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Increased Occurrence Of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Add in library

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Question:

Describe the etiology of skin cancer in context the immunological perspectives?

 

 

Answer:

The most prevalent forms of skin (or integumentary) cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) reported in developed countries predominantly affect the white population (Dummer, Pittelkow, Iwatsuki, Green, & Elwan, 2011, p.3). The research studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute reveal the increased occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) among the younger individuals, as compared to the patients of higher age groups (Acton, 2012, p.2). The findings of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) describe integumentary cancers as the most frequently reported forms of life threatening cancers across the United States (Story, Riegelman, Kirkwood, Williams, & Sargent, 2014, p.424). The epidemiological data documented by Schottenfeld & Fraumeni (2006, p. 1235) supports the contention of higher morbidity rates from squamous cell carcinoma across United Sates, as compared to the reported cases of basal cell cancers in the same geographical region. However, these death rates among the cancer population fluctuate in accordance with the geographical variations and age ranges of the affected population.

 

Kwabi-Addo & Lindstrom (2011, p.107) describe the etiology of skin cancer in context the immunological perspectives. The clinical literature reveals the defects in the tumour suppression and immunomodulatory genes including BRAF, Pten and CDKN2A as the principal factors attributing to the development of integumentary malignancies across the globe. However, these genetic abnormalities result from the sustained exposure to ultraviolet radiation, infra red light, toxic elements and cosmetics among the predisposed population. The patients undergoing organ transplant and subsequent immune suppressant therapy highly predisposed to developing cancerous skin lesions resulting from the defects in their immune mechanisms. The simultaneous existence of other life threatening morbidities including HIV and autoimmune disorders considerably increases the risk of the patients’ population in developing keratinocyte malignancies.

The prevention approaches in context to controlling skin cancer warrant the formulation and subsequent execution of evidence based strategies in challenging the predisposing factors associated with the frequency of integumentary malignancies among the target population. The clinical literature recommends devising primary prevention approaches warranting the use of protective clothes as potential barriers in challenging the intense sunlight exposure in warm climates (Alberts & Hess, 2008, p.246-247). However, the secondary prevention strategies include the application of sunscreen topical lotions and detoxifiers in reducing the growth and progression of precancerous skin lesions among the predisposed patients.

The therapeutic treatment modalities in treating keratinocyte cancers include the chemical ablation of cancerous skin lesions by liquid nitrogen (Jemec, Kemeny & Miech, 2010, p.81). The National Cancer Institute elaborates the treatment options including laser intervention, surgical resection of the skin lesions, radiation modality, photodynamic treatment, chemotherapy, and electrodessication and interferon therapy as some of the clinically proven and evidence based options in controlling the complications of non-melanoma skin malignancies.

Therefore, the increased prevalence of skin cancers across the globe warrant serious considerations in configuring proactive approaches to prevent and cure the progression of these fatal clinical morbidities resulting in frequently reported mortalities across the developed and developing nations of the world. The analysis of immune system fluctuations in context to the etiology of skin cancers is highly warranted to investigate and device effective treatment modalities to reduce the burden of these fatal outcomes among the predisposed population.

 

References

Acton, A. (2012). Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Georgia: SchlarlyEditionsTM

Alberts, D., & Hess, L. (2008). Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention. Berling: Springer

Dummer, R., Pittelkow, M., Iwatsuki, K., Green, A., & Elwan, N. (2011). Skin Cancer - A World-Wide Perspective: A World-wide Perspective. New York: Springer

Jemec, G., Kemeny, L., & Miech, D. (2010). Non-Surgical Treatment of Keratinocyte Skin Cancer, New York: Springer

Kwabi-Addo, B., & Lindstrom, T. (2011). Cancer Causes and Controversies: Understanding Risk Reduction and Prevention, California: ABC-CLIO        

Schottenfeld, D., & Fraumeni, J. (2006). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. New York: Oxford

Story, L., Riegelman, R., Kirkwood, B., Williams, N., & Sargent, J. (2014).Pathophysiology: A Practical Approach. USA: Jones & Bartlett

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