Discuss about Importance of Staffing Function to Organization.
Staffing function is very important for each and every organization whether profit-making or not. Every organization that has employees must have the staffing function which is usually under the human resource department. Staffing can be defined as a function of management which involves recruiting, hiring, promoting, demoting and deciding salaries and wages as well as supervision of an organization's workforce. There is a lot of literature that has been written concerning staffing in organizations. Different writers have different perspectives on staffing in organizations with some viewing it as part of an organization's strategy and other writers viewing staffing as a traditional role of hiring and firing. This report analyzes the past literature that has been written on the above-mentioned subject to identify similarities and differences in views and ideas of different researchers. This will help in identifying the existing gap in research on staffing in organizations. Further research on the subject can be done after gaps have been identified in order to fill these gaps
Staffing is a function in the human resource department and it is a process and therefore involves several procedures or aspects. Some of the aspects of staffing include; determining workforce requirement, recruitment, selection of candidates, orientation and placement of new staff, training and development, appraisal of performance, promotion of employees, compensation and the role of terminating employment through retirement or sacking. This report discusses and analyzes the views and ideas of different researchers on each and every staffing role in order to compare and contrast so as to identify the gaps in research.
(Arthur,2012) and (Scott & Reynolds, 2010) argue that the process of identifying the staffing requirement or need is the most important stage in the staffing function.(Scott & Reynolds, 2010) argues that need identification in staffing is important because, it helps an organization to identify gaps in human resource and therefore, if the gap is not identified correctly, the rest of the process will be unsuccessful. He articulates that the stage of identifying human resource needs involves determining the positions that need to be filled and the job qualification. He, therefore, concludes that the need identification is the backbone of staffing since it determines the output and hence determines whether or not an organization will achieve its staffing objectives. (Arthur,2012 )also argues that wrong assessment of staffing needs for an organization may result in the creation of unnecessary positions and hiring of extra staff who may not add to productivity hence having negative consequences on the organization.
According to (Griffin & Moorhead, 2012), the role of recruitment in an organization is very complex and sometimes most organization may not possess the capability to recruit the best candidates available for the job. He argues that it is important for organizations to outsource the recruitment role. (Griffin & Moorhead, 2012), argue that outsourcing of recruitment to a professional human resource management firm has many advantages as compared to doing the function from within. One of the advantages of outsourcing recruitment of staff is that it helps an organization to reduce the cost involved in recruitment. Outsourcing also ensures that the best candidates are selected since the function is carried out by an organization which has specialized in the sector and therefore has more knowledge of the market and more resources to perform the role than other organizations. (Heneman, Judge & Kammeyer 2015) also, supports the idea of outsourcing in the recruitment of staff for an organization. The main reasons why organizations should outsource according to (Heneman, Judge & Kammeyer 2015)s so as to cut costs and to enable the organization to focus on its main functions.(Bak& Stair, 2011)however, goes contrary to the idea or practice of outsourcing the recruitment role. According to (Bak& Stair, 2011), organizations are more suited at recruiting the most qualified staff by themselves since they have a better understanding of their staffing needs and therefore know exactly where to recruit and the type of people to recruit. Therefore, organizations should analyze and identify the suitable sources of their desired human resource and invite applications from willing candidates.
Selection of staff or candidates after applications have been made is also a very crucial role of staffing. (Bak& Stair, 2011)argues that selection of employees should be done in a very systematic manner and the organization should use a combination of various attributes methods to select the most suitable candidates for the available posts. This is due to the various factors that influence the performance of an individual in an organization and therefore it is important to select employees using a criterion which is unbiased and very objective.(Griffin & Moorhead, 2012) also supports this view by arguing that most organizations tend to focus on academic qualifications and their level of experience of an individual candidate, something that does not really measure the forecast productivity of that individual. He argues that some organizations also tend to select staff who are related to powerful people working in the organization, something that is not only unethical but also unprofessional. Therefore, it is important for organizations to be very thorough in selection since selecting the wrong candidate can be very costly for the organization both directly and indirectly.
Training is another aspect of staffing that many researchers have written about. Training involves equipping employees with the right knowledge and skills that are required to perform their roles and responsibilities more effectively. Different writers have different opinions on the importance of training to an organization.(Griffin, Phillips& Gully,2017) argues that training is a very crucial aspect in human resource management since it helps in increasing efficiency in an organization. He discusses that all organizations should have concrete training programs that are well funded in order to ensure that the workforce is updated especially during this era of technological revolution. (Nuhn, 2014) differs with (Griffin, Phillips& Gully, 2017)arguments. (Nuhn, 2014) articulates that training is very expensive for organizations and they result in extra expenses for an organization. Therefore, organizations should recruit staff who are well trained and experienced in order to do away with training expenses. He argues that employees do not need to be necessarily trained in order to have developed new skills because they can develop them through personal effort.
(Caruth & Pane, 2009) argues that training is fundamental for every organization since it helps to equip workers with skills needed to operate new machinery and also teaches them workplace safety. This helps in improving productivity and reducing work-related injuries.
Performance involves assessing the performance of employees and comparing it with their income in order to find ways of improving performance. Performance appraisal may also involve job appraisal. A lot has been written about performance appraisal in organizations. (Niehaus & Price, 2015), discusses that organizations need to come up with concrete and measurable indicators that will be used to measure the performance of employees. He argues that in order for an organization to measure performance they must develop tools to measure performance such as benchmarking. Organizations should set goals for each and every employee. After the end of a particular period, this performance of the employee is compared to the set objectives. In case the goals have not been achieved, an assessment is done and corrective action should be taken. (Younger & Smallwood, 2016) also, argues that performance appraisal helps organizations to determine the productivity of an employee which eventually determines the overall performance of the organization. In his research, he found out that 91% of organizations whose individual employees often fail to meet their individual targets also fail to achieve their overall objectives. He, therefore, concludes that organizations should set reasonable performance expectations and use measurement methods that are reliable, accurate and efficient in terms of cost to the organization.
After the performance of individuals has been measured, the process that follows involves rewarding those who performed well and taking measures to improve the performance of those who failed. One of the ways in which good performance is rewarded is through promotion. From the findings of research by (Sisney,2012), out of the 500 employees interviewed in his research, more than 86% of the respondents indicated that their main motivation for work Is promotion. Therefore employee promotion is a very important tool for motivation. Therefore, organizations should put in place a system that prioritizes internal recruitment for top jobs in an organization so as to motivate employees to work harder. (Scott& Reynolds, 2010) also agrees with (Sisney,2012) He argues that organizations should consider promotion as being an important motivator. He says that organizations should, therefore, put in place a promotion policy in order to ensure that promotion in an organization occurs purely on the basis of performance and favoritism does not occur. Abuse of promotion by the management can have very negative impact on the organization in terms of workers productivity and morale. According to Scott& Reynolds (2010) compensation scheme or policy of an organization is also very crucial and therefore an organization should come up with a policy that compensates employees fairly. This should be done by conducting job evaluation before deciding on salaries and wages of individuals working at various levels within the organization.
Staffing is a very complex role of human resource management and it is very crucial to the performance of an organization. Many researchers emphasize the importance of need identification stage in the staffing function. Outsourcing of the staffing function is also becoming popular with many organizations preferring to concentrate on their core business and reduce costs. Various methods used in performance appraisal like benchmarking and scaling should be measurable and reliable so as to attain accurate results on the performance of employees. The role of promotion and compensation in the motivation of employees is very huge. The gap identified in this literature is the how training and employee development benefits an organization.
Bak, O., & Stair, N. (2011). Impact of e-business technologies on public and private organizations: Industry comparisons and perspectives. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.
Arthur, D. (2012). Recruiting, interviewing, selecting & orienting new employees. New York: American Management Association.
Caruth, D. L., Caruth, G. D., & Pane, S. S. (2009). Staffing the contemporary organization: A guide to planning, recruiting, and selecting for human resource professionals. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.
Griffin, R. W., & Moorhead, G. (2012). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Griffin, R. W., Phillips, J., & Gully, S. M. (2017). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations.
Human Resource Planning Society., Niehaus, R. J., & Price, K. F. (2015). Human resource strategies for organizations in transition. New York: Plenum Press.
Heneman, H. G., Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2015). Staffing organ
Nuhn, H. F. R. (2014). Exploring Turnover Intentions in Organizations. Berlin: epubli GmbH.izations.
Scott, J., & Reynolds, D. H. (2010). Handbook of Workplace Assessment. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Sisney, L. (2012). Organizational physics: The science of growing a business.
Younger, J., & Smallwood, W. N. (2016). Agile talent: How to source and manage outside experts.