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Discuss about the Implementation of Statutory Body towards TVET Institutions.

TVET or Technical and Vocational Education in Malaysia is considered to be one of the pivotal institutions that help to supply the workforce within the country. They provide all types of technical training to the students of the country and offers positions for creating new jobs within the country. The practical and real working atmosphere needs skillful people who can provide the best work with expertise. The types of training that has been incorporated within the institution for the professional working field are the formal, non-formal and informal kind of training. Many types of training and education have been provided in TVET over the years. They are apprenticeship training, vocational education, technical education, technical–vocational education, occupational education, professional and vocational education and many others. The rate of unemployment is very low at the country currently and the scenario is almost 28% of the people work in other countries for their occupation. There are high possibilities that work shortage may affect the growth and achievements of the country in future. The polytechnic colleges have been operated in Malaysia over 40 years and this has been one of the incredible sources of workforce supply in the country. This focuses on finding the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, challenges and issues and the recommendations for them to do well.

TVET is an institution that can be considered as one of the pioneering institutions in vocational education ("Tvet Institute", 2017). This institution is linked with the many programmers, professionals and technicians who supply best professionals for the industry. They collaborate with the Ministry of Labor and Industry in Malaysia. These programmers and the technical personnel help to improve the condition of the labor market that is running short of the proper workforce (Smilowitz, Nowak, & Jiang, 2013).  They help to promote the student programmers at the Polytechnic of secondary education support. They have some other works as well like the developing a proper mechanism for converging the ministries that offer programmers, different private institutions and the vocational education centers. They also improve the training of the teachers in the country, program development, and ensuring high quality professional training and maintaining a competent curriculum for the students (Hanushek et al., 2017).

The programmers and the teachers have some specific skills that give a great advantage for the students. The modules those are included in the curriculum of the institution are linked with active industry participations (Gallie et al., 2012). There are some things that need improvement within the institution. These things are regional actions in development of skills within the country. Some other fields needing to be improved are the performance monitoring, performance based funding, institutional autonomy, capacity building and strategic planning (Smith, 2013). Some significant differences have been noticed in the unit costs and internal efficiency of the institution as well. The funding criteria of TVET institutions need to apply proper economic criteria.

Scenario of the country Malaysia

The areas that need a proper development and regular monitoring for betterment are the employability of the graduate vocal educational students, the efficiency of both the academic and administrative staff has to be improved. They also tend to face some insufficient financial resources in the technological fields. The quality control of the institution must be strengthened (Sallis, 2014).

The supply and demand measures in most of the countries are very much in a critical condition (Burkhard et al., 2012). There is a huge gap in those two metrics of economy. So, apparently there is a huge need to bridge the gap. Therefore, the only way to resolve this problem is to increase the workforce of the country. This needs a huge leap in terms of managing skillful workers in technical industry. The aim of the Malaysian government is to utilize TVET as the main source to gain more skillful and eligible human resources at their disposal who can contribute to the growth of the country in economical matters. They also want the Malaysian economy to be considered as one of the high income countries. One of the main sources to decrease the rate of poverty in a country is to improve its economy. The use of technology for innovation and adapting to globalization is one of the main reasons why a country gets higher incomes. The vocational training system has to be improved quite a lot than what is at present (Biavaschi et al., 2012). The supply of skilled and capable workers should be on the high always so that it can ensure the best economical growth for the country. The Malaysian government should try to improve and increase the rate of the capable human resources a lot within 2020. The main sectors on target are the health, education, tourism, urban development, tourism and retail. These industries need a lot of skilled human resources to do their work properly. The needs and demands have to be met but the infrastructure and the lack of the human resources have stunted this growth rate (Snell, Morris & Bohlander, 2015). 

An analysis on the various aspects of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats should be conducted to view the major needs of the time and what are the problems that the company is facing in the recent times. These weaknesses will provide a gateway for recommending certain ways in which the institution can improve its working capacities (Hollensen, 2015).

SWOT Analysis


  • The TVET curriculum has to be strengthened in order to make the quality of the students better so that they can prove to be successful in the professional world.
  • The demand of the industry is growing day by day so under the eleventh plan, the curriculum has to be strengthened so that it can produce better students with a better quality to meet the demands of the industry (Zhao & Rauner, 2014).
  • The more focus will be given on the critical thinking among the students as the matter of self-reliance among the students will be given special attraction.
  • There will be real world situations provided in the curriculum so that the students can be accustomed to the actual working environment that will help them to sustain in the workplace better.
  • The government is trying very hard to increase the human resources in TVET but the take up rate is not up to the mark. While the rate of enrolling in the OECD countries for higher level vocational education is around 44%. Malaysia has lagged behind with just 10% enrolment (Busemeyer, 2012).
  • The action plans to strengthen the situation with highly skilled workers to increase the production rate, skill oriented programs are taking place arranged by the government. The unskilled workforces are sent for re-training and the trainers are kept updated with the recent changes (Mourshed, Farrell & Barton, 2012).
  • TVET has been recognized as a national priority by the government and many positive steps have been taken to resolve the burning issues related in quick time.
  • The global market is very much competitive and there are high needs for improving the workforce according to its skills. The economic growth of the country has to be sustained and further developed in order to be one of the highest income countries. The Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) has launched the National Higher Education Blueprint for 2015 to 2025 that will cater to grow more skilled and competent workforce within the country by giving more power to TVET.


The weaknesses of the TVET institution are:-

  • The present curriculum of the TVET institutions is unable to meet the requirements of the labor industry at the present time.
  • The industry input in the curriculum has created a sort of gap in what is required by the industry and what is provided to the TVET graduates.
  • The competitive working environment needs graduates who are ready to join the industry and contribute to the welfare of the country’s economy. The situation is on the contrary.
  • The graduates are talented but their training is not up to date as per the requirements of the industry. They are not multi-skilled as well. This works as a barrier to engage them in the working environment.
  • The TVET diploma graduates who are accredited by the Department of Skills Development (DSD), do not get the proper chance to fair in the higher education programs as the more emphasis is on the practical components within Malaysia (Lussier & Achua, 2015). 
  • They cannot study at a higher level in the Institute of Higher Education in the degree level.
  • The TVET graduates who are accredited by MQA are able to access the higher education provided by IHE because of their curriculum that is based on the academic fields. This inequality has led confusions in TVET (Lussier & Achua, 2015). 
  • There is a lack of good and competent teachers in the institution who can motivate the students.
  • The key tools for the proper development of TVET are absent in a large degree.
  • The cooperation between the public and private sector is very low.
  • There are no such institutions that can effectively communicate between TVET and labor market (Cuñat & Melitz, 2012).


There are certain opportunities that can help to redesign TVET and place it at the top of the human resources supplier for the labor market industry within the country. These opportunities are:-

  • The international and regional concerns have to be sorted out so that new doors will open for this organization to improve in various ways.
  • Technological and technical support can be sorted from the developed countries in Asia and other continents. This will help to redesign the infrastructure of the organization.


The threats to the proper sustenance of TVET institute are:-

  • The budget for education is not adequate as set by the government. The basic education and the higher education budgets are not properly allocated as well.
  • There are certain problems in the TVET connection for the development of the nation and the regional areas as well.
  • There are many conflicts of the skills of the workers, graduates and other people within the organization. Another impending threat on TVET is the competencies of the workers of the East African countries.

The issues and challenges that TVET Malaysia are facing at the current time are:-

  • The teachers and the trainers have failed in their competency based works.
  • There is a lack of quality in the teachers and trainers.
  • The quality monitoring is not adequate and the industry involvement in Malaysia is not sufficient as well.
  • The quality assurance is low on the basis of the mechanisms.
  • There is a huge mismatch in the kind of training given and the kind of jobs that are available.
  • Higher education is greatly affected because the management is not that much responsible on the whole (Stephenson & Yorke, 2013).
  • The information is not as per the demands of the industry.
  • There is an excessive influence of politics in Malaysia that affects the education system.
  • The cost of the higher education is huge in the private institutions so most of the students cannot avail it (Clotfelter, 2014).

It can be recommended that Malaysian government can build a national quality system that will look after the entire facilities of the vocational training and education in the country (Conway, Mostashari & Clancy, 2013).  Very efficient funding systems should be created in order to match the public and private partnerships. The chief priorities have to be selected and certain steps have to be taken according to the matters. Effective training programs should be organized by the government and the national competition laws should be developed. These are the few ways in which the service of TVET can be improved.


This paper can be concluded in the manner that TVET is really an essential source for the supply of the human sources that will cater to the economic growth of the country. The strengths have to be utilized in order to make a proper growth of the economy and equally distributing the work facilities all over Malaysia. There are certain issues and challenges for the implementation of the plans of the government. It is not possible for the government alone to supervise all the works and implementing the plans. The higher education of the country has to be properly distributed between all the graduates and the education system has to be developed with proper matching between the curriculum and the industry demands.


Biavaschi, C., Eichhorst, W., Giulietti, C., Kendzia, M. J., Muravyev, A., Pieters, J., ... & Zimmermann, K. F. (2012). Youth unemployment and vocational training.

Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Nedkov, S., & Müller, F. (2012). Mapping ecosystem service supply, demand and budgets. Ecological Indicators, 21, 17-29.e.

Busemeyer, M. R. (2012). Inequality and the political economy of education: An analysis of individual preferences in OECD countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 22(3), 219-240.

Clotfelter, C. T. (2014). Buying the best: Cost escalation in elite higher education. Princeton University Press.

Conway, P. H., Mostashari, F., & Clancy, C. (2013). The future of quality measurement for improvement and accountability. Jama, 309(21), 2215-2216.

Cuñat, A., & Melitz, M. J. (2012). Volatility, labor market flexibility, and the pattern of comparative advantage. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(2), 225-254.

Gallie, D., Zhou, Y., Felstead, A., & Green, F. (2012). Teamwork, skill development and employee welfare. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(1), 23-46.

Hanushek, E. A., Schwerdt, G., Woessmann, L., & Zhang, L. (2017). General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Lifecycle. Journal of Human Resources, 52(1), 48-87.

Hollensen, S. (2015). Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education.

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2015). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development. Nelson Education.

Mourshed, M., Farrell, D., & Barton, D. (2012). Education to employment: Designing a system that works. McKinsey Center for Government, 18, 1-7.

Sallis, E. (2014). Total quality management in education . Routledge.

Smilowitz, K., Nowak, M., & Jiang, T. (2013). Workforce management in periodic delivery operations. Transportation Science, 47(2), 214-230.

Smith, R. D. (2013). Strategic planning for public relations. Routledg

Snell, S. A., Morris, S. S., & Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing human resources. Nelson Education.

Stephenson, J., & Yorke, M. (Eds.). (2013). Capability and quality in higher education. Routledge.

Tvet Institute. (2017). Retrieved 26 July 2017, from

Zhao, Z., & Rauner, F. (Eds.). (2014). Areas of vocational education research. Springer Science & Business Media.

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