The post-Cold World War has seen a great amount of hike in the operations organized to keep peace internationally. These operations as we know called Peace support operations (PSO) helped in great amount in order to suppress the disputes among various areas and look forward to a peaceful world. The peace support operations have been organized by many nations in order to make the world a peaceful and livable place. However, with the change in society and in order to adopt the dynamics of society, it has become imperative to cope up with the changing environment and do away with the traditional concept of peacekeeping and adopt modern approaches. During the complicated peacekeeping missions that were held in the year 1990, the traditional peace support operations were given a red signal and many new missions came up in order to bring peace in conflict prone areas. However, the conflicted areas were not very easy to handle and it forced the authorities to introduce different approaches in order to deal with such environment. Peace support operations in today’s era have completely a different outlook, way better and different from the traditional approaches. We will study in this essay how far these operations have been proven to be successful to keep peace.
The role of the UN in peacekeeping: UN peacekeeping gives security to so many people and with the help of all the operations conducted by the UN; people have managed to live a peaceful life. The UN is giving its best to help people live a life free from conflicts and fear of conflicts. It not only takes off the burden from many nations, but also performs effectively to avoid future conflicts. For many years, this role has been performed by UN quite successfully and has avoided many wars. Not only avoided wars, but has settled down many disputes.
The UN is the biggest and the strongest contributor to resolving conflicts around the whole world. Around the whole world, it is only the United States of America, which sends more military personnel to the conflict area than the United Nations.
Talking about statistics, there are around 1,00,000 people working on around 15 peace support operations in different nations in order to save people from wars or to avoid various wars in order to make the whole world a peaceful place to live in. Since 1995, UN has been working hard to increase the size of the workforce as well as the countries which the whole clan of the UN is serving (University, 2016).
Every year the UN work on improving the knowledge, skills and expertise of people deployed in peacekeeping missions or operations and spend huge amount of money to make them work better. Many new skilled people are hired every year and train them to work towards the peace of the country. This is done since all the member nations pledged to make the world a peaceful and conflict free place so that people can work and live fearlessly. This has been a blessing for the world. The contributors contribute money and utilize the funds for the welfare of people. All the departments of the UN work relentlessly towards its goals and objectives so that the long term aim of UN can be achieved which is peace in every nation of the world. There are still many countries where peace doesn’t prevail and the UN is always ready to extend its helping hand. The countries which are war prone and where people live with fear, the UN is supporting them and conducting peacekeeping missions there to make them live happily.
The UN does not own its own military force, but the member nations give their force to the UN when the need arises and to successfully conduct peace support operations (McEwen, 2016). In 2015, 125 countries deployed its military forces to support the operations. As we know, the more the merrier, so more number of personnel the more security to people.
Success rate: Since 1948, UN peacekeepers have performed around 63 field operations and have led many people around the world participate in those missions and have brought out many people stuck in conflict areas out of it giving them lives.
Role of Australia in peacekeeping: Talking about peace operations by Australia, the country had a quite major role in many important operations as we all know, for example Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste and Bougainville which helped in the Cambodian Peace Settlement. The country has played role in the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Australia contributed by deploying workforce to the Multinational Force and also made efforts to stabilize the position in Afghanistan and efforts were made to contribute to Commonwealth operations held in Uganda and Zimbabwe (Paul, 1999).
The UN keeps suggesting and recommending various nations of the world to keep peace in their countries, thereby maintaining peace in the whole world. In September 2015, a Summit was conducted to support peace operations and it was held by the UN and Australia attended the Summit and promised to give its full support. Australia even promised to maintain the ability of the UN to provide assistance on peacekeeping missions and pledged to provide its expert people in order to conduct successful peace operations. A very amazing fact about Australia is that it is 11th largest financial contributor to the UN peacekeeping budget (Army News, 2015).
It is very important, in order to solve any conflict, to go to the root cause of it and analysis of root cause helps to eradicate the problem otherwise it will keep coming back. The main aim of all the peace operations conducted by the UN is to know the cause of conflicts and work upon it. The UN has remained successful in many of its summits and thereby maintained peace in many countries of the world. Australia as we know is one of the financers of UN budgets and it has helped the country financially to a great extent. At present, Australia is committed to providing finance to the UN and it will remain committed for a few coming years.
As far as UN peace building is concerned, Australia is the 9th largest donor and in order to resolve complicated conflicts such kind of assistance is very useful and many disputes are solved with the help of such financial assistance. Australia is totally dedicated to promoting the UN’s efforts to maintain peace in disputed areas (Australia, 2014).
Leadership and the local ownership are important factors and improve the success rate of peacekeeping operations and helps in maintaining and building peace.
It is very important that the local authorities should support and personnel working with such authorities should be trained to provide better results. They should be sent to missions to gain knowledge and experience. It is important to look forward to long term objectives of peace building and this should be done by higher authorities to make the world a peaceful place to live in.
In order to transform a conflict prone are in a peaceful area, a lot of efforts are required and such process takes time and can be very slow but what all required is time, dedication and commitment. Hence, whenever personnel are employed to conduct peace supporting operations successfully, it is recommended that such people should possess all these qualities.
A robust regional commitment is an important factor in building peace worldwide.
Many programs are conducted to create awareness among people that the security of their country is threatened and they need to work towards their own safety and safety of other people. In that way, the success rate of peace operations can be enhanced (Merrifield, 2014). Support from the people of the nations is very essential; hence awareness programs are conducted by various groups.
The awareness programs should be conducted after various intervals and people of all age groups should be given information regarding the peace support operations conducted by the nations worldwide as well by the UN. The study of the UN should be made compulsory so that people come to know its relevance for world and the functions performed by all the parts of the UN and this can be done by adding this as a subject to the course in schools as well as colleges.
Not for your own country, but providing support to nations worldwide is important because security of not only one country but the whole world is important.
Political factors are very important in promoting peace of the nations since politicians have a wide authority of signing peace treaties with other nations and maintain peace by following such agreements.
It is important to make long term planning but it is necessary to keep the treaties going by avoiding the breach of such agreements and coping up with the changing needs of the society (Operations, 2010).
Continuous communications inter country as well as intra country is necessitated because it can curtail down many disputes and disputes can be resolved only by talking and not by using violent methods.
Australia’s experiences have shown the significance of institution building to make the rule of law very robust in order to help the areas which are more conflict prone and where the lives of people are considered very cheap.
Security sector reform is considered to be a very significant element of peace support missions followed by Australia and many areas are able to successfully build peace in their areas supporting this reform. However, it is very important to take into its ambit not only military forces, but also the judicial system and work together in harmony to come out with better results and safety of people can be secured when everyone is linked closely to all these departments. People need to feel they are an important part of the system and system works for them and not against them, only then people will cooperate with the authorities and work with them and not against them.
Women, peace and security: Australia has seen disputes in two areas as we know that are Bougainville and Solomon Islands and these two disputes have clearly shown that during a conflict women face different problems and not only women, girls are also covered in its ambit and they have different experiences even after the conflict is over. Their needs are quite different from men and taking into account this point the Security Council of UN gave guidelines on how women should deal with such situations and how it can be properly managed (Lang, 2009).
Women play an active role in taking precautions to avoid conflicts, their management and how to resolve them. These days women are working at par with men and considering this the UN Security Council came up with the guidelines. Australia has taken initiatives on this ground and has started a famous plan known as the 2012-2018 National Action Plan to empower women in supporting peace and work for the welfare of the country and the whole country worldwide.
When peace is maintained in any country, it helps the country to develop and reach heights. Peaceful environment helps people to give better and desired results and when they work without fear, their productivity increases and hence, the results are improved. So, keeping peace improves the overall condition of the people as well as the country as a whole and makes the whole nation a livable place.
The peace in the country helps the country to develop and the peace support operations have helped Australia in developing the country and the following points will show how far the country has progressed adopting peace supporting operations: These are:
Foreign visitors – 15 million: The number of tourists that visited the country in the year 2015 was about 6.8 million, which is almost 2.5 times the visitors that visited the city in 2003. Australia has set an aim of getting 25 million foreign tourists every year by 2020. This is to be done by including everyone in peace support programs be it women or men (Nadin, 2013).
International events and conferences: The city holds many international events and in the recent years the number has increased. The number increased to 550 in 2015 which are considered to be the highest in terms of holding conferences and events. The country has many furnished conference halls, exhibition halls covering a huge area, reception halls etc. this has only become possible due to peaceful environment in the country.
International financial center: It is a hub of global business and considered to be the place where different people around the globe meet to improve the economy of the world. Australia is making continuous efforts to come at par with New York’s Wall Street. The people around the world along with the resources gather in the country and make best possible efforts to create wonders in different fields including finances and other activities. Peaceful and conflict free areas help the economy rise.
The largest hub of transportation: The country is the largest hub of air, ground and rail transportation in the country for both domestic and international purposes. The public transportation of Australia is considered to be the most clean and efficient system in the entire world with all the facilities and convenience. The primary mode in the many parts of the country is rail, which is the most efficient and organized network of the railways in the world with clear surface lines (Plovdiv, 2000).
Industrialization: It is a center for leading industries and the manufacturing is greatly diversified. The inclination of the country is not really towards heavy base industries, but is towards light scale industries. Amongst the different industries of Australia there exists automobile industry, transport equipment, electronic apparatus, optical goods, furniture and a huge variety of consumer goods. It also includes printing as well as publishing.
Efficient stock exchange: The stock exchange has been seen to be very innovative and keeps introducing various facilities for its investors, for an example, one of the other facilities that was introduced in the year 2014 was the mobile application for its investors, which provided convenient services and getting updates from time to time so that the investors get to know about the transactions and respective rates on regular basis and invest their money as and when they think it is fit to do (Kuhne, 1999). The innovation has only been possible because of the peaceful environment.
The number of applications related to patents is led by the individuals of Australia and comes under the highest levels worldwide and also includes numerous patent applications led outside of the country of Australia. Australia is used as a part of the research by universities; corporations and another entity are specifically frequent in the fields of communications and information as well as life sciences.
The scale of industries in the market and the utilization of resources and the development of new energy have been seen to be growing at a very fast rate plus the total volume of shipment is also spiraling upwards and most importantly the shipments to other countries are particularly rising. The industries which are rising on the global lines are environmental industries, especially water industries and these are anticipating a huge growth in various sectors like setting up of infrastructures and proper management of sewage and water supply (Husna, 2016).
On the other hand, rise in information system have given high hopes that the scale of cloud services in the market will continue to increase. Corporations involved in various business activities focus on environment, medical health care and welfare and information & communications technology are emphasizing on the needs of the market and generating revenues thereby adding to the economy of Australia. As a result the globalized economy, which is highly and smoothly going up and the declining domestic demand and various other factors, the number of businesses which are entering into the foreign markets is increasing. Australia is working hard to invest and spread its branches in the foreign markets as well as making efforts to bring foreign companies in its own vicinity to work with. Australia doesn’t leave any area untouched and is progressing in every field, be it sciences, aviation, textiles etc. the process of selection of employees in the company is a fair and least inconvenience is caused to them and many recreational activities are arranged for the employees of the companies to make them feel better and provide better results. This is one of the major unique selling propositions of the companies working in Australia. The huge number of corporations involved in the businesses targeting foreign markets is stretching towards giving products and services after analyzing the needs of the customers and understanding their needs and behavior and then providing them with the product thereby leading to the full satisfaction of the customers. This has only become possible because of the peace prevailing in the country (Ong, 2016).
The GDP of the city has escalated enormously and it has benefitted both the country as well as the world at large. The lifestyle of the people has changed due to the changes in many sectors and has adopted a high living standard. The industrialization in the city has brought home revenues and has added to the economy of the city. Many foreign marketers are ready to invest in the Australian market due to its goodwill. Due to the efficient hospitality of the country, there has been seen a growth in the tourism sector (Janda, 2016).
The total rate of unemployment in Australia during 2010 was continuing from the last years remained at a very disgraceful level. Although the number decreased relatively in the year 2009 but the position was not very good till 2010. After 2010 the rate of employment went up and due the phase of industrialization, many new corporations entered and provided employment opportunities to the people of Australia with handsome packages of salary.
There was a time when the economy of Australia did not exist visibly, but now the time has come that the city is performing very well and adding to the economy of the country as well as the world. It is striving every day and making its best efforts to fetch good business and provide the best facilities to its residents and due to its continuous efforts has made the city livable.
In the above information we have seen that the country has managed perfectly well and has come out of the financial crisis with its skilful management practices and following the USP. So this shows how peace supporting operations have helped the economy and how far these operations have remained successful.
In the year 1980, Australia took a major step in the growth of economy due to its increase in the economic activity globally and the emergence of the society.
After that Australia stepped as one of the world’s most proactive important countries, flaunting activities such as information, cutting-edge technology, fashion and culture, as well as a high level of safety of the public (Mackinlay, 1996).
From 1986 onwards, the prices of stock and land had spiraled upwards. Australia enjoyed enormous growth under this phenomenon, but the bubble exploded at the beginning of the 1990s, which curtailed down tax revenues which created the financial crisis in the state.
Australia was able to get over with this financial crisis through two fiscal programs and these were reconstruction programs and were successively performed. The population decided to return to Australia and that was the time when in 1997, in-migration surpassed out-migration first time in 12 years. In 2001, Australia’s population counted as 12 million, which increased to 13 million in 2010.
The economy of Australia is on the 3rd rank in the world by gross domestic product and ranks on 4th number as per the purchasing power parity and is on the second rank in the whole world’s economy, so by far, Australia is giving phenomenal performance.
The significant industries are textiles, luxury goods, and steel plants. The country has many industries, both heavy base as well as light base, but the number of light base industries is more than heavy base industries and the industries contribute a huge amount of gross domestic product to the economy and so the industrialization of the country is adding a lot to the economy and it keeps on promoting the industry sector.
Rise in the education sector: Due to the peaceful environment in the country, a great amount of rise has been witnessed in the education sector. A great number of schools in the country are opened international students are attracted to the peaceful environment of the country.
The high investment would benefit the country to a greater extent, so spending huge amount on that to invite global investors is very important and not only the investors to be appointed in the field of education, but also in job areas to provide good placements to the students so that they can be sure of their future and not study with the stress of getting placed after studies.
The training given to the students that is educational or vocational training is fully developed in the country and efforts have been be made to develop strategies to make improvements in this field and hire more expert professionals to give such training and the training in today’s world has become very important to prepare the students for the real world and ease them by giving them required knowledge.
There are some programs in educational institutions for which the time period is very long, so institutes have now decided to shorten the time period and save the time of the students so they can utilize it in other areas, thereby saving the precious time of the students and helping them making their career (Australian Trade and Investment Commission, 2016).
The scholarships have been increased in number and every year more and more is being given to the brilliant and needy students to help them study in good schools and a great check is kept on those who provide scholarships as well on those who get the scholarships.
The faculty appointed is mostly permanent and if appointed on a temporary basis is for a short period of time and is made permanent after a certain period to give them job security as it is good for the students as well as it built the brand value of the respective school or college.
The placement programs invite good companies which provide good packages and which is good for the livelihood of the students and more investment is made by the educational institutions in this area as it is very important to invite high brand companies to help the students settle in (Spence & Thomson, 2016).
The accommodation given to the students is economical and no extra charges are taken from them which are unnecessary and not required and the students are not overburdened with work and their life is not made stressful and funds are invested in good accommodation service with all the facilities.
Extracurricular activities are focused upon to reduce the boredom and various motivational programs are conducted to motivate the students and apart from those other activities related to sports or any cultural activities or any seminars on meditation are also organized to help the students keep working (Inc., 2016).
E-classrooms have been introduced in schools and colleges to help the students study more effectively and with full energy. The usage of videos, pictures etc. help the students learn more effectively and help them to retain things in the long run (Government, 2016). Various power point presentations, models are used to help the students learn properly. This is basically done when the field is science. Various equipments are now installed in labs which help the students study well.
The government has added more funds for the improvisation of the education sector and appointed good faculty for teaching the students as youth is the future of the nation and it is important to develop the youth.
Many educational institutions have been opened for those who are not normal or who are suffering from any mental or physical disabilities and provided them education for free as well as other incidental services for free too, and helped them learn things and motivate them to stand with the other normal students at par (Knott, 2016).
It is very important to realize the importance of peace around the whole world because only a peaceful country helps the nation rise. More and more people will visit those countries which are peaceful and where conflicts are at bay. This has even helped the tourism sector of Australia to excel and has led to a reduction in poverty. Australia is counted amongst those countries which has got the most healthy and prosperous economies in the world. One of the major contributors is tourism industry and it has added a lot in reducing the poverty of the country. This has been evident in the lifestyle of the people of the country which has been continuously improving. In the whole country, the cities like Sydney and Melbourne has the most flamboyant and high lifestyle. This country was recognized as the richest country by the World Bank and the major contributor was tourism sector. A huge amount of tourists are attracted every year and the major reason is high lifestyle of people and improved facilities. Australia has comparatively higher standard of living due to mainly three factors its resources, well being of the population and standard of living. It is also certified by the WHO as it has the least crime records as compared to the other countries. Australia was considered as one of the richest countries of the world in the year 1995. In 2006 its GDP was $1 trillion. The economic growth of the country was about 3.3 % every year. And it has the highest Purchasing Power Parity or the PPP in the world. In Australia there was a huge amount of migration from different countries and the main reason behind this was growth in the economy, the simple lifestyle and easy immigration. This progress is only because of peaceful and tension free environment.
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