Globalization has spread its wings nearly all over the world. It has introduced the world to a new term called digital convergence which includes four major areas that combined into one and they are Telecommunication, Information Technologies, Consumer Electronics, and Entertainment. But as it is known with something good also comes something bad. If this globalization has given as wings it has also created new areas of concern which includes ethical issues, legal issues, issues related to society and many more. There are many negative aspects of this and it includes cybercrime issue of a digital divide, privacy invasions, etc.(Liang, 2011). According to the Australian newspaper, the scope of cyber-attacks has been increased due to the explosion of the internet things. The major solution to this problem is educating the ICT professionals so that they understand and have the knowledge of all the technical issues and also have the knowledge of their responsibilities in the light of legality and ethicality(Wrong, 2017). ICT Professionals are those persons who have an up-to-date knowledge or understanding of a particular relevant field of their importance. ICT professionals stick to the agreed set of pattern to follow or pre-defined code of conduct, rules, and regulations(Tak eva, 2012). According to the Australian Computer Society (ACS) Professional Standards Board (2007), an ICT professional should possess following skills and knowledge like management and supervisory skills, should be able to review the performance of others as well as performance of self, should be innovative and many more other specifications related to this has been mentioned in the ACS Professional Standards Board(Lindley & Aynsley, 2017; Weckert & Lucas, 2013).
Today the term Privacy is gaining weightage for both the industries as well as to the governments. Today many new privacy protection measures are being developed to fight cybercrime(Wrong, 2017).The concept of privacy in simple terms majorly revolves around the right of a person to be left alone without being disturbed in their private matters. It is often said that privacy is a person's natural right being a part of the legal right, so it means privacy is something that is protected officially by law(Britz, 2002). Privacy issues occur when an unwanted identity tries to access someone's system in an unauthorized manner. E-banking, E-commerce are some of the major areas that are being attacked as today this has added to the normal lifestyle of people, so, security becomes a major issue today (McDermid, 2015 ). ICT security is a club of many things like organizations rules and regulations, products as well as services, the behavior of individuals and many more things to name. Security in ICT revolves around guaranteeing the information' privacy. The security aspects of ICT can be related to a locker facility that protects the information in the locker as well as maintains high privacy related to the items in the locker(Lioy, 2009).
Recently Australia took part in a conference related to security of information and communication technology in the USA. It was an Australian Cyber Security Mission which took place in San Francisco(Wrong, 2017). The risk that is related to this includes a risk of destruction of data available or corrupting the data available. Sometimes even some unidentified incidents happen that creates a threat to the enterprises or individuals(Eurostat, 2017). The threat to internet activities is called cybercrime. It includes any kind of crime that includes a computer and a network connection. Sometimes computers itself are the targets of the crime and sometimes the computers are used for committing such crimes. Computer viruses are one such program that corrupts the computer. It is even able to corrupt the other person's computers or any other electronic devices if connected with the hard drives of the corrupted computers. The most common way that is used to corrupt the computers is by the way of email. There is an attachment in this email and when this attachment is opened the virus immediately spreads in the whole computer. The other famous term related to cybercrime is cyber stalking. This is used as a means to stalk a person or harass an individual or any specific group by making the use of the internet. The activity of cyber stalking takes the shape of a crime when it is used to give repeated threatening to the people, or for harassing someone, or for monitoring someone without their permission or without letting they come to know. Another such issue of cybercrime is the identity theft. In this, a person steals someone's identity and then pretends to be that person and obtain all their personal records and can make use of it in a misleading way(Study.com, 2017).
The other area of major concern is the Intellectual Property Rights. Intellectual property rights prevent from coping with any kind of logo or the product of a company. Today it is seen that intellectual property rights and ICT are developing at a rapid pace in close connection. Intellectual property rights protect the copyright of specific websites or software or even domain names(Bogaerts and Groenen, 2017). The other area of concern is the regulation of internet. The things that make it difficult to regulate the internet includes that the internet lacks centralized control, the main issue being the nature of the internet that is worldwide, it even hides the identity of the sender by its facility of anonymity and pseudonymity (Parliament of Australia, 2017). The government of Australia has come up with many laws and regulations to control the activities of internet at both the Commonwealth level as well as at the State level. Commonwealth laws are applied on the service providers of the internet and on the content hosts of internet but are not applied to the content providers. On the other hand, the state and territory criminal laws are applied on the content providers as well as on the ordinary users of the internet. It protects from advertisement of something objectionable or something that is unsuitable or illegal(Electronic Frontiers, 2006).
The ICT is gaining importance today in everyone's life. It is having a great impact on every human being. But still, there are many parts of Australia that are still not connected with the information and communication technology. The facilities related to education, financial benefits and many more things that can be utilized with the help of ICT are still not reached to many people of Australia. So, it is the duty of the policy makers of the country to make such policies that reduce digital dived in the country. Social inclusion of digital world is very important. And for this to happen it is very important to provide people with necessary resources and opportunities(Digital Inclusion Index, 2017).
Technology has also had a great impact on the family as well as community making and their development and maintaining their social relationships. As modernization intervened the concept of nuclear families also emerged and so felt the need of ICT by these families and communities in order to stay connected with each other. This gave more push to the development of information and communication technology, as telephones were used more to stay connected the curiosity to know what is going on in the another part of the world gave a push for more and more radios and television sets. And if seen today the social networking sites are gaining tremendous importance. The internet has helped to develop a new virtual community for people where they can stay connected despite the fact of being miles apart. ICT has also helped to build the identity of individuals, specific groups, etc. like the talk of feminism started by making use of ICT has gained identity in the society and has also been able to bring the desired change. Many social groups have also been come to be recognized with the help of ICT. So, it can be said that ICT has helped to bring the change near us that we are seeing today. Even a small activity taking place in any corner of the world is known by every person in the world because of ICT, whether good or bad now everyone is aware of everything taking place across the world(McDermid D. , 2015).
The technical aspects if seen of ICT include Pervasive Computing and Convergent Computing. Pervasive computing is also called ubiquitous computing. The work of this computing is that it embeds the microprocessors in the objects of everyday use so that they are able to communicate the necessary information. The meaning of this term is one that exists everywhere. The services of pervasive computing are always connected and are always available. The main thing this computing requires is internet, wireless technologies, as well as advanced electronics. The main aim of this is creating a product that is able to communicate effectively and efficiently. On the other hand, the other computing system that is convergent computing system focuses on meeting the technological needs of any business. It aims to plan the solution for problems, implementation of any technology or any other activity related to implementation as well as it also helps with infrastructure solutions as well as enterprise cloud facilities(CCO, 2017).
So, to conclude it can be said that though information and communication and technology has opened many gates to success it has also opened few gates that can be a serious damage to the society, if not checked properly or controlled on time. There are many such cases for which the society will be thankful for such an innovation in this field that has helped to connect several aspects of the society and activities as well. But everything has some demerits some which can be checked and repaired and some from which one can stay away by remaining aware of. Necessary mitigation steps should be taken to avoid any kind of problems. And as it is a known fact that corruption can never be ended but it can be reduced to a certain extent, so is the case with the problems and flaws of information and communication technologies.
Bogaerts and Groenen. (2017). Intellectual property and ICT. Retrieved from Bgadvocaten.ni: https://bgadvocaten.nl/en/intellectual-property-and-ict
Britz, J. J. (2002). Technology as a Threat to Privacy: Ethical Challenges to the Information Profession. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
CCO. (2017). Convergent Computing. Retrieved from Cco.com: https://www.cco.com/
Digital Inclusion Index. (2017). About digital inclusion in Australia. Retrieved from Digitalinclusionindex.org.au: https://digitalinclusionindex.org.au/about/about-digital-inclusion/
Electronic Frontiers. (2006, March 31). Internet censorship laws in Australia. Retrieved from Efa.org.au: https://www.efa.org.au/Issues/Censor/cens1.html
Eurostat. (2017). ICT security in enterprises. Retrieved from Ec.europa.eu: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/ICT_security_in_enterprises
Liang, H. (2011, November 14). Introduction on ethics of ICT. Retrieved from Blog.nus.edu.sg: https://blog.nus.edu.sg/is1103group110/2011/11/14/introduction-on-ethics-of-ict/
Lindley, D., & Aynsley, B. (2017, May 12). Professionalism in the Information and Communication Technology Industry. Retrieved from Press-flies.anu.edu.au: https://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p223541/html/ch11.xhtml?referer=371&page=25
Lioy, A. (2009, May 12). Introduction to ICT security. Retrieved from Security.polito.it: https://security.polito.it/~lioy/01krq/intro_en_6x.pdf
McDermid, D. (2015 ). Ethics in ICT: An Australian Perspective. Pearson Higher Education AU.
McDermid, D. (2015). Ethics in ICT: An Australian Perspective. Canberra: Pearson Higher Education AU.
Parliament of Australia. (2017, may 12). Can internet be regulated? Retrieved from aph.gov.au: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/RP9596/96rp35
Study.com. (2017). What Is Cyber Crime? - Definition, Types & Examples. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-cyber-crime-definition-types-examples.html
Tak eva, T. (2012). Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination. IGI Global.
Weckert, J., & Lucas, R. (2013). Professionalism in the Information and Communication Technology Industry. ANU E Press.
Wrong, A. (2017, February 8). Protecting Privacy. Retrieved from Theaustralian.com.au: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/protecting-privacy/news-story/e8f666239d82ffb0e111a3b94e7cafc9
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