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This assignment focuses on the analysis phase of the Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC). Key elaements include:

  • Stakeholder analysis & requirements elicitation; and
  • Systems analysis and UML modelling techniques.

It is beneficial to familiarise yourself with the relationship between the task and the course objectives:

CO3. Interpret a problem situation in a given context;

CO4. Model system requirements for a given situation; and

CO6. Develop stakeholder engagement consulting skills.

Utilising a real-world case study, this assignment provides you with an opportunity to:

  • demonstrate consolidation of core analytical and people skills;
  • apply information gathering techniques to a real-life problem scenario;
  • differentiate between functional and non-functional requirements of an information system;
  • produce UML analysis models accurately detailing and aligning to the information requirements of a small business; and
  • demonstrate your enhanced application of problem solving within a systems development lifecycle framework.

Key Elements of the Analysis Phase

The medical practice management system is focused to provided and resources for improving health of people (Dabbagh and Lee, 2014).  This particular system is inclusive of various things like hospitals, health centers, nursing homes and special health program in industry and community. Health system generally operates to provide a proper social economic and political framework for the any country. This system will help an individual in keeping a track of various records in their system. With the help of this system the doctor can easily have an access to the details at any given time.

In the coming pages of the report the various stakeholders of medical practice management system have been discussed in details. After that four important aspects of the report that is system requirement, use case, domain modelling and use case modelling has been discussed in details.

A stakeholder can be stated as a party which has interest in any organization and can provide an effect to business (Plataniotis et al., 2015). The primary stakeholders of organization are its employees, suppliers and investors. Stakeholders are mainly of two type that is internal or external. Internal stakeholders are people who come up interest in various organization through a direct relationship. While external are people who do not work for the interest of organization but in some way are affected by actions or outcomes. Suppliers and public groups are considered to be external stakeholders.

There are large number of external stakeholders in an organization like suppliers, patients and financial community (Khan et al., 2016). Internal stakeholders in a patient management system mainly comprises of management, non-professional staff and professional staff. Management of any organization focus having internal stakeholders so that they can easily get contribution from them. The stakeholders mainly focus on having sufficient contribution which is needed on alternative basis.

The stakeholders in patient management system are government, public, providers, community health care professionals that is physicians, Nurses and pharmacists.

Government: As a “Government body” I want to have certain number of goals in health domain so that it can provide better healthcare care to common people. I take the initiative of implementing a health care system in order to provide proper health care services to the patients.  (Rahman and Ripon, 2014). I also get involved in making budget and other planning related to expenditure for the system development so that proper services of health care can be provided to the patients.

Relationship Between Task and Course Objectives

Public: As a general public I want to avail best kind of health care services.  I mainly focus on three aspects that is quality, cost and access to proper health care service. (Khan et al., 2016).  With the help of the new system I can be able to get proper healthcare services and can be able to get proper prescription  for the medicine.

Physicians: As a Physicians I want to provide the best kind of services to the patient. I generally take the responsibility of providing direct kind of medical services to various clients in different hospitals and clinics (Penzenstadler et al., 2014).  In addition to this, I also take care of the patients and prescribe them proper medicines as per the health problems so that they can easily takes the medicines with the help of the report that is generated with the help of the system.

Nurses:  As a nurse, I take the responsibility of taking care of the patients and I generally involve with the doctors so that proper checkup of the patients can be done.   As a nurse, I help in providing hand on care to the patients which generally ranges from taking total care to helping a patient with prevention of illness (Wang et al., 2016).  I also take proper decision by utilizing my critical skills for making decisions and by setting goals. The critical skills that I utilize include identification of problem, proper planning, implementing interventions and more.

Pharmacists: As a pharmacist I want to provide a best quality of medicine to the patients.  I take the responsibility of analyzing the prescription that is prescribed by the doctors in order to provide proper medicines to the patients. As per the prescription, the bill for the medicines are created which is then paid by the patients.

Business Manager: As a business manager I want to provide best infrastructure to our patients. I as a business manager takes the responsibility of handling the account. Moreover, I also take the responsibility of analyzing the total Medicare rebate as well as the private insure company rebates an invoice accordingly.

It is found that in order to collect data for the implementation of health system both primary and secondary data collection method is utilized.  In context to primary data collection method, the organization conducts interview and takes the help of survey so that they can be able to get proper response from the public about their needs and requirements in the healthcare industry (Yu et al., 2016) However, it is identified that the stakeholders who are mainly involved with the project utilizes secondary data collection method. It is found that number of journals as well as articles are reviewed in order to gather information related to the implementation of the information system so that the stakeholders can be able to implement the system effectively. For conducting the interview, the questions that are asked are listed below:

Real-World Case Study and Opportunity

Q1.What issues are encountered by receptionist in keeping a track of records of patients?

Q2. What kinds of issues are encountered when two or more patients book for appointment at the same time?

Q3. What problems are encountered in handling large mass of people?

Q4. How to assign patient to right doctors?

Q5. How to keep a track of things recovery achieved by a patient?

Q6. What are issues encountered in keeping a track of patient’s payments?

Q7. How to handle two patients bill when they are leaving the hospital at the same time?

Q8. What problems are encountered in handling financial data of large mass of people?

Q9. How to keep a track of the amount left and amount which needs to be paid further?

Q10. How to keep a track of any extra money incurred by a patient?  

Moreover, it is found that for collecting data, focus is made on observation as well as on the documents and records in order to analyze the problems that are associated with the current system. This generally assist in gathering information about the needs and requirements of the new system in the healthcare industry.

Functional requirement: It comprises of statement of service of system which is needed to be provided, particular the fact that how system behave in a given situation (Budzianowski et al., 2017). It mainly stresses on fact or idea that what a system should do or not.

FR1 The functional requirement mainly checks the following parameters like:

 FR2 It mainly checks functionality or service provided by system.

FR3 It mainly depends on the kind of software, expected users and type of software used by system.

FR4 Functional requirement mainly provided high level statement regarding the fact that the system can do.

FR5 Functional requirement of the system mainly describes the system service of the users.

FR6 A user can easily look for list of appointment for all the patients in the clinics.

FR7 System should generate each and every day a list of expected patients in the hospitals.

FR8 Each and every staff member who are using the system are identified by the help of 8-digit number.  

Constraints are provided or offered by various system like time constraints, standards (Van Schijndel, 2014). It is applied to system as a whole rather individual features or any kind of service.

NF1 It mainly defines the various properties and constraints like storage requirement and time   of response.

Stakeholders in Medical Practice Management System

NF2 Process requirement are mainly specified by the help of programming language.

NF3 It is considered to be very much critical than functional requirement. Now if the certain condition is not meet then the system may be considered to be useless. 

Use case

Description

Book Appointment

User/Actor are book an appointment through this system and system create an appointment for the patient.

Provide problem details

User/Actor are providing their problem details into this system.

Assign Doctors

Based on the problem details the system assign a user/actor to the patient and the system will display the patient details.

Prescribe Medication  

User/Actor are looking for the preferred medication into the system and prescribe it.

Generate Report

User/actor enter medication details into the system.

Generate Bills

User/actor enter the billing details and system will generate the report.

Make payment

User/Actor make payment through the system.  

(Source: Created by Author)

There are mainly three actors in the Use Case diagram that are patient, doctor and staff. In the beginning phase patient will book for appointment and provide the necessary details (Lavoué et al., 2015). After that suitable doctor will be assigned as per problem registered by patient. After doctor will check the necessary details of the patient (Ralchenko et al., 2015). After checking the patient doctor will prescribe him with some suitable medicine. Doctor will generate a report to the hospital staff after analyzing patient (Bucher et al., 2015). The report will be forwarded to hospital staff which will help in generating bill for the patient. In the end patient will make payment as per the generated bill.

Class Name

Attributes

Patient

Id, name, gender, DOB, age, sickness, allergies, specialreq.

Doctor

ID, name, gender, age, specialization, total experience, time available, contact no

Staff

ID, Name, department

Medicine

ID, Name

(Source: Created by author)

State

Transition causing exit

Open

BookAppointment

Appointment

AssignDoctor

Doctor

PrescribeMedication

Review the patient

ReportGenerate

Make payment

exit

Usecase Name

Book Appointment

Scenario

Book online appointment

Triggering event

Booking is notified of a new appointment is booked.

description

Patient access the system and book for an appointment.

Actor

Patient

related usecase

Might me invoke with the provide patient details use case.

stakeholders

Patient, doctor, staff

Precondition

Patient is enter into the system

Post condition

Enter problem details

One or more contact details must be saved

Account must be created and saved

Flow of activity

1. Patient select “Book Appointment”

2. enter the problem details

3. system take the booking details

4. system looking for the available doctor.

Extension

1.basic patient condition is incomplete

 2. no doctors are available

Data entity/domain class

CRUD

Verified use case

Patient

Create

Book Appointment, provide problem details and make payment.

Read/report

Book Appointment, provide problem details, Assign Doctor, check patient Details, Prescribe Medication, Generate Report and Make Payment.

Update

Book Appointment, provide problem details and make payment.

Delete

Book Appointment, provide problem details and make payment.

Doctor

Create

Prescribe Medication and generate report.

Read/report

Book Appointment, provide problem details, Assign Doctor, check patient Details, Prescribe Medication, Generate Report and Make Payment.

Update

Check patient Details, Prescribe Medication and generate report

Delete

Prescribe Medication and generate report

Staff

Create

Generate Bills

Read/report

Book Appointment, provide problem details, Assign Doctor, check patient Details, Prescribe Medication, Generate Report and Make Payment.

Update

Generate Bills and make payment

Delete

Generate Bills and make payment

Conclusion 

From the above discussion it can be easily concluded that this report is all about design a medical practice management system. All the stakeholders of the system like doctors, nurses, receptionist has been discussed in the above pages of the report. For each kind of stakeholders identified a list of system of particular interest has been discussed. Both the methods of data collection that is primary and secondary has been discussed in details. Hospital taken for interview has been discussed in details. After that functional and non-functional requirements of the system has been discussed in details. All the actors in the system has been identified and provided in Use Case diagram. After that a list of domain classes has been provided regarding the system and their attributes. A domain class diagram has been provided with provides an idea regarding primary keys and multiplicity constraints. A proper activity diagram has been provided with respect to the given case study.

References 

Aït-Ameur, Y., Ait-Sadoune, I., Castéran, P., Gibson, P., Hacid, K., Kherroubi, S., Mery, D., Mohand-Oussaïd, L., Singh, N.K. and Voisin, L., 2018, June. On the Importance of Explicit Domain Modelling in Refinement-Based Modelling Design. Experiments with Event-B. In International Conference on Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM, and Z (pp. 425-430). Springer, Cham.

Bucher, H., Buciuman, M.F., Klimm, A., Sander, O. and Becker, J., 2015, August. A V2X message evaluation methodology and cross-domain modelling of safety applications in V2X-enabled E/E-architectures. In SimuTools(pp. 71-78).

Budzianowski, P., Ultes, S., Su, P.H., Mrkši?, N., Wen, T.H., Casanueva, I., Rojas-Barahona, L. and Gaši?, M., 2017. Sub-domain modelling for dialogue management with hierarchical reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.06210.

Dabbagh, M. and Lee, S.P., 2014. An approach for integrating the prioritization of functional and nonfunctional requirements. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.

Khan, F., Jan, S.R., Tahir, M., Khan, S. and Ullah, F., 2016. Survey: Dealing Non-Functional Requirements at Architecture Level. VFAST Transactions on Software Engineering, 9(2), pp.7-13.

Khan, S., Babar, M., Khan, F., Arif, F. and Tahir, M., 2016. Collaboration Methodology for Integrating Non-Functional Requirements in Architecture. the Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences (JAEBS), 6, pp.63-67.

Lavoué, F., Brossier, R., Métivier, L., Garambois, S. and Virieux, J., 2015. Frequency-domain modelling and inversion of electromagnetic data for 2D permittivity and conductivity imaging: An application to the Institut Fresnel experimental dataset. Near Surface Geophysics, 13(3), pp.227-241.

Penzenstadler, B., Raturi, A., Richardson, D. and Tomlinson, B., 2014. Safety, security, now sustainability: the non-functional requirement for the 21st century. IEEE software, (1), p.1.

Plataniotis, G., Ma, Q., Proper, E. and de Kinderen, S., 2015, May. Traceability and modeling of requirements in enterprise architecture from a design rationale perspective. In Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS), 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on (pp. 518-519). IEEE.

Rahman, M. and Ripon, S., 2014. Elicitation and modeling non-functional requirements-a POS case study. arXiv preprint arXiv:1403.1936.

Ralchenko, M., Svilans, M., Samson, C. and Roper, M., 2015. Finite-difference time-domain modelling of through-the-Earth radio signal propagation. Computers & Geosciences, 85, pp.184-195.

Van Schijndel, A.W.M., 2014. A review of the application of SimuLink S-functions to multi domain modelling and building simulation. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 7(3), pp.165-178.

Wang, J.W., Wang, H.F., Ding, J.L., Furuta, K., Kanno, T., Ip, W.H. and Zhang, W.J., 2016. On domain modelling of the service system with its application to enterprise information systems. Enterprise Information Systems, 10(1), pp.1-16.

Yu, W., Luo, Y., Chen, Y. and Pi, Y., 2016. Frequency domain modelling and control of fractional-order system for permanent magnet synchronous motor velocity servo system. IET Control Theory & Applications, 10(2), pp.136-143.

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