number of prime factors that reveal that a computer system has been infected with a virus program. Some of them are outline below: (Walker, 2013)

  • The computer system works slowly as compared to the normal cases.
  • The computer system doesn’t take action, we may experience that it locks up regularly.
  • The computer system hangs, and after that it begins to restart with regular intervals.
  • Disks become unreadable and show various error messages.
  • Software programs installed on the system do not execute accurately.
  • We observe extraordinary operating system related error messages.
  • We notice vague operating system dialog boxes.
  • Application software vanishes as of the machine albeit we did not deliberately uninstall the software(Hess, 2015).

Once a computer is infected with virus, it is important to remove the virus from the system so that the system may work properly and without bugs. However, confiscating a computer virus program is regarded as a complicated job lacking the support of computer virus deletion programs (Walker, 2013). For facilitating the process of virus removal, it is necessary that we keep our computer system up-to-date with the newest windows and antivirus updates, fixes, antivirus tools, and patches as well as we must be aware about the most modern threats and vulnerabilities, run our computer system as a regular user (not like an administrator), and afterward we have to take into account a security policy while we use the internet, download multiple files, and send files over the network. When we come to know that our system has a virus, its category or the way it came to our system is not much significant like deleting it and applying proper policies to stop its entrance into your system (In Munir, 2017).

In order to attain maximum security against viruses, we should have to consider the following steps:

  • On a Microsoft platform such as Windows we should have to turn the windows firewall on as it helps to defend against unwanted interruption from external network(Brown, 2011).
  • We should use most updated version of operating system.
  • We should utilize updates and approved antivirus programs such as Microsoft Security Essentials, G-Data Antivirus, and Kaspersky etc.
  • We should utilize updated antispyware program on our machine.

File-sharing Networks Worms: A shared folder is used to hold the replication of this worm; almost certainly this folder is placed on the local computer. Then the replica of the worm is added into the shared folder with the name of file that looks to be secure. At this time the file sharing worm is prepared for download using the Peer to Peer network as well as makes the continuous sharing of infected file over the network (Kanopy (Firm), 2014).

What are computer worms?

Email Worms: In this type worm distribution is performed using sullied messages of electronic mail. In this scenario, any type of website link or attachment within an email message might include a degraded website link (Walker, 2013).

Internet Worms: These worms are considered as the malevolent worms. These worms will scrutinize the entire accessible resources of the network with the help of neighboring OS services or look into the wireless network like internet for defenseless computers. These vulnerable computer systems then attempt to connect in order to obtain full control over these computers (Kizza, 2015).

IRC Worms: In this type of worm chatting channels are the prime objective as well as the similar distribution or contagion technique is employed like I have mentioned earlier i.e. transferring tainted files or besmirched websites links (Stallings & Brown, 2015). In this scenario, transmitting an infected file is considered as less successful since the receiver needs to validate delivery, save the received file and open the file earlier than the infectivity will occur on the computer.

Instant Messaging Worms: In IM worms the distribution is performed using instant messaging application programs by transferring violated website connection to each one whining the local contact list. The technique selected to send the link matters a lot in this type of worm spreading (Kizza, 2017).

Identity Theft: A large number of worms have been developed to duplicate on a computer with the purpose of stealing that computer information and returning all this valuable information to a user.

Spam Channels: A number of computer worms execute with the intention to share web proxies’ information to a user at inaccessible site. This user is able to afterward "capture" our email message otherwise Internet access as well as employ this information to send a spam to the host websites that participate in illegitimate actions (Lehtinen & Sr, 2011).

Disturbing harms: Similar to any other task of stealing or destruction, these types of worm not only take control of private resources and time to repair any harm, but as well makes the casualty experience exposed and insecure.

Destruction and Data Decay: A few worms are planned to basically or erratically offer destruction during their replication on a computer, as well as damage or remove vital data and information on a computer (Stallings & Brown, 2015).

How to Protect Against Worms?

Computer worms those extend via weaknesses in network services could excellently be defended by installing most modern patches offered by operating systems (Stallings & Brown, 2015). This comprises computer worms for instance SQL Blaster and SQL Slammer. On the other hand computer worms those extend like Trojan horses are able to superbly be defended by deleting unwanted emails or not to download any electronic mail attachment. These attachments include more than executable files. In this scenario, Microsoft Word and Excel files include macros which can provide huge harm to the data and information lying on a specific computer (Mohanta, Velmurugan, & Hahad, 2018).

At present, there exist a number of highly developed spyware remover programs those have the potential to examine the computer in the same manner antivirus program carries out the scanning process. In addition, these programs’ widespread signature databases are able to as well distinguish and delete harmful computer worms and related nasty codes. The dominant and most leading antispyware software like that Ad-Aware SE, eTrust PestPatrol, Microsoft AntiSpyware Beta, SpyHunter, and  Spyware Doctor are recognized as extremely reliable worm detection and deletion tools. Moreover, these software programs have the capability to strongly detect malicious type of computer worms and spywares and then remove them from the computer (Panko & Panko, 2015).

Cases of virus and worm attacks

The major difference between a virus and a worm is that a virus needs a user to execute it on a computer which activates it to offer damages and troubles, whereas a computer worm distributes as well as brings about a lot of harm without any involvement of a person. Thus more generally, for our system to be affected through a computer virus code, we usually have to perform a task, for instance open an infected file, even as by means of computer worms our computer system is able to be collapsed yet we don’t execute any software or open an email attachment (Pantels, 2017).

SECTION 1 - REVIEW

Questionnaire is a strategy for information accumulation that is both subjective and quantitative; contingent upon the kind of inquiries utilized. It is subjective once open-finished inquiries are utilized while it is quantitative once close-finished inquiries. The information from respondents is regularly dissected utilizing programming, for example, SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) that is custom worked to investigate such information. Questionnaires, once finished, are submitted for examination through a few methods. The most prevalent is the utilization of a scale or record, because of its effortlessness (Rami?rez, 2017).

The initial phase in breaking down questionnaire information is to make a basic lattice that examines every one of the information in the questionnaire. The lattice is valuable since it makes it less demanding to store, and in the meantime translate, the information from the questionnaire. The lattice is typically inquiries against the reactions from the respondents. Outlining a basic coding framework takes after straightaway. The framework is reliant on the sort of inquiries utilized as a part of the examination. On account of shut inquiries, a straightforward numerical scale is utilized. The scale utilized as a part of the questionnaire will likewise be utilized as a part of the lattice. Amid the coding method, there ought to be recompense for missing information or respondents choosing different classifications (Piessens & Vigano?, 2016).

SECTION 2 – SELECTION

In this research, Online Survey will be the methodology that will be utilized. This will be done by creating an account with SurveyMonkey and then designing a survey. After designing a complete survey then a web link is generated. This web link is sent via SMS, email or any chat services that my target population can use. They will be required to click on the link and in less than five minutes fill in the questions.

Some advantages of using online surveys include:

  1. Cost effective- No money is needed for printing or even making calls. You just need to send the survey link to your target respondents.
  2. Saves on time - Through an online feedback management system like SurveyMonkey, you can quickly create, administer, collect and analyse surveys. Performing all of these functions in one integrated web system saves you a considerable amount of time.
  3. Convenience - Participants can fill out questionnaires when they choose to and start and stop a survey at their leisure. This gives control over completing the survey to the individual, which can increase engagement and response rates(Poulsen, Summerer, & Tantor Media, 2015).
  4. Reach and scalability
  5. Accessibility

Conclusion

In this report I have presented a deep analysis of computer viruses and computer worms at the present age of technology. Progressively, it is observed that computer viruses and worms are turning out to be more widespread. The modern technology and programming techniques have massively helped computer programmers and hackers to write malicious code to bring devastation to computer system. In this report I have presented types of viruses and worms, techniques of dispersion, their potential harm to the computer, possible protection techniques and afterward methods of removal of computer viruses and worms. With the passage of time we are expected to have deep knowledge of computer viruses and worms and their potential influences on computer technology. I hope this research will facilitate effectively in gaining knowledge of computer viruses and worms and their potential impact in the field of computing.

References

Brown, B. C. (2011). How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer or network: The complete guide for your home and work. Ocala, FL: Atlantic Pub. Group.

Conklin,arthur, White, Greg, Cothren, Chuck, Davis, … Dwayne. (2018). Principles of Computer Security: Comptia Security+ and Beyond. McGraw-Hill College.

Conklin, W. A., White, G. B., Williams, D., Davis, R., & Cothren, C. (2016). Principles of computer security.

Easttom, C., & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law. Boston, MA: Course Technology.

Easttom, W. I. (2016). Computer security fundamentals. Place of publication not identified: Pearson It Certification.

Gollmann, D. (2011). Computer security. Chichester: Wiley.

Gregory, P. H. (2015). CISSP guide to security essentials.

Hess, M. (2015). Online survey about current use of 3D imaging and its user requirements in cultural heritage institutions. 2015 Digital Heritage. doi:10.1109/digitalheritage.2015.7419517

In Munir, K. (2017). Security management in mobile cloud computing.

Kanopy (Firm). (2014). Application security principles.

Kizza, J. M. (2015). Guide to computer network security.

Kizza, J. M. (2017). Guide to computer network security.

Lehtinen, R., & Sr, G. (2011). Computer Security Basics. Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media.

Mohanta, A., Velmurugan, K., & Hahad, M. (2018). Preventing Ransomware: Understand, prevent, and remediate ransomware attacks.

Panko, R. R., & Panko, J. L. (2015). Business Data Networks and Security.

Pantels, T. (2017). Windows Performance Toolkit: Virus Analysis. Carpinteria, Calif.: Lynda.com.

Piessens, F., & Vigano?, L. (2016). Principles of Security and Trust. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 9635.) Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Poulsen, K., Summerer, E. M., & Tantor Media. (2015). Kingpin: How one hacker took over the billion-dollar cybercrime underground. Place of publication not identified: Tantor Media.

Rami?rez, L. E. (2017). Distributed Resource Allocation and Optimization Algorithms Applied to Virus Spread Minimization.

Stallings, W., & Brown, L. (2015). Computer Security. Pearson Education UK.

Walker, H. M. (2013). The tao of computing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

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