‘3D printing represents a completely new era in which long established operational techniques will prove to be completely outdated and this, in turn, will have serious ramifications in terms of unemployment.’Critically examine this statement.
The present study mainly covers different areas of 3D printing. The highlighted point in the study is the application of the human resource management and the operations of the organization (3D Printing, 2011). There are several resources present in the group. Out of all the resources, Human resource is one of the most significant resources in the organization. The study will reflect the technological advancement, which puts a positive effect on the organizational performance (Abe, 2012). The application of modern technology sets a positive impact on the operational behavior in the organization. The objective of the study is to focus on how technological advancement puts positive effects on the operational techniques in the group.
Every organization irrespective of their size has some organizational goals and objectives. Depending upon the nature of the business every group develops its goals and objectives. The goal of every organization is to achieve the common organization goal and objectives with the help of limited resources in the organization (Barnatt, 2013). Human resource management is one of the most significant assets of the group. It is familiar that resources of the organization are limited. On the other hand, optimum utilization of resources is equally important. With the application of modern technology has changed the entire scenario.
With the use of the modern technology, one of the most productive things, which are achieved in the organization, is a reduction of different kinds of wastes (Ocepek et al., 2012). The majority of the companies irrespective of their sizes applies the concept of technology in the operations of the organizations. This particular concept ensures that resources of the organization are utilized correctly. This particular study will focus on the evaluation of 3D printing which represents an entirely new era in the operational techniques of the organization (BloombergView.com, 2013).
Implication on 3D printing: Traditional versus Modern
This part of the study will focus on the economic impact of 3D printing in modern business. There are four factors, which are emphasized in the concept of 3D printing. The four factors are the development of a new company, Mass manufacturing, development of a supply chain management and design management. Developing a new corporation is the primary factor, which is emphasized in the study (Boisvert and Adelstein, 2015). In the era of globalization, development of new and modern business is a common factor. There is a positive effect on the technology in the advancement of the enterprise. Mass manufacturing is one of essential elements, which are included in the economic concept of 3D printing (Choi et al., 2015). The third factor is it puts a positive effect on the entire supply chain management of any business organization (Evans, 2012). The application and the concept of the supply chain management put a positive effect on the entire organizational procedure of the enterprise. The final point, which is highlighted in the study, is the concept of design development, which is another important point in the application of modern technology (Chauhan and Chauhan, 2012).
Decision making by the management:
There are several advantages as well as disadvantages in the implementation of modern technology in printing. Each new generation brings the reemergence of many of the fears of the past. This part of the study will highlight the disadvantage of the modern technology in the application of the business (Ryynänen et al., 2011). Advancement of modern technology in the process of business has brought different changes in the organizations. It has increased the efficiency of the organization resulted in the mass production and large-scale business operations. The most crucial point in the study, which is highlighted, is based on employment factor (Gil-Lafuente, 2013). This is one of the most common points in a modern generation that advancement of technology will reduce the employment factor in the organization. The technological advancement puts an enormous effect in the operations of different kinds of manufacturing industries. The concept of technological progress is one of the most significant points in the organization (Gordon, 2015). Unemployment caused due to technical advances is reflected in the study. This is one of the most controversial matters in the business world. Some conclude that there are certain advantages for the technological advancement in the operations of the company and on the other hand, some find that there are different kinds of disadvantages for the technological advancement in the activities of the enterprise (Harvard Business Review, 2014). Especially in the era of globalization, the different business organization develops its structure of activities beyond the national boundary, which allows the different organization to operate its business operations in the key cities of the globe. In order to meet the requirement of the market, the notion of the technological advancement plays a significant role (Lin, Hsu and Tai, 2012). The ultimate objective of the concept of technological progress is to emphasize in the production process. In the era of globalization majority of the companies needs to maintain a sustained level of production in order to meet the require demand of the market (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012).
Ways the product are manufactured in the traditional era:
Quality: When 3D printing is used then the quality is superior to the traditional one. The latest technology is also used for this purpose.
Speed: 3D printing can be done with a remarkable speed, which cannot be done through the traditional way.
Dependability: The manufacturer are constantly relying on 3D form of printing due to its superior quality and speed
Flexibility: 3D printing can be used remarkably well and is very flexible in using it
Cost: The cost is a bit huge for 3D printing but it is due to its quality the product is used by most of the manufacturers.
Difference from the traditional form of Manufacturing: 3D printing
There are two kinds of technology, which applies to the operations of the business. This particular point shall apply in case of manufacturing industries. In different manufacturing industries, all the business firms believe in technology in the process of production (Jin and Ji, 2013). The first point, which is highlighted in the process, is the concept of capital-intensive technology. In the case of capital-intensive technology more, capital and less labor are required and on the other hand, in the case of the labor intensive technology more labor and less capital is required (Kim, 2012). The majority of the firms depending upon the nature of the business adopts the mode of technology in the enterprise operations. Optimum utilization of resources by ensuring reduction of waste is the ultimate aim of every manufacturing industry (Kozicki and SÄ…siadek, 2012).
Application of the five stages in 3D printing:
3D printing is considered to induce next revolution in the industrial or manufacturing sector. It creates three-dimensional physical products from digital design file using layer-upon-layer printing approach. It is also called “additive manufacturing” (Ocepek et al., 2012). The process follows the following steps: at first, a digital or virtual design of the object is created in a Computer Aided Design, with the help of software or programs. It is also possible to make a digital copy an existing object with the assistance of 3D scanner. Then in the next step, the file is uploaded in a 3D printer, and the 3-dimensional object is created by merging one coat on another coat (Gil-Lafuente, 2013). 3D printer uses the raw materials necessary to make the object. It has helped the medical science to develop significantly, by printing 3D heart; bladder; ear and so on. Apart from medical use, this technology is broadly adopted in the vehicle; jewelry and apparel industries (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012). With the help of this technology, the producers can show the customers model of their ordered goods, before delivering the original products. A person can also print sample of its dream house in the 3D printer, and order to build the house accordingly. The 3D printer produces not only the prototypes but also actual products (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012). As on 2012, 3D technology provides 20% actual products out of its total printed production, and it is expected to rise to 50% by 2020. The 3D printer is more accurate and better organized than cutting, molding, soldering manually (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012).
With this culinary innovation of 3D printing, the world moved one-step forward. Its business implications suggest significant global impact (Ryynänen et al., 2011). This technology can potentially help manufacturing sectors to produce its products and to respond according to the changes in demand. 3D print allows every single product to be tailor-made to the consumer and provide exact specification as required by them, which is not possible and expensive through traditional production methods. CAD software allows to design and redesign of the products from any part of the world (Lin, Hsu and Tai, 2012). It prints sophisticated products very easily that is very hard in the traditional method. However, the limitation of this technology is that it can produce small products, technologies to produce large products are not provided by the 3D printer. Raw materials, surface finish, and color used in this printer is limited. However, it is expected that further innovation in 3D printer will be able to overcome these limitations (Lipson, 2015).
Supply Chain Structure: Traditional versus 3D Printing.
Operational techniques involve management science; industrial engineering and regulatory science. Operations management is the area that is concerned with the effectiveness and usefulness of the process in sustain and growth of the firm's planned objectives. Other areas of interest to operations management include the methods and procedures of systems providing goods and services (Ma, 2013). To make it concise, operations management is the preparation, arrangement, and organize the activities that convert raw materials into finished products or, transform labor into the services. Operations management summons the concept of manufacturing environments and is applied in service set up. However, in this case, it is evident that the, emerging of 3D printing technology is associated more with the operational management of manufacturing sectors (Ocepek et al., 2012). Long established operational techniques include individual goals set by the executive management. Such goals include cut the time of manufacturing and development of new goods; amalgamate new mechanism and controlling existing procedure; sustain regarding high quality with a firm control over the cost; working effectively with the stakeholders, partners, and unions.
The focus of this essay is on the impact of this innovative technology on operational techniques. The traditional supply chains of firm face problems like overloaded inventories; enormous transportation costs; lengthy lead times. All of these will ease with 3D printing technology. For example, many businesses hold its assets regarding inventories and capital equipment (Ryynänen et al., 2011). Holding stocks reflect operational inefficiencies, and it is extremely costly. Fortunately, with the innovation of new technology, cost per unit of production is same regardless the units produced by the firm and hence, it allows pull production system to be appropriate. Moreover, the firms set its manufacturing units where they get cheap labor and cheap inputs for outputs, which is away from the target consumers. Therefore, high transportation cost is incurred. 3D printing technology enables local production, minimizes the transport cost, and shortens the processing time (Sheppard, 2012). 3D printer can also decrease waste, which is crucial for business management because that will cut expenses appreciably. As an implication of this, the business houses have to rethink their strategies and operations. The 3D printer can produce more economically by using subtractive process because 3D printed products get payment before the actual product is manufactured. Hence, it diminishes cash flows, working capital and advances operational liquidity. Therefore, it also reduces the risk of client defaults. Traditional functional technique goes outdated because it is capable of solving most of the operational issues (Short, 2015). Operations management determines the customers’ value before product development, and this new technology innovation makes it easier for them in determining the value.
Understanding of Capacity, Inventory management and JIT in traditional manufacturing and differences with respect to 3D printing:
In Traditional Manufacturing:
Capacity: In case of the traditional form of printing, the printers are of huge capacity and the production is very low with respect to the latest form of 3D printing.
Inventory Management: The management of the inventory is costly as the machine that is used for the purpose of printing is kept in the inventory for longer time period. There is a huge cost of depreciation and maintenance incurred by the manufacturer
Just in Time: Just in time manufacturing is those items that is created to meet the demand at present but not in advance. This is seen to be more applicable for the traditional form of printing as this result in no waste of the resources.
The 3D printing also involves these three crucial stages. The capacity to produce for the machines is more than that of the traditional manufacturing. In case of 3D printing, the cost of the operations is very low and inventory management is done very efficiently. Just in time is not generally applicable for this type of printing as there is no waste generated when there is more inventories kept.
Implication of the human resources:
The Conventional operation management faces problem related to the skill of the workers, who are manufacturing products (Stephens, 2013). The workers often refuse to reproduce a sound, for faulty products. However, the 3D printing technology can be run with low-skilled workers; and the production is intensely cost savings, the management does not face any issues in re-produce the goods according to the customers’ requirement. Moreover, the consumers can easily obtain a 3D print and send it to the management to place the order for their desired commodity. Moreover, 3D printing permits superior quality of production with fewer re-manufacturing required (ya-Li and ye-Li, 2013). Hence, the total order fulfillment cost also decreases. Due to 3D printing, the requirement for after-market services also declined (Short, 2015). The management often faces challenges in dealing with the suppliers of raw materials. The emergence of 3D printing reduces the number of members in its supply chain networks, with whom coordination and association are required to maintain. Therefore, the dependency on suppliers has been reduced, as manufacturers are now able to source readily available materials. 3-D printing will have an effect on manufacturing firm; particularly the small industry will become more efficient by increasing productivity and reduce costs (Yun et al., 2013). Therefore, the operation managers of a small company will find it easy to expand its business. Due to the tremendous cost of traditional manufacturing, the management of a business did not find it profitable to invest to expand their business into a new field. 3D printing allowed them to produce different goods of another domain, as the cost of establishment is considerably low. This makes the operational managers more interested towards expanding their business, as 3D printing makes it easy to enter a market and reduces the barriers to entry.
Therefore, it is clear from the above discussion, how 3D printing technology makes the task of operational management easier, as the technology solves many problems that operations manager of a firm deals with. Therefore, the techniques used by the managers to achieve its goals, are not required as the 3D printing technology serves the purpose of them. However, with so many advantages, the corollary effect also lies within the newly innovated technology. The debate has already risen by the critics concerning the impact regarding employment. It has been opined that as this new technology adoption speeds up, the company will be emphasis more on capital expenditure to establish automated machine. This will replace enormous numbers of laborers. This will create unemployment in the economy. This indicates how this technology will affect the requirement for labor input in the manufacturing sector. The shedding off the laborers will be drastic in nature. However, the workers in this industry are unskilled; hence, they cannot shift suddenly into some other sector. Unemployment will be generated. However, 3D technology will create a market for high skilled workers, to operate the new digital machine equipment. Therefore, it is expected that demand for managerial and high skilled labors will be increased. It will further generate income inequality in the economy. In near future, it is anticipated that not only the manufacturing sector will face a job-cut, but the retails sector also is in the line. With growing advancement of technology, it is possible that the consumer can open design of his/her product (say, Shoe) on the internet, print them in their home. Though this situation has a long way to come, if this happens then the retail stores will be closed, and they will shed their existing workers. However, they will employ more designers who can design the product digitally, and the function of that particular company will be based entirely on a digital interface. However, many critics have also stated that, even if millions of job will be destructed, there are chances that more than one job will be created. As the cost of production is decreasing over time, it will allow the consumers to live at lower cost in the economy. More money will be put into the new business, more competition will take place; because of this, the consumer will have several alternative products at competitive prices. Moreover, new investment in further innovation will lead to the establishment of new firms and expansion of existing business, which will eventually create employment. Due to a decrease in the job to GDP ratio, the overall economy will grow substantially. This indicates that the actual rate of employment will not fall, as expected earlier (Kim, 2012). Manufacturing sector cannot shed all its labors from its factory units, as workers are required to supervise the production; to analyze, and understand the demand for respective products; to manage the supply chain. Therefore, there will be a structural change in the employment pattern. More technicians, engineers, CAD software developers, digital designers will be demanded by the firms. Unskilled workers will find it difficult to get a job in this type of market condition. Hence, there will be a structural unemployment, which is of long term in nature.
The reason for unemployment due to usage of 3D printing:
The usage of 3D printers is indeed blessing to the new era. The 3D printing helps in making the work easier. The quality is also very superior so every manufacturer prefers to use this form of printing. In order to operate the 3D printers there is no need of the too many workers to handle it. The traditional form of printing had many processes that required many people to handle it. When there is a transition, from the traditional to 3D form of printing then the number of stages in the process reduces and so the unemployment rate increases.
Technological unemployment in general for the manufacturing industry:
The emergence of 3D printing technology, the debate continues to find a proper solution to this. In past, other techniques have destroyed millions of job; and the initial impact of this 3D technology will not be enough. However, 3D printing services destroy only a particular type of job, but, in turn, create millions of new job opportunities. However, it is too early to conclude, as this technology is only launched in the market in past few years, and the initial cost of adopting this technology is too high that only few can afford it. Hence, there is no real evidence, how this technology is going to be the effect the employment scenario of the economy. With time, it will be scrutinized whether the revolutionary 3D printing technology is detrimental to job growth or not. One impact of 3D printing can be explained with the help of an example of China. China is the largest manufacturing sector in the world. With the emergence of 3D printing technology, China will not lose much, but it will lose its position as a manufacturing powerhouse. The selected topic covers all the areas of 3D printing and advantages. This is because, its major importers will now able to produce goods as their cost of production falls drastically, due to 3D print technology (Short, 2015).
Cost is one of the most crucial factors in the application of the capital-intensive technology in the business operations (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012). The majority of big manufacturing units across the work developed the business operations based on capital-intensive technology. It ensures the smooth flow of business in the production process (Lewis and Broadbent, 2012). The company is benefited in a different manner. The primary reason is it increases the overall performance of the organization by maintaining the productivity level in the organization (Sheppard, 2012). The installation process of the capital-intensive production process is very much expensive. The entire procedure includes installation of different kinds of machinery, tools and equipment, which eliminates labor in the process of production (Lin, Hsu and Tai, 2012). This is one of the major reasons for unemployment in the economy as the majority of the manufacturing units depending upon the nature of the business wants to adopt the concept of the capital intensive technology in the company operations (Lipson, 2015).
The notion of the labor-intensive technology is the reversal of the capital-intensive technology where more labor and less capital are used (Ma, 2013). The entire process of the labor-intensive technology is much slow as compared with the capital-intensive technology. In the whole process, less number of equipment and machinery are used in the entire production process of the organization (Rybicki, 2015). The majority of the small manufacturing units depending upon the objectives of the business adopts the concept of the labor-intensive technology. The application of the labor-intensive technology applies more labor and less capital resulting in small production (Ryynänen et al., 2011). Unemployment is not the factor of the labor-intensive technology. Different people get different kinds of the job opportunity as compared with the capital-intensive technology. However, in the era of globalization majority of the manufacturing companies wants to adopt the concept of the capital-intensive technology (Sheppard, 2012). It will ensure the organization to develop a proper production process.
Some of the companies in the era of globalization adopt both the concept of the labor-intensive technology as well as the notion of the capital-intensive technology. The study reflects the concept and the application of the 3D printing techniques (Short, 2015). There are different kinds of process and application of the 3D printing techniques in the operations of the business. Some of the common factors, which are highlighted in the context to reflect the concept of distribution, are production, transportation cost, and efficiency of the entire work culture in the organization. Every business organization, whether it is manufacturing unit and a non-manufacturing unit, believes in the process of the development the business structure in such a way, which will ensure the organization towards the achievement of the common organizational goals and activities (Stephens, 2013). Increase in sales will automatically allow different companies to increase the profit level of the organization (Stephens, 2013). However, to increase the sales, the company needs to develop a proper manufacturing system, which will ensure towards meeting the customer demand and wants. The notion of the technological change is widely accepted. The request of the customers is not limited and on the other hand, different companies based on the nature of the needs to satisfy the request and wants of the client. The concept of the capital-intensive technology will allow the organization to meet the client needs based on the requirements of the business.
The notion of 3D printing based entirely on the ideas of the mass production and the specialization of labor (Yun et al., 2013). The introduction of the 3D printing has changed the entire concept of the production system. The idea of the 3D printing has concluded the biggest economic changes since the application of the internet. After the application of the 3D in the options of the customers are well diversified (ya-Li and ye-Li, 2013). Printing has become of the primary objective in the application process of the business. Globalization allows the different organization to enhance the company operations. Printing is one of an essential component in the enterprise operations. The aim of the study is to conclude about the unemployment factor in the enterprise worlds. Due to the emergence of modern technology different companies wants to use the application of the modern technology in the company operations (ya-Li and ye-Li, 2013). For example, in the banking sector, the majority of the group is done with the application of the capital-intensive technology.
The objective of the study is to highlight all the factors, which represent 3D printing in the business operations. There are different applications of 3D in the modern business. The notion of capital-intensive and labor-intensive technology is highlighted in the study. The use of capital-intensive technology allows the business firm to carry on its business in a smoother flow of work. Increase in the entire production system of the enterprise to meet the customer demands and wants is the ultimate objective of any business firms in the company operations. Application of the capital-intensive technology allows the firms to achieve this particular goal. On the other hand, the use of labor-intensive technology is a very much slow process of production, as compared with the capital-intensive technology.
The concept of unemployment is also a major factor in the business operations. The objective of the study is to conclude how the impact of the technological advancement puts an adverse effect on the unemployment factor of the enterprise. There are several factors, which ensure the concept of technological progress. There are some few factors, which guarantee the idea of technological advances in the business operations. The resources of the organization are limited. The primary objective of any organization is to provide the optimum utilization of resources. It is to be noted that the application of the capital-intensive technology in any manufacturing unit including 3D printing increases efficiency of work. On the other hand, the use of the man becomes less important as the majority of the production process are done with the application of modern machinery, which helps the organization to increase efficiency and lower the initial cost of production. This results in the process of unemployment as compared to the application of the capital-intensive technology. On the other hand, with the use of labor-intensive technology, the concept of unemployment is very much common. The advancement of technology has both advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantage of the technological implementation allows the organization to run the business in a much smoother manner and on the other hand, it is one of the main reasons for the unemployment in the company environment. The study covers all the significant aspect of the advancement of technology towards the development process of the 3D printing.
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