country
$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly

tag 0 Download7 Pages 1,605 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT

Question:

Discuss about the Impact of Working Memory Training Among the Elderly.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

Human beings just like computers have got memory system that enable them execute various functions in their lives. To add on various cognitive roles such as language mastery, reading and learning is mainly aided by a working memory (WM).  By definition and according to Klimova1, working memory “is a theoretical construct referring to the structures and processes associated with our ability to keep information in mind while we actively use and respond to the information.” Research has proven beyond doubt that this memory usually degenerates as the age of a human being goes beyond a certain time. However, it is not known neither has it been established, a particular time in a human being where the degeneration starts.

Statement of the problem

Whereas it is also found in other age groups, the cases are usually not pronounced as in the elderly. The few cases found in other age groups may be young is usually due to other medical conditions other than old age. Numerous researches have been carried out to establish the cause and come up with a treatment to help the condition but in vain. It is just recently after the search for a cure for the condition proved futile that the research shifted to the brain. They thought of how to modify what the brain can do. They were thinking from the premise that certain activities can influence cognitive processes of the brain. It is therefore against this background that this research study wants to know whether the computer – oriented programs for training has an impact on working memory

Objectives of the study

 The main objective of this research study was to establish whether computer-based working memory training leads to improvement of the capacity of working memory.

Significance of the study

This research study is very important since it is one of its own kind. Researchers and psychologists will find this piece of work important as they will be able to learn the extent of working memory that can be influenced by employing computer training programs.

Literature Review

A research done by Basak2 on 1500 participants of the ages between 20 and 85 years to assess the working memory on visual and verbal aspects reported that the visual aspect began deteriorating earlier in the females than the males. On the verbal aspect, the study recorded an almost equal rate of deterioration between the two genders.

Another research study conducted by Saunders4 and Johansson3 on the memory of patients who had brain injury pointed out those individuals who trained exhibited an improvement in the working memory examination tests. Compared to those who were subjected to a control group, they did far much better. This research therefore concluded that, “structured and intense computerized working memory trainings improve people’s cognitive skills”.

Another study by Takeuchi5 associates overeating with memory loss. It asserts that accumulation of more calories at an advanced age may lead to cognitive impairment though in mild proportions. The study was conducted on about 1200 individuals aged between 70 and 79 years. They were then categorized into three groups according to the number of calories they took in a day. The research concluded from their findings that those that fed on more calories in a day had double chance of suffering mild cognitive problems.

 

Methodology

Research design

This research study employed a descriptive design. This is mainly because the variables involved were mostly quantitative hence a quantitative research method.

Data sampling

The study used both probability and non-probability sampling methods. Non-probability sampling method that was employed in this study was purposive sampling.

Data collection methods

This research study had a total of thirty six respondents who included both male and females. Their ages were spread between 65 years and 79 years. These participants were subjected to a working memory training for with the aid of standard computer methods. After the first session of training they were subdivided into two equal groups of 18 individuals each. This division was done randomly without using any trick. One group which was the control group was allowed to continue with the initial standard computer methods training while the test group was subjected to a new training. They used a memory game application which is hand-held. They were then tested and results recorded.

Data analysis

The data collected was analyzed through excel worksheet and statistical package for social sciences, SPSS.

Result

The bar chart below shows the comparison of scores of the test group before and after the training

 

The bar graph above is a grouped bar graph that compares PRE and POST CANTAB scores for the test group. It can be observed keenly that the test scores after the training was administered were higher than those before administering the training.

Disscusion

The purpose of this research study was to establish whether computer memory game app training on working memory have got a positive impact. Prior to conducting the research, the assumption was this computer training boosted the working memory of the elderly people. Administering tests before and after computer enabled training on the memory was apt for this study since apart from sounds, the elderly participants would also be able to see appealing graphics that could enhance one’s memory to remember. And as such the results found in these tests after the working memory training is 99% reliable. The test administered was tailored in such a way that they could easily be understood by the elderly individuals. The process and methods applied while collecting information in such a psychological test had to appear soft and friendly. The study ensured this because since this is a psychological research dealing with the brain, participants had to be put in a sweet frame of mind. This is because any distraction caused in the process of the study could interfere with the mood hence the working memory of the participants.

Coincidentally, after conducting the experiment, the results indeed confirmed the study’s prior assumptions that the training boosts the working memory of the individuals. This is manifested by the test scores of evaluations done before and after the trainings. It was found that the scores improved after training. A comparison in marks of all the 18 participants showed that there was an improvement. There was no even one individual that scored a lower mark than the initial mark after the working memory training. In the control group, significant difference was witnessed in terms of the marks that were scored before and after the working memory training. In fact, in some cases the marks after they were subjected to control working memory training were lower than before the training. This is an indication or evidence that training working memory has got a positive impact on the elderly individuals.

However, there were still some aspects of this research that were not able to be tested. Just as in previous researches on working memory, when or a particular time when the memory starts deteriorating among the elderly has proven difficult to establish. Similarly, in this research study, parameters or variables with which to use to measure the time period was difficult to identify. As also recorded in other researches mainly in psychology, individuals just like in this study could not tell with a lot of certainty the time when they realized they were suffering from memory loss.

Conclusion

From the research results, it can be concluded that computer memory game apps training on working memory has got a positive impact on working memory. This is evidenced by the CONTAB memory scores which were lower before WM training and got higher after WM training. However, a lot of research has to be done on this topic to address the gaps or questions that have remained unanswered for a long time. Gaps such as the age around which problems with memory starts and whether it is unique to the elderly alone or applicable to the young too need to be addressed by future researches. Though memory problem among is widespread among the elderly only as this study has established. The difference in working memory capacity before and after enhancing the memory is not much significant. This can be established from the test scores where the range hardly went beyond three marks. This could mean so many things for this research. Either the computer training is not the best method of training the working memory or the working memory cannot just change beyond a certain limit. Another dimension of this could be that the working memory can only be trained for a particular period of time only after which it just degenerates to the status it was in before subjection to training. It can also be concluded that human working memory is so powerful and do not deteriorate much even as one advances in age. This is evidenced the high marks that were scored by the participants. Most of the participants were able to recall over eighty percent of the staff after the working memory training.

 

References

  1. Klimova, B. Computer-based cognitive training in aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2016; 8, 313.
  2. Basak, C., Boot, W.R., Voss, M.W., et al. Can training in a real-time strategy videogame attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging. 2008.
  3. Johansson B, Tornmalm M: Working memory training for patients with acquired brain injury: effects in daily life. 2012,
  4. Saunders NL, Summers MJ: Attention and working memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment. J Clin Exp Neuropsychology 2010, 32(4):350–357.
  5. Takeuchi H, Sekiguchi A, Taki Y, Yokoyama et al: Training of working memory impacts structural connectivity. J Neurosci 2010,
OR

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/impact-of-working-memory-training-among-the-elderly.

"Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly." My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/impact-of-working-memory-training-among-the-elderly.

My Assignment Help (2018) Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/impact-of-working-memory-training-among-the-elderly
[Accessed 02 April 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/impact-of-working-memory-training-among-the-elderly> accessed 02 April 2020.

My Assignment Help. Impact Of Working Memory Training Among The Elderly [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 02 April 2020]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/impact-of-working-memory-training-among-the-elderly.


Getting nightmare regarding pending chemistry assignment? Then it is high time you consider hiring chemistry assignment help service of MyAssigemnthelp.com. We at MyAssignmenthelp.com deliver quality subject specific assistance on more than 100+ subjects. For us, students' need is foremost, and we work round the clock to offer science, humanities and commerce assignment help. Among Commerce wing, our one of the most popular services is capital budgeting assignment help. In science segment, we have gained popularity with biology assignment help.

Latest Statistics Samples

BUS707 Applied Business Research Method

Download : 0 | Pages : 11

Answer: Introduction In business practice, it is often imperative to optimize performance with an ultimate aim of increasing sustainability and value of the business. At the core of optimizing business performance is the executive of the business which oversees all management and usually takes different forms such as: resource management, accounting management, operation management etcetera. Since the advent of modern business organizational...

Read More arrow

HI6008 Effect Of Social Media On Consumer Behaviour

Download : 0 | Pages : 12

Answer: Introduction According to Christodoulides (2009), a brand is more of the discussion of a product amongst consumers than the promotional campaigns by a business. Social media is defined as the communication that exists between persons where they establish, share, and exchange information and views in the virtual community in addition to social network sites. In the past decades, the users of an online environment have been on the incr...

Read More arrow

STA101 Statistics For Business 2

Download : 0 | Pages : 9
  • Course Code: STA101
  • University: Elite Education
  • Country: Australia

Answers: 1. a)   Cov (x, y) = -89/8-1 = -89/7 = -12.71 b). The covariance between years of experience and salary is -12.71. A negative covariance implies that the variables are inversely related (Stevens, 2012). c) = -12.71/2.45 x 5.24 = -1 A correlation coefficient of -1 is an indication that for every positive increase in years of experience there is a negative decrease of a fixed proportion in the salary (Cohen and Kohn, 20...

Read More arrow

EDU30013: Supporting Diversity And Equity System

Download : 0 | Pages : 3

Answer: Script 0:00:05 – 00:00:09 The relationship between social-emotional development as well as challenging behaviors will be described. 0:00:10 – 0:00:15 The participants will provide an overview about themselves as well as the information about their background 0:00:17 – 0:00:20 The discussion will acknowledge the difficulties that are related with challenging behavior of children. 0:00:25 – 0:...

Read More arrow

STA101 Statistics For Business

Download : 0 | Pages : 4

Answer: Question 1 a.   Table 1: Covariance According to the above table, it has been identified that the covariance of X and Y has been calculated to be -12.125. The negative value of the covariance means that X and Y have a strong relationship with each other. b. Based on table 1, covariance has been calculated as -12.125, which is a negative figure. Therefore, the relation between X and Y is strong but is inversely related. In a...

Read More arrow
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,240,264

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,067

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

285 Order Completed

99% Response Time

Eugene Baranowski

MBA in Supply Chain

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

453 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Howard Asuncion

LLM in Criminal Law

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

416 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Tyler Moore

MBA in Accounting

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

610 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Cheryl Zhao

PhD in Statistics

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

expert working good with ratio analysis i got full marks for ratio but overall good presentation.

flag

User Id: 207116 - 02 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

excellent work by tutor and quality of good work excellent work by tutor and quality of good work excellent work by tutor and quality of good work excellent work by tutor and quality of good work excellent work by tutor and quality of good work

flag

User Id: 264013 - 02 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Brilliant work, paid attention to every details, And submitted on time for review.

flag

User Id: 338016 - 02 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

The report was exceptional. Thank you for helping me with this assignment, and I am very satisfied with the result. The content was exceptional and my grade was exactly what I needed, the writer was very on point and finished my report in a timely ma...

flag

User Id: 262907 - 02 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?