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International Relations: World Wide Fund

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Question:

Discuss about the International Relations for World Wide Fund.

 

Answer:

Intergovernmental organizations are part of the international organizations with membership exceeding three states. The states create these IGOs to help them in solving their shared problems thus ensure they make collective decisions to overcome the challenge (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). In the IGOs, the representatives of these states gather to address the issues affecting the region. The most common intergovernmental organizations include the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the WTO (Laksmana, 2013). The SEAN is mandated to promote regional culture, social, and economic cooperation in the region. The WTO also manages conflicts or disputes related to trading partners.

The NGOs are the second non-state or private actors. In most cases, volunteers from the community to promote the shared interests form these organizations thus influence the state policies. The NGOs have helped in addressing various global issues including disarmament, human rights, and environmental protection (Laksmana, 2013). These organizations focus on respected and constructive objectives thus rarely trigger opposition and controversies. For example, the Religious Movement and World Wide Fund for Nature are popular NGOs. The WWF addresses issues related to environmental research, restoration, and conservation while the Religious Movement promotes religious convictions and principles of conduct.

The Multinational Corporations are businesses that engage in profit-maximization goals and operate in different countries. These firms have headquarters in one country and subsidiaries in other countries (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). MNCs are large companies operating worldwide and have employees and fixed assets. For example, the Honda and Financial organization including banks are MNCs. Honda, for instance, manufactures its products in different factories and sell them to different customers worldwide. Similarly, banking institutions operate internationally and they have to comply with stringent restrictions than other businesses.

 

Chapter 2 Question Set:

Based on the events in Syria, it appears that any intervention can establish a post-global order, especially the post-Westphobia. In the international law, no power is allowed to interfere with the domestic affairs of any country (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Despite the continued blood shade in Syria due to civil war, the country has avoided seeking the intervention of other countries. Syria only requested Russia to intervene instead of seeking solace from other strong democracies. The other powers have kept a distance from interfering with the Syrian affairs because President Assad enjoys strong ties with Moscow. The Russian government has supported the Syrian government by offering military personnel, equipment, and housing. This has complicated matters for other countries which view any war against Assad would be a declared war on Russia. The United States has avoided confrontation in Syria because Russia can use nuclear arsenals. Therefore, any war with Russia would cause the worst situation in the world. Many countries have also opposed the US intervention in Syria because it can destabilize the region leading to war.

 

Chapter 3 Question Set:

The legislative branch of government has the responsibility to define the country’s foreign policy. It is a representative of the masses thus allows the representatives to participate in the foreign policy decisions. In most cases, each government has its own foreign policy. Nonetheless, foreign policy decisions have to reflect the processes like the domestic coalition. In democratic governance, the executive operates through political debate. In the United States, for instance, the constitution defines the country’s foreign policy power (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Both the executive and Congress has shared the responsibility to define and reshape the foreign policy. Both branches of government can initiate changes in the U.S foreign policy. Although military action relates to war, the economic embargoes and sanctions can be used to compel other countries to comply with the nation’s standards and regulations. These sanctions rarely have grave consequences. However, the military actions involve the use army is costly.

Chapter 4 Question Set:

Women play crucial roles in industrializing any country. However, the efforts to entrench gender equity undermine the principles of democracy (UN, 2011). For instance, the move by different countries to establish gender quotas to allow women have some political positions is discriminatory. Indisputably, the feministic revolution has helped many women earn senior positions in politics and government (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). This makes creating gender quotas for women to disrupt democratic processes. The political systems should be left to select the best candidate without creating a predetermined people (InternationalsymposiumSymOrg2016, Jas?ko, Marinkovic?, & Beagrade, 2016). Indisputably, in the democratic principle, the previous political system can never compromise the gender issues. Following the recent revolutions, many women have ascended to leadership in the current systems. The systems represent the genders.

 

Chapter 5 Question Set:

The situation and environment have completely shifted because the U.S no longer pursues a common enemy. Previously, the United States worked together with China to contain Russia (Stratfor, 2016). However, new threats have emerged that can cause war including space completion, purported espionage, and cyber-attacks. Unfortunately, any war between the superpowers could have the worst economic impact (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Today, no country is an island because they must work together. Indisputably, these countries have demonstrated real tension in certain areas but the costs of war would outwit the benefits. For instance, the US and Russia have experienced serious conflict situations that could have triggered real war. In fact, both countries pursue different interests. Although the US is superior to Russia, in the last two decades, Russia has tried to narrow the gap militarily. Russia is taking an aggressive approach, especially following its entry into Syria thus compelling the US to remain timid (Stratfor, 2016). The Russian move made the U.S protect its allies instead of facing off with Russia over Syria. The United States has opted for supporting the Ukraine through nonlethal means thus helps them overcome the Russian siege. Since both countries have lethal weapons, none of them would opt for war but engage in cold war.

Chapter 6 Question Set:

Previously, nations used to fight great conflicts using their navies, armies, and the air forces. Nations with advanced military resources always emerged victorious in the end. Undoubtedly, the United States enjoys the military superiority in the world (Petras, 2017). Unfortunately, the country has found it difficult to employ its military resources in Ukraine, the Middle East, and Africa due to the conflicting resolutions. For instance, the U.S should focus on aiding and supporting these allies instead of inflicting its powers on them (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Today, these countries are suffering from terrorism that has inflicted suffering on their population. To this effect, the U.S is called upon to protect and support them against the aggressors. The US has responded swiftly by imposing an economic and political sanction of the countries posing threats to their democracies (Petras, 2017). These regions no longer experience a single problem by faces multiple challenges including terrorism, religious tensions, rising non-state actors, and falling governments. This shows the region experiences multiple problems thus becoming difficult to for the US to employ its massive force instead offers solutions based on the outcomes.

Chapter 7 Question Set:

The national law and international law are incomparable in terms of enforcement. Studies have demonstrated that enforcing the national law is effective because there is no direct influence from international counterparts of local police, county sheriff, or federal marshals (Baradaran, Findley, Nielsen, & Sharman, 2010). Today, the international law enforcement officers are absent because any international enforcement requires the support from the local officers (Voeten, 2014). In fact, even the political support for such laws is absent. In the international community, the UN has established the UN Security Council, which should use the Chapter VII of the Charter to enforce laws. Based on the UN Charter, the council has to determine the existence of a threat to peace or any act of aggression. To this effect, the Security Council can recommend military action, diplomatic interventions, or economic sanctions to resolve the situation (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Unfortunately, most of these international approaches are imperfect because they can apply unevenly or enforced slowly. This is because the bodies mandated to implement them lack the representation of the international communities.

 

Chapter 8 Question Set:

The protectionism is a policy, which many countries have used to promote their infant industries. However, this policy presents numerous deficiencies including the economic crisis. For instance, the use of tariff hinders an efficient global trade (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). This makes tariff a deficiency that needs to be reviewed to promote good trading culture. Trade protectionism has always weakened even strong industries because it rarely gives room for companies to improve and innovate their products and services. This deficiency also slows down the economic growth (Suranovic, 2012). For instance, when businesses forgo export and import trading, the economy will lose jobs, especially workers engaged in the importing and exporting businesses. Today, businesses operate on the global market because of globalization. It would be unjust for a firm to avoid seeking new opportunities in other markets because of protectionism culture.

Chapter 9 Question Set:

FDI has been associated with increased demand for the host nation through technology transfer and productivity improvements. However, this strategy raises many concerns thus require redress (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). This FDI jeopardizes the balance of payment in the long run especially of the host nation. This is because the foreign investors try to recover their initial capital outlay thus turning the investments into profitability. This will see the capital returns to the home country from the host nation. Additionally, the FDI has always generated negative externalities, especially in the host nation’s labor market (Kurtishi-Kastrati, 2013). This is evident where the investor maximizes the profits and reduces costs. Sometimes the investors use unique strategic reason to access the host country. Nonetheless, these FDI intends to get returns from their capitals.

Chapter 10 Question Set:

The unification of the European countries to form the European Union was a significant decision that transformed the region in a single trading bloc. The success of this unification was evident when it adopted a single currency (Mursa, 2014). The move has benefits and costs that the member states must converse. With a single currency, the Eurozone members have managed to stimulate trade (Geoghegan, 2014). This is an indisputable benefit of a single currency adoption within a trading bloc. The exchange rate fluctuations exposed the countries engaged in trading activities. The fall of transaction costs could also affect the companies from member countries (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Therefore, by adopting a single currency, the region stimulated free flow of capital, people, and goods thus stimulating trade activities.

Although the euro currency has promoted trade in the region, this instrument is imperfect because of its fiduciary currency. Such fiat currencies rely on the trust of people instead of real standards (Geoghegan, 2014). To this effect, the European Central Bank can adopt discretionary monetary policies adopted by national governments. This can deny the currency its real standard or base. For instance, the European authorities opted to devalue the currency and finance the Greek’s budget deficits (Mursa, 2014). During the Greece crisis, the European Central Bank offered the Greek government monetary emissions thus violating fundamental principles guiding the euro convergence.

Chapter 11 Question Set:

Population growth contributes significantly to global warming because humans intensify their efforts to use fossil fuels to enhance mechanized lifestyles. With more people, the demand for coal, gas, and oil and other fuels increase (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Whenever the drilled or mined fuels are burned, they emit CO2 into the atmosphere leading toe greenhouse effect. Based on the report of the Scientific Americans, the developed economies consume more fossil fuels than the developing world (UNPF, 2017). For example, the United States is home to over 5 percent of the global population but emits over 25 percent of the total carbon dioxide output (Higgins, 2013). As the developing countries are industrializing quickly, the global CO2 emissions would be high. Therefore, the consumption patterns, global warming, and population are linked to the collective environmental impact in the world. This because’ as developing countries invest in economic development initiatives, the global emissions grow. The population growth rates and size also become significant leading to global warming.

Chapter 12 Question Set:

Immigration is critical in helping the economy grow, especially the receiving nation’s labor market. According to the OECD, the immigrants had defined the European country’s dynamic sectors including technology, science, mathematics, and engineering. These immigrants serve this occupation diligently and boost the traditional occupations like maintenance, repair, and installation (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). Without a doubt, the expansion of workforce through migration has aggregated GDP to grow. The migrants are the source of innovation and entrepreneurial activity. Studies have demonstrated that skilled immigrants have continued to boost innovation, entrepreneurship, technological change, and research (EPSC, 2015). For instance, the founder of WhatsApp, John Koum was an immigrant from Kiev. With the future economic models focusing on the frontier of creating new markets and knowledge, the immigrants become valuable. Currently, Europe is below the global race for expertise. The high-educated immigrants are driving the economy of the European countries.

 Researchers found that the net fiscal contributions of these immigrants are insignificant compared to native-bone (Huttl & Leandro, 2015). This is because; the migrants claim more benefits and pay fewer taxes. Since these people secure low employment level, they end up paying less tax. Accordingly, Foged and Peri found that the German government spends over 10 billion euros to pay refugees (Foged & Peri, 2015). Foged and Peri have raised issues with the refugees in the labor market. For instance, the immigrants with lower education level and experience have displaced the native workers in less manual work. The immigrants have also increased the waiting hours in health care (Huttl & Leandro, 2015). The statistics from the UK indicates that the immigration has affected the health care systems, especially in elective care, accident, and emergency where the waiting time has increased.

Chapter 13 Question Set:

The export-led growth is a situation where governments opt to increase exports in anticipation to improve increase growth, productivity, and exchange earnings. This is an outward-oriented strategy because it links the world with the domestic economies. Indeed, this strategy ensures a country realizes growth by exporting manufactured goods instead of enhancing their growth through protective domestic policies. However, the non-east Asian countries have failed to use this strategy to succeed (Higgins, 2013). This is because these countries believe in protecting their domestic producers thus preferring import substitution strategy. In most cases, the developing nations, especially the non-East Asian countries believe that exporting manufactured goods is disastrous because their products are inferior and can rarely compete with established corporations in the international markets. They have thus maintained high trade barriers (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2010). The protectionist policies as adopted by the non-East Asia countries can help the infant industries. These countries also embrace import quotas; import tariffs and prohibit the importation of some commodities. With these protectionist policies, these countries believe they can protect their manufacturing industries. The countries have also used the import restrictions and tariffs to raise their budgetary revenues and strengthen the national security.

 

References

Baradaran, S., Findley, M., Nielsen, D., & Sharman, J. (2010). Does international law matter? Retrieved October 12, 2017, from https://www.michael-findley.com/uploads/2/0/4/5/20455799/does-intl-law-matter_pre-publication-version.pdf

EPSC. (2015, April 30). Legal Migration in the EU. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/publications/strategic-notes/legal-migration-eu_en

Foged, M., & Peri, G. (2015, March). Immigrants’ effect on native workers: new analysis on longitudinal data. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from IZA Discussion Paper No. 8961: https://ftp.iza.org/dp8961.pdf

Geoghegan, S. (2014, September). The Euro: Advantages and disadvantages of a single currency. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from Currency Solutions: https://www.currencysolutions.co.uk/news/the-euro-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-a-single-currency.html

Goldstein, J. S., & Pevehouse, J. C. (2010). International Relations (9th ed.). Harlow: Longman.

Higgins, K. L. (2013, May 16). Economic growth and sustainability- are they mutually exclusive? . Retrieved October 11, 2017, from Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/connect/economic-growth-and-sustainability-are-they-mutually-exclusive

Huttl, P., & Leandro, A. (2015, October 19). How will refugees affect European economies? Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://bruegel.org/2015/10/how-will-refugees-affect-european-economies/

InternationalsymposiumSymOrg2016, Jas?ko, O., Marinkovic?, S., & Beagrade. (2016). Reshaping the future through sustainable business development and entrepreneurship: symposium proceedings. Belgrade: Beograd Faculty of organization.

Kurtishi-Kastrati, S. (2013). The effects of foreign direct investments for host country’s economy . European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 5(1), 26-38.

Laksmana, E. (2013, January 22). Realism and non-state actors revisited. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from E-International Relations Students: https://www.e-ir.info/2013/01/22/realism-and-non-state-actors-revisited/

Mursa, G. (2014). Euro- Advantages and disadvantages. CES Working Papers, 6(3), 60-69.

Petras, J. (2017, May 17). China: Rise, fall and re-emergence as a global power. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from Global Research: https://www.globalresearch.ca/china-rise-fall-and-re-emergence-as-a-global-power/29644

Stratfor. (2016, July 4). The geopolitics of the United States, part 1: The inevitable empire. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from Worldview: https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/geopolitics-united-states-part-1-inevitable-empire

Suranovic, S. (2012). Policy and theory of international trade v. 1.0. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/policy-and-theory-of-international-trade/s01-about-the-author.html

(2011). With equal rights, empowerment, women can be ‘agents of change’ for sustained socio-economic development, security around world, third committee told. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from Sixty-sixth General Assembly: https://www.un.org/press/en/2011/gashc4009.doc.htm

UNPF. (2017). Does population growth impact climate change? Retrieved October 12, 2017, from Scientific American: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/population-growth-climate-change/

Voeten, E. (2014, March 2). International law and institutions look pretty weak now, but they will matter a lot down the road. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/03/02/international-law-and-institutions-look-pretty

Weiss, T. G., Seyle, D. C., & Coolidge, K. (2013). The rise of non-state actors in global governance: Opportunities and limitations. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from One Erath Future Discussion Paper: https://acuns.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/gg-weiss.pdf

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