Discuss about the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The following paper deals with a health indicator, that is climate and geography and the geographic region that is being chosen is Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. It alos demonstrates the issues concerned in relation to the drastic climatic and geographical changes in the US.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a federal agency that manages and supports and manages the preparation, preparedness and promotional activities in the United States in order to improve the health of the general public. It was established in the year 1946 in Atlanta and is managed by the Department of Health and Human Services. This department works in the local, state and national level in partnership with various agencies in order to monitor and prevent the outbreaks of disease (Epstein, 2016).It follows various strategies in the prevention of disease and maintains statistics of health at the national level. The agency also performs various functions in order to prevent and control several infectious and chronic diseases, injuries, hazardous effects in the workplace, disability problems and threats related to environmental health .
An environmental issue that has been identified by the group is the drastic change in the climate and geographical conditions which leads to a negative impact upon the health of the population residing in the US. Change in the climate has become a global issue which leads to air pollution, floods, droughts, rise in the sea level, extreme changes in the weather and heat waves (D’Amato et al., 2013). It has lead to several negative impacts upon the health of the population such as respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, mental imbalances and premature deaths of individuals. Climate change can increase the amount of ozone and particulate matter in the atmosphere at ground-level (Fann et al., 2014). It can also lead to an increase in the growth of indoor fungi and mold which can lead to several diseases in human beings.Climate and Health Program is playing a significant role in helping the state and the city health departments in order to prepare themselves from negative health impacts of climate change. Their main objective is the identification of population that are vulnerable to change in the climate. They work in order to prevent and adapt themselves to the present impact on the health of individuals (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.,2015).They make sure that they develop and follow proper systems in order to respond to the threats on the individuals.
There are various driving forces or social determinants of health due to extreme changes in the climate such as poverty and lack of nutrition. This is because change in the climate affects the agriculture due to increase in rainfall events and a rise in temperature. This results in the loss of cultivated crops and financial issues among the individuals.Development in the field of technology is also a major driving force that results in extreme weather events.
There are several evidence based approaches to environmental risk assessment and management of climate change such as various strategies for the adaptation and mitigation should be taken in order to reduce the harmful effects of change in the climate. Mitigation can be done by reducing the flow of green house gases which are present in the atmosphere (Aldy & Pizer, 2015).Thus can be done by reducing the source of the gases such as the burning of fossil fuels or improving the number of sinks that can store these gases like forests, oceans and soil. Adaptation involves adjusting to the climatic conditions by the living organisms such as animals and human beings when there is a lack of food or extreme weather events (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015).
The environmental health issue is currently been manage by following a number of strategies.The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has a partnership association with several organizations at the international level such as the World Health Organization(WHO) and global divisions include: Division of Global HIV & TB (DGHT), Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM), Division of Global Health Protection (DGHP), and Global Immunization Division (GID).Presently, The Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative formed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention is helping to anticipate health issues by the application of climatic science, prediction of the impacts of health and by preparing several programs and measures to deal with extreme climatic conditions.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assists several states and cities in the development and usage of several models which help in the prediction of impacts related to health. It also assists in monitoring health effects, and in the identification of regions that are vulnerable to climate change. The CDC is working in collaboration with the World Health Organization in order to establish the International Health Regulations (IHR),that is applicable to 194 countries which are members. It is functional through the Global Disease Detection Program (GDD) and the WHO and CDC Global Surveillance Systems.
Health equity plays a significant role in primary health care because all the individuals have equal right to assess appropriate medical facilities without any discrimination such as caste, creed and financial status. It plays a significant role in promoting their health and improve their well being.Individuals should be provided proper counseling, guidance and information about the prevention and treatment facilities to prevent HIV from infecting them. It is the basic individual right of every human being to receive proper healthcare facilities irrespective of caste, creed religion and social status.
There are several gaps in the current management actions and practices related to environmental issue such as there should be an improvement in the use of renewable enrgy sources such as biofuesls, biomass, geothermal energy resources, and hydrogen that derived from renewable resources of energy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) should take several steps to reduce the emission of gases from fossil fuels. The organisation should work effeciently in improving the quality of air and water to prevent the infection from air- borne and water- borne diseases.There is also a need to preserve natural habitat for the sustainance of human being and maintenance and restoration of wetlands.An extreme change in the climatic conditions leads to floods and droughts as well.Hence, there should be proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes accumulated due to flooding and drought.There should be timely response to deal with emergency situation to deal with the destruction of life and property (Levy & Patz,2015).
There are several gaps in the current policies, regulations management related to environmental issue There are several approaches that can be taken into consideration to environmental risk assessment and management of changes in the climate and geographical conditions. These approches can be used in providing accurate decisions for example in the planning of use of land or hazardous installations. They can be used in order to prioritize several environmental risks, for example in determining that which chemicals should be regulated first. They can also be used in comparing several risks, for example to allow different comparisons that are to be made between the resources that are provided in controlling different types of risk and also to allow the decisions of risk substitution to be made.These strategies can also be used in identifying the maximum level of risk that can be accepted which should not cross its limit even if it beneficial to the economy or the general individuals residing in the US.
There is a requirement of proper infrastructure, legislative and regulatory measures at the federal and state level agencies.The current policy, regulation and management lacks appropriate strategies and measures that should be taken to deal with a drastic change in climatic conditions. (Patz et.al.,2014).There are some communites who are directly dependent on using natural sources such as water from air and seas and if there are extreme weather events,it will lead to over exploitation and these resources would het exhausted.Poverty will result in the lack of financial investment on the environment (Woodward et al.,2104).At the federal level, a nation-wide strategy can be formed to adapt to climate change by the agencies and the state level agencies should play an important role in the identification of vulnerable situations to the impact of climate change and the measures that should be taken for adaptation.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention can play an important role in the risk assessment and management of this issue. They can be used in designing several regulatory methods such as in the determinaton of levels of risk according to the environmental standards.There should be proper regulatory methods and policies for the for the people living in poverty as a change in climate is directly linked with the socioeconomic status.
The existing heath and other agencies, key stake holders and community groups can play a significant role in adapting tom climate change. These agencies are developing several programs, policies and important measures to deal with climate change and acting as a leadership role in its adaptation and mitigation.
Hence, it can be concluded that there should be strict laws and regulations in order to protect the national environment and rehabilitate degraded area which would play a significant role in preventing the degradation of the environment. The Environmental Law should be amended so that it becomes easier to understand for the general public. Several measures should be developed and followed in order to increase the participation of individuls, communities agencies and organizations in environmental protection.A reward scheme can also be implemented to promote business, organizations and local people to protect the environment and address the level of pollution in there area They should be imposed with heavy fines who violate the environmental laws and regualtaions and do not understandi the harmful impact of polluting the environment.
Aldy, J. E., & Pizer, W. A. (2015). The competitiveness impacts of climate change mitigation policies. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 2(4), 565-595.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). USA. Classification of Diseases, Functioning, and Disability.[??????????? ??????]: https://www. cdc. gov/nchs/icd/icd10cm. htm (???? ?????????: 20.09. 2014).
D’Amato, G., Baena-Cagnani, C. E., Cecchi, L., Annesi-Maesano, I., Nunes, C., Ansotegui, I., ... & Canonica, W. G. (2013). Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine, 8(1), 12.
Epstein, P. R. (2016). Climate and health. Science, 285(5426), 347-348.
Fann, N., Nolte, C. G., Dolwick, P., Spero, T. L., Brown, A. C., Phillips, S., & Anenberg, S. (2015). The geographic distribution and economic value of climate change-related ozone health impacts in the United States in 2030. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65(5), 570-580.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2015). Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.
Levy, B., & Patz, J. (2015). Climate change and public health. Oxford University Press.
Patz, J. A., Frumkin, H., Holloway, T., Vimont, D. J., & Haines, A. (2014). Climate change: challenges and opportunities for global health. Jama, 312(15), 1565-1580.
Woodward, A., Smith, K. R., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Chadee, D. D., Honda, Y., Liu, Q., ... & Confalonieri, U. (2014). Climate change and health: on the latest IPCC report. The Lancet, 383(9924), 11