According to Chen et al, 2015, the stage at which the organizations are gaining and losing the employees is defined as the employee turnover. The tendency of the employees to remain with the organizations is also referred as employee turnover according to Andrews et al, 2014. This rate is generally measured for the whole companies belong to same industry. If an organization has high rate for employee turnover, then this indicates that employees work for that organization have lesser average working period as compared to other organizations related to same industry. The different actions taken by the organizations to replace the employees who have left the organizations is also described as employee turnover according to Haider et al, 2015.
According to Andrews et al, 2014, the significance of employee turnover varies for the organizations as per their size, scope and location. It has been described in different researches that if rate of employee turnover would be high, then morale of other employees would be certainly affected as they have to work for extra time which would resulted in extra stress or burden at the workplace. This will result in lower productivity and absenteeism for the organizations. This will also deteriorate public image of the organization and may also affect their future hires (Gillet et al, 2013). Voluntarily and Involuntary are two major types of employee turnovers observed within the organizations. If the employee himself opts to leave the company, then it is defined as the voluntarily turnover. Retrenchment, dismissal, retirement, physical or mental disability and relocation are some situations raised in case of involuntary turnover of the employees.
The positive or pleasurable emotional state resulted from the job experiences or appraisal of individual’s job is defined as the job satisfaction. The individual who have high satisfaction level for job always has positive feelings or experiences towards the job, whereas, on the other hand, the individual who is no satisfied with the job always has negative experience or feeling towards the job. Job always requires interaction with employer and colleagues, following policies or rules of the organizations and at the same time, maintaining the performance standards at the workplace. According to Sukriket (2015), job satisfaction is one of significant factors that have attracted the top management within the organizations. The different researches have been organised in order to analyse the impact of the job satisfaction over the productivity level of the organizations. But it has been not found that the job satisfaction impacts the productivity level.
Ahmad and Rainyee (2014) also described that an attitude which reflects gratification from the work accomplished by an individual is also defined as the job satisfaction. Personal inspirations and needs of an individual are also some factors which determine altitude with organizational or group factors has also been observed from different researches over the job satisfaction. The degree which describes the negative or positive feelings of an individual for their jobs is also defined as job satisfaction according to Mathieu et al, 2016. The environmental, physiological and psychological conditions that enable an individual to satisfy with the workplace conditions is also described as job satisfaction according to Terera and Ngirande, 2014. In addition, according to Lu and Gursoy (2016), different unfavourable as well as favourable attitudes which an employee has on their job or work are also described as the job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is one of the significant factors for the organizations. The value based on humanitarian enables the organizations to treat employee with respect and in honourable manner. Mental fitness or emotional wellness is some signs for high satisfaction level at the jobs according to Mauno et al, 2014. Utilitarian position can be adopted by the organizations where behaviour of employees will certainly affect business operations of the organizations due to the dissatisfaction or satisfaction of the employees at their job. In addition, according to Helm (2013), level of satisfaction also identifies different factors which can affect the job satisfaction within the organizations and by which organizations can take appropriate measures or steps to improve the conditions at the job or workplace in order to enhance the satisfaction level of the employees.
Balance theory described the theory for attitude change and Fritz Heider has proposed this theory of motivational psychology. The consistency motive in terms of cognitive mainly balances the psychological aspect for attitude according to the balance theory. The motive to maintain beliefs as well as values within a prescribed time frame is consistent with the balance theory (Qureshi et al, 2013). If the positive results are obtained from the affected factors due to liking relationships or sentiments was the main concept behind the balance theory. The theory is mainly based on the POX model in terms of analytical concept. According to this,
P – Person to be analysed
O – Person to be compared
X – Things to be compared that can be impersonal entities including event, idea or physical object.
After this, relationship between different factors will be estimated including,
L – Liking, approving or evaluating
U – Cognitive unit which is formed like belonging or similarity
(Source: Changing Minds, 2016)
From the balance theory, it has been analysed that there is a huge impact over the employee turnover due to the job satisfaction. From the POX model, it has also described that there are three factors which can provide the relevance for the research that needs to be done in the report.
P – Job Satisfaction
O – Employee Turnover
X – Type of work, working conditions, promotions, or payments.
This is the theoretical framework which defines the impact of the job satisfaction over the employee turnover using the balance theory. From the theory, it can also be visualised that both employee turnover as well as job satisfaction are analogous and interrelated to each other. There are various factors which enhance level of satisfaction at the job or work for the employees within the organizations that certainly help to reduce the employee turnover at the organizations (Chan and Mai, 2015). If the employees are getting appropriate working conditions and type of the work or job at the work place as per their skills or knowledge then it is certain that they will highly satisfied at the job which in result will help to reduce the employee turnover for the organizations. In the same manner, if employees are also getting promotions on the basis of their performance then it will certainly boost their performance level resulted in the enhanced job satisfaction as well as reduced rate for the employee turnover.
Further, if the employees are getting adequate payments or bonuses on time, then it will also encourage them to enhance productivity level for the organizations that will certainly help them to improve their satisfaction level for the job (Bouckenooghe et al, 2013). This will certainly help to reduce the level of employee turnover within the organizations due to which efficiency of the organizations will also improved and at the same time, also build positive image within the society as well as impact their future hiring. From all the above discussion, it has been concluded that there is a huge and significant impact of the job satisfaction over the employee turnover.
From the balance theory, it has been found that both employee turnover as well as job satisfaction is interrelated to each other. It is also analysed from different researches that there is significant impact of the job satisfaction over the employee turnover.
Relation between Employee Turnover and Job Satisfaction
· Haider et al, 2015
· Andrews et al, 2014
· Mathieu et al, 2016
· Terera and Ngirande, 2014
· Qureshi et al, 2013
The researches which provide significant relationship between employee turnover and job satisfaction defines the positive relation between both of the concepts. Both of the concepts are affected from similar factors which have been described in the researches which mainly include,
· Working conditions
· management systems
· Policies or procedures
· Bouckenooghe et al, 2013
· Chen et al, 2015
· Lu and Gursoy, 2016
· Helm, 2013
· Tschopp et al, 2013
The researches which provide non-significant relationship between employee turnover and job satisfaction defines the negative relation between both of the concepts. Both of the terms have been affected from different factors which have been analysed during the various researches,
· Cultural values
· Religious beliefs
· Financial status
· Educational status
· Marital status
· Working experience
From the above table, one can analyse that there are two situations where one describes the significant relationship between the employee turnover and job satisfaction and other describes non-significant relation between the concepts which have been used during this research. According to Haider et al (2015) and Andrews et al (2014), it has been found that there is significant relation between employee turnover and job satisfaction. These researches indicate that if the employees are getting appropriate working conditions, payments, training, management systems, policies or procedures, organizational structure, leadership, or promotions, then the employees are highly satisfied at the workplace which in result would reduce the rate of employee turnover within the organizations.
Further, Bouckenooghe et al (2013), Chen et al (2015) and Lu & Gursoy (2016) described that non-significant relation exists between the employee turnover and job satisfaction. There are various examples which prove non-significant relation between the two concepts. The factors like religious beliefs, educational level, gender, marital status, working experience, or cultural values indicate that if these found within the organizations, employee turnover would be high (Tschopp et al, 2014). This means employees are satisfied with their performance level but certain above factors make them to leave the organizations. In addition, retention, economical crisis, non-working of companies are factors which can also cause employee turnover which also indicates that in this cases, there is non-significant relation between the employee turnover and job satisfaction.
Based on the balance theory and different researches, following propositions can be defined for this research,
From the above discussion, it has been found that both of the employee turnover as well as job satisfaction are deeply interrelated to each other which has also been described in various research studies. There are various ways by which employee turnover can be effectively reduced by affecting the job satisfaction within the organizations. The employee can be encouraged by giving them promotions or bonuses that will certainly motivate them to enhance their performance level which in result will surely improve their job satisfaction level and at the same time, employee turnover will also be reduced in effective manner. Further, by providing standard payment structure and adequate working conditions will also help the employee to improve their satisfaction level for the job which in result will also enhance productivity level of the organizations. This measure will also help to reduce rate of employee turnover within the organizations. The adequate type of work also needs to be planned for the employees as per their skills and knowledge which will surely motivate them to perform in more efficient manner which tends to enhance the level of job satisfaction among the employees.
In addition, the cultural factors like cultural values, religious beliefs and attitudes also need to be avoided within the organizations which tend to improve the satisfaction level of the employees and also motivate them to perform in efficient organizational structure. This in result also helps to prevent the employee turnover within the organizations. The various individual factors also need not be considered by the organizations including age, marital status, educational level, financial status or personality that will also enable the organizations to improve satisfaction level of the employees for the job. Due to this measure, employee turnover will also be reduced and also help to enhance productivity and efficiency level of employees which in result provide several profits to the organizations.
Ahmad, A. and Rainyee, R. (2014) Which is the better predictor of employee turnover intentions: Job satisfaction or organizational commitment? A literature review. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 6(1), p.2.
Andrews, M., Michele, K. and Kacmar, C. (2014) The mediational effect of regulatory focus on the relationships between mindfulness and job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Career Development International, 19(5), pp.494-507.
Bouckenooghe, D., Raja, U. and Butt, A. (2013) Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions. The Journal of psychology, 147(2), pp.105-123.
Chan, S. and Mai, X. (2015) The relation of career adaptability to satisfaction and turnover intentions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, pp.130-139.
Chen, I., Brown, R., Bowers, B. and Chang, W. (2015) Work?to?family conflict as a mediator of the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(10), pp.2350-2363.
Gillet, N., Gagné, M., Sauvagère, S. and Fouquereau, E. (2013) The role of supervisor autonomy support, organizational support, and autonomous and controlled motivation in predicting employees' satisfaction and turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(4), pp.450-460.
Haider, M., Aamir, A., Hamid, A. and Hashim, M. (2015) A literature analysis on the importance of non-financial rewards for employees’ job satisfaction. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, 8(2), pp.341-354.
Helm, S. (2013) A matter of reputation and pride: Associations between perceived external reputation, pride in membership, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. British Journal of Management, 24(4), pp.542-556.
Lu, A. and Gursoy, D. (2016) Impact of job burnout on satisfaction and turnover intention: do generational differences matter?. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(2), pp.210-235.
Mathieu, C., Fabi, B., Lacoursière, R. and Raymond, L. (2016) The role of supervisory behavior, job satisfaction and organizational commitment on employee turnover. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(1), pp.113-129.
Mauno, S., De Cuyper, N., Tolvanen, A., Kinnunen, U. and Mäkikangas, A. (2014) Occupational well-being as a mediator between job insecurity and turnover intention: Findings at the individual and work department levels. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(3), pp.381-393.
Qureshi, M., Iftikhar, M., Abbas, S., Hassan, U., Khan, K. and Zaman, K. (2013) Relationship between job stress, workload, environment and employees turnover intentions: What we know, what should we know. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(6), pp.764-770.
Sukriket, P. (2015) The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention of Thai software programmers in Bangkok, Thailand. AU Journal of Management, 12(2).
Terera, S. and Ngirande, H. (2014) The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and employee retention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), p.481.
Tschopp, C., Grote, G. and Gerber, M. (2014) How career orientation shapes the job satisfaction–turnover intention link. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), pp.151-171.
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