Wireless technology or communication deals with the transfer of information among several points, which are not connected physically or by any electrical conductor. Wireless technologies mainly use radio waves or signals for transferring the information. Therefore, in wireless technology, communication relies on wireless signal without the involvement of any physical medium (Makimoto & Yamashita, 2013). Wireless technology embarked in early 20th century, with the introduction of radiotelegraphy and Morse code. With the introduction of the process modulation, transmission of voices, music and sounds became possible. The most commonly used wireless technologies include WIFI based LANs, RFID, WiGig, Bluetooth, cellular network, WMAN, satellite and others (Arnon Barry & Karagiannidis, 2012). The use of these wireless technologies in various places is elaborated in the following paragraphs.
Use of wireless technology is increasing day by day and people are becoming more dependent on technology for improving the quality of living. The use of technologies such as LANs, RFID, cellular network, WMAN is increasing day by day. This is because in enhances the quality of work done and makes the work easier. All the mentioned technologies are widely used in business, institutions, home and by individuals in order to make the work processes easier and less time consuming (Brown & Green, 2012).
LAN refers to local area network, which is a collection of computers and certain devices that are connected by a common communication line. WIFI based LAN advanced LAN that uses wireless link to the server as the communication line (Yan, Xiuwan & Yubin, 2012). LAN can be used to communicate within an area as small as a single room or as wide as a group of buildings. In Wi-Fi based LANs, the devices use WIFI to connect with the router and to one another as well. These LAN are based on IEEE802.11, which is also known as WI-FI. The major advantage of WI-FI based LAN is that one can control the systems remotely.
Wireless based LAN is generally used for setting up a communication line in small or medium places like home, Computer laboratory of the institutions or in small offices.
Wireless LAN is extensively used in such places, as it is considerably easier to install. Moreover, it offers maximum speed as it is based on 802.11 standard.
RFID or Radio- Frequency identification uses radio waves to read and store the information possibly stored in tag, which is most probably attached with an object. This technology uses small radio frequency for identifying and tracking the devices enabled with a RFID tag. These tags stores information that can be read by the Radio frequency identification.
RFID is generally used in shopping malls, tollbooths, and in IT assets tracking. The RFID tag provides a real time tracking of the objects in the shopping mall and applicable in different payment options. IT assets include devices such as Computers, laptops, notebooks, tablets and other costly peripherals that are the investment and property of a company. Attaching a RFID tags to every devices makes it easier to keep a track of them in large buildings and offices (Dai et al., 2012).
WiGig or wireless Gigabit is an alliance that are researching on achieving a new specification, which will enable the devices to attain speed as high as 7Gbits/s even when operating on the unlicensed 60Ghz spectrum. WiGig is aiming to provide a cable free life. In this technology, all the devices will be connected with each other and will share data within seconds. The communication is done without the involvement of wires and the speed of communication is very high (Azhar, Tran & O'Brien, 2013).
This technology can be used over a short range for attaining maximum speed. Therefore, WiGig is primarily designed for using in home. Data can be transferred at speeds between 7GBps and 10Gbps with the help of ultra wide band. The distance should be less than 2 meters between the two devices for attaining the highest speed of data transfer. Therefore, it is generally used in a place with a very little or no obstacle. This technology will enable the transfer of large files within seconds, which will be very useful in data transfer in those places.
Bluetooth is standard of wireless communication within a very short range, with the interconnection of mobile phones, laptops, computers and other electronic devices. It uses point to pint or P2P network topology to communicate with the devises in connection. It is generally use to transfer images, videos and audios. The transfer speed using Bluetooth is relatively slow (Qian & Liu, 2012). Bluetooth uses low frequency radio waves to transfer data wireless among the Bluetooth connected devices. Special software embedded within the Bluetooth enabled devices helps in identifying the presence of Bluetooth devices within certain range to create a connection between them. Setting up a connection between the devices is necessary for sending and receiving the data.
Bluetooth can work within a maximum range of 164 feet and hence is used in home, car and in some application. Since the range is very less and the process is very slow, this wireless connection is not used that often. In home, it can be used to control the household appliances, lights, fans, alarms wirelessly. Bluetooth enabled devices attached to car’s panel may also help in answering cell phone, play music and using GPS directly from the navigation display of the car (Yan & Shi, 2013).
Cellular network is a mobile communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is spread over certain areas called cell, which is enabled with a local transceiver and three base stations. These base stations provide the network coverage that is used for transmission of data. When linked together, these cells provide radio coverage over a wide area. Communication using cellular requires a dedicated frequency for every communication (Asadi, Wang & Mancuso, 2014). This wireless technology uses radio waves in transmission of data. This technology is the fastest growing technology of communication industry. In cellular technology, the same frequency can be use multiple times in different communications with the help of another towers or receivers. Transmission tower of transmission of the signals are spread throughout a geographical area.
The cellular radio network is most commonly used in telecommunication industry. It is capable of transmitting both voice and data. Cellular communication can be used in paging and communication satellites as well. Paging is a simple form of cellular communication where an antenna broadcasts messages to its subscribers (Furht & Ahson, 2016). This system is used to enable reliable communication to the subscribers.
Cellular technology is therefore, used in all types of mobile phones, Smartphone and even tablets. Introduction of technology such as 4G enables transfer of both voice and Data over cellular network. It has a transmission speed is over Mbps when it is in a stationary position, Mbps for slow moving pedestrians and 20 mbps for fast running vehicles.
WMAN or wireless metropolitan network uses wireless network to establish connection among multiple locations within a metropolitan area such as a city, large office building and Universities. Using WMAN considerably lessens cost of wires in setting up a wired system over a large area. This technology is sometimes used as a backup for wired networks as well. WMAN makes the use of radio waves and infrared lights in data transmission (Zhi-hui, Zhi-xue & Hui, 2012). The standards of WMANs are Hiper-MAN, Hiper-ACCESS and 802.16.
WMAN is used to set up a connection within a large building or an entire city. This technology makes the use of satellite networks, cellular networks and microwave links to set up the connection. Communication or transfer of data is through a large geographical area is possible with the use of WMAN.
Satellites are used for many functions such as communication satellite, weather satellite, military satellite or navigation satellite. A communication satellite is a satellite that transfers and amplifies radio telecommunication signals generally with the help of a transponder (Gagliardi, 2012). This technology sets up a connection between a source and a receiver at various locations on the Earth.
Satellite connection is mainly used in the locations where wired connection is not at all feasible and internet connective is absent. Satellites can transmit data over a long geographical area including the whole planet. The transmission time of the satellite communication is generally not more than 250 milliseconds (Ippolito, 2012). Satellite communication is used to transfer data from one earth station to another. This type of communications is generally handled through dedicated third party providers. The extensive use of Satellite communication is in Global Positioning System or GPS. Satellite radio is another example of data communication.
In communication satellites, large transponders capture a radio frequency and rebroadcast it after amplifying the signal to another frequency. These communications generally have a propagation delay due to an involvement of large geographical distance.
Thus form the above discussion, it can be concluded that Wireless technology is extensively used all over the globe. It has a wide range of application and benefits. It provides the freedom from wires and cables. Moreover, the installation of these technologies is simple and cheaper with a lesser maintenance cost. It increases the reliability of data transfer and communication. Elimination of wires and cables from the system helps in attaining this reliability. However, there are some issues in the wireless network as well, such as are radio signal interference. Moreover, it is very necessary to enable additional layers of security in these systems, as it is easier to steal data from a wireless network. Wireless technology is the most advancing technology of the world. Wireless technology can be used in future for interconnecting different offices and institutions with each other. Moreover, technology such as RFID has made it easier to keep a track of items and in developing easier payment system.
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Zhi-hui, F., Zhi-xue, Z., & Hui, W. (2012, August). A vertical handoff algorithm application to the integration of WLAN and WMAN wireless heterogeneous networks. In Computational and Information Sciences (ICCIS), 2012 Fourth International Conference on (pp. 803-806). IEEE.
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