Using developmental theory and evidence from peer reviewed discuss how play influence physical,social and cognitive development.
Over the past half-century, there has been a decline in the opportunity for children to play. It has been discovered that play is disappearing in the society. Children are attaining growth in this rapidly altering world exemplified by the remarkable shifts in the expectations of children in knowing and the ability to do. Advanced and tougher academics have pressurized the children to perform better and competed with each other with respect to the learning abilities. As a result, children have less time as well as opportunities to play in comparison to the children of the previous generations. Several types of research have recognized that play has an essential role in the growth, development, and learning of the children from babyhood through adolescence. However, this necessity is being challenged. Furthermore, the right of a child to play must be safeguarded every individual, especially parents and educators.
Importance of Play in the development of children
Play process refers to the process through which learning of children takes place. The opportunities for a good quality play possess a noteworthy impact on the development of a child. A dynamic process of play involves child’s thinking, physical demands and expression of feelings and thoughts. The children acquire a learning regarding the associations with adults, peers and the world around them. According to Charlesworth (2013), Play is a vital and integral part of every child’s healthy growth, development as well as learning across every age, domain and culture. It also reflects the societal and cultural contexts in which a child lives (Milteer et al. 2012).
Several theorists, irrespective of their orientation, agree that play possesses a significant role in the lives of children. They also advocate that the lack or absence of play is a hindrance for the development children and adolescents who are healthy as well as creative. It is believed by the psychoanalysts that for mastering emotional disturbance or traumas, play is very much necessary. According to some psycho socialists, play is essential for ego mastery and knowledge to survive with the experiences on a daily basis; Constructivists think it is crucial for cognitive development; maturationists consider it essential for building competency and for socializing purposes in each and every culture of the world. On the other hand, neuroscientists think it is crucial for enthusiasm, emotional as well as physical health. Research carried out on the brain reveals that play is an arena for development, a medium for enhancing the neural structures as well as a way by which a child practice skills he/she needs in the later stages of life (Susan 2015).
Influence of Play on Physical development
A child gains several physical benefits from playing. As the children walk, jump, run, hop, hang and gallop, they automatically build up their muscles of the body and learn regarding locomotion and movement. Physical play helps the children to development associations between the brain and the nerve cells. As these associations develop, the improvement o children's gross and fine motor skills, creativity and problem solving, personal awareness, language and socialization takes place. A Perfect physical activity integrates play with the societal interactions along with problem solving. Various benefits of health are provided by physical play. According to Landreth (2013), early development of brain and learning in children and adolescents is promoted by physical activities. It also reduces the risk of developing diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and several other chronic conditions of health (Beyer et al. 2015).
Physical play regularly takes place outside and offers a child the opportunity to liberate their energy utilizing their loud voices and energetic activities. According to Aquilina (2015), every child from birth to age five and children who go to school should perform physical activities on a daily basis so that they can attain fitness that is related to health as well as skills of movement (Howard and McInnes 2013).
A majority of the children unsurprisingly develop the capability to walk and run. Though, they need instruction and practice to develop jumping, catching, galloping, kicking, sliding and throwing skills. Children integrate these kinds of skills into games, dance, and sports. Playgrounds are ideal places for children to develop gross and fine motor skills, socialize as well as increase mental connections (Milteer et al. 2012). As children dynamically and happily utilize their bodies in physical activities, they all together refine and build skills that facilitate them to feel self-assured, safe and confident. The societies in which children suffer from pressure to do well in all the areas, self-confidence and proficiency are essential (David and Weinstein 2013).
Encouraging dynamic play and physical exercises on a regular basis in the lives of children and adolescents can help them in preventing obesity. A Child, who sleeps for few hours in a day are more prone to developing obesity and on the other hand, active children have a tendency to sleep for longer durations. Though, research into effectual involvements for obesity is multifaceted and even though independently each and every factor might offer only a little contribution in gaining weight, the probable synergies might underrate the impact of playing overall. The role of physical activity in controlling the weight of a child may be more difficult in comparison to its contribution to the expenditure of energy (ZOSH et al. 2013).
Influence of Play on Social development
When children play, they enhance their social competence as well as emotional maturity. According to Moyles (2014), the success in school mostly depends on the ability of the children to interact confidently and positively with adults and peers. The play is fundamental to the social development of children. It facilitates them to perform the following:
- Practice verbal as well as nonverbal skills of communication by discussing roles, making attempts increase access to constant play, and understand the feelings off other individuals.
- Giving response to the feeling of their peers while sharing materials and waiting for their turn as well as experiences.
- Experimentation with the roles of the individuals in their school, community and home by getting into association and knowing the desires and needs of others.
- Identify the viewpoints of other individuals by means of working through disagreements regarding materials, rules and space positively (Wong and Logan 2016).
Emotional development is supported by play which provides a way to articulate and deal with the feelings. When a child plays with other children, it affects the ways in which the child relates himself/herself with other children, forms a group and believes that he/she is a part of the group (David and Weinstein 2013). When they play, they utilize their own rules, values and language and playing assists them to develop their individual identities. According to Axline (2013), children who are allowed to play freely with their companions, develop skills for observing the things through the viewpoint of others, solving problems, sharing and cooperating with other individuals. The children who are traumatized are not able for creative play and do not possess the complete access to their capabilities of solving problems, which could make societal situations complicated for them (Howard and McInnes 2013).
Playing can prevail over cultural as well as other boundaries and assist children to know others who they may believe to be diverse from themselves and also for the children who are disabled; who are supine to societal segregation, play can be a significant way of forming associations with the other children. According to Landreth (2013), parents have a prominent role when they play with the children. When a parent gets involved with the young children in the process of playing, the behavior of the children tends to be more multifaceted in comparison to playing alone or with their peers or friends in the duration of the societal interactions as well as in the developmental level of the social behavior of children (Illingworth 2013).
The ideas of Huizinga are certainly insightful. He had a belief that play is the basis of social and development. It is an establishment of a system of information and human history. As the children play, they mimic and imitate the activities and games of the past world around us. He also believed that by play we can alter our culture in a new way. As a child plays games and transforms them to active new materials of play and new sets of playmates, the altered actions turn out to be a part of a culture of a new generation (Wong and Logan 2016).
Influence of Play on Cognitive development
A great deal of the cognitive development of children’s is activated when they play. One of the well-known early theorists of childhood Jean Piaget believed that a major role is performed by play in the expanding psychological abilities of children. By means of play, children increase their language as well as manipulative skills and improve their ways of discovery as well as imagination. According to Illingworth (2013), play is the most important means of development of aptitude, imagination, speech, along with motor abilities for perception in toddlers and young children.
Vygotsky suggested that: "Play creates the proximal development Zone in children. In the process of play children constantly acts beyond their daily behavior and average age. While a child plays, he/she builds multifaceted abilities of exploration, inquiring, discovering, and way of thinking, testing, imagination, rationalization, creation, and visualization (Mooney 2013).
The belief that playing has a significant role in building up of cognitive skills is in no way a new one. Vygotsky and Piaget, two of the most prominent theorists of cognitive development of the 20th century have emphasized the importance of play in the development of children (Howard and McInnes 2013). According to Piaget, when children play they are provided with widespread opportunities to intermingle with objects in the surroundings and develop their individual knowledge regarding the world, formulating play as one of an essential aspect of cognitive development (Illingworth 2013).
A number of commentators have argued that if a child is not allowed to take risks, then he /she may grow up more vigilant in the situations of life on a regular basis, or be not capable of reviewing potentially hazardous circumstances, which can lead to problems. The significance of taking risks for the social, emotional and neurological development of children has also been extensively taken into consideration (Basterfield et al. 2016).
The children can express and manage their emotions through the playing process. Although Play fighting, is frequently discouraged by elders or matured individuals, has been revealed as behavior in which children learn regarding restraint and self-control, prepare them for situations that they may possibly have to handle in future. Certain types of play appear to promote diverse varieties of cognitive processes. For example Fantasy play, has been recognizing as more or less therapeutic in nature, allowing them to discover and tackle agonizing feelings as well as conflicts with other individuals (Milteer et al. 2012).
In the end, it can be concluded that for children play is a fundamental right, irrespective of their gender, social class, age, culture or disability. It should be revealed in a variety of environments of play that present the children with experiences that can assist to improve their value of existence. Complimentary staffed provisions provide children a diversity of experiences of play as well as relationships and provide their parents the assurance to believe that their children are secure as well as enjoying themselves.
Establishing a direct fundamental association between play, wellbeing, cognition and health is not simple as there are several overlapping variables together with inherent or environmental conditions. Though there is a powerful and rising body of substantiation showing an association between these aspects, and play distinctly has a valuable role in the lives of children. The advantages of play are instant as well as enduring and contribute to each and every aspect of children’s wellbeing and development. The individuals need to take care regarding children’s physical as well as mental health, their brain development, educational development along with opportunities for language development, mathematical and spatial learning, imagination, and individuality formation in an efficient manner.
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