Climate change can be defined as the reduction of greenhouse gases. It is achieved by adopting new methods like re-use and recycling of materials. Climate change is attributed to human activity which has destroyed the global atmosphere. Effects are adversely noticed in areas that are industrialized and produce greenhouse gases. These gases, for example, carbon dioxide, when released to the atmosphere get trapped for a long time. It is important to note that gases such as carbon dioxide are produced through the burning of fossils, deforestation and soil degradation which are mostly human activities. This paper aims to address the implications of climate change on global healthcare and local health care. It aims to point out factors, risks, and recommendations with relation to healthcare. For this to be achieved, we need to understand how climate change occurs. Earth's temperature is a balance between how energy comes and leaves the planet system. When the sun shines on the earth, it warms up the earth and when the energy is reflected back to space the earth cools. Climate change is, therefore, a result of the change in this balance. Some of the reasons for the change include differences of the energy radiated from the sun, the difference in reflection from the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. These emissions of gases to the atmosphere increase diseases and illnesses among people from the affected regions. Misra (2014) explains that children, the elderly, the poor and those with primary health conditions are affected mostly by climate change.
Global environmental health issues attributed to climate change
According to data from Chapman & Capon (2016), countries with major industrial activity lead to greenhouse gases emission. This section points out key global health issues and how they relate to climate change.
Greenhouse gas emissions cause variance in temperatures. In some parts of the world, extreme temperatures may affect children, the aged and the sick. This may happen when days that are hotter than normal days in summer and extremely cold days in the winter may cause illnesses and diseases. Jiang et al. (2016) highlight the loss of internal body normal temperatures causes illnesses such as heatstroke, heat exhaustion and hyperthermia. In cases of extreme cold, one may suffer cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Prolonged exposure to such diseases leads to fatal cases and even death.
Vector born diseases Is a health issue directly related to climate change. Vector bone diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors such as mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks. These vectors carry infectious pathogens for example viruses, protozoa, and bacteria which can be transferred from one carrier to another. Climate change considerably influences the prevalence, channels, seasons and distribution of these diseases. Extreme hot temperatures and extremely low temperatures make it hard to predict the control of these diseases.
Water-related illnesses are brought about by toxins that are introduced to the atmosphere from companies as a result of industrialization. They are due to water contaminations and illness attributed to pathogens such as protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. People get these illnesses through ingestion, inhaling or direct contact with contaminated water. A direct connection may be through drinking, swimming or consumption of fish from contaminated lakes or rivers. Perez et al. (2016) outline that regardless of whether ailment comes about because of introduction to sullied water, fish or shellfish is reliant on a mind-boggling set of components, including human conduct and social determinants of wellbeing that may influence a man's presentation, affectability, and versatile limit. Water asset, general welfare, and natural organizations in the Assembled States give many full wellbeing shields to lessen the danger of introduction and ailment regardless of whether water ends up debased. The effects of climate change on food production, costs, and exchange universally have been given a broad analysis, and Jiang et al. (2016) noticed that climate change is probably going to influence worldwide, local, and neighborhood food security by upsetting food accessibility, diminishing access to sustenance, and making utilization more complicated. Oliveira & Doll (2016) suggest that higher absorptions of carbon dioxide empower development and sugar creation in a few plants, yet can bring down the levels of protein and essential minerals in various generally devoured crops, including wheat, rice, and potatoes, with possible adverse effects for human nutrition.
Variations that are experienced influence the air we breathe in, both in open and shut conditions. The shifting air has balanced atmosphere patterns, which have affected the levels and land territories of open-air poisons, for instance, the ozone layer (O3) and fine particulate substance. Uplifting carbon dioxide (CO2) levels likewise propels the improvement of plants that release airborne allergens (aeroallergens). Finally, these movements to open-air quality and aeroallergens likewise impact indoor air quality as the two poisons, and aeroallergens attack homes, schools, and distinctive structures. Wu and Xu (2016) additionally see that poor air quality, despite the fact whether outside or inside, can oppositely impact the human respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Higher dust substance and longer dust seasons can elevate unfavorably susceptible refinements and asthma scenes and thusly restrict profitability at work and school.
Local environmental health issues attributed to climate change
Climate change poses grave dangers to community safety, and will immense considerable pressure on emergency services in the area. Victoria is as of now encountering more continuous and outrageous severe weather events, a trend which is probably going to proceed in future. Oliveira & Doll (2016) argue that the cost to the state and the community of curbing these catastrophic events is on the rise. Like never before, Victorians have to rely upon a successful crisis management framework to manage the expanding danger of bushfire, surges, heat waves, storm surges and other ordinary risks. By keeping up its capacity to respond adequately to crises, enhancing its reaction ability and reinforcing community flexibility, it can limit the effects of extraordinary climate on Victoria.
Helping individuals to deal with the dangers of more hot days, and continuous heat waves will assist in Bundoora. The Victorian Heat Health Design (2015-2019) portrays the activities and frameworks set up to help those most in danger in times of extreme warmth. Victoria's State Heat Plan (2014) traces parts and duties regarding diminishing the effect of heat waves on the community, infrastructure, and services.
Bushfires represent various dangers to wellbeing. Burns, injuries, and death may result straightforwardly from bushfires, while dehydration and mild fatigue are specific dangers for firefighters. Smoke inward breath can harm the lungs and airways. Smoke may likewise be carried hundreds or thousands of kilometers far from the bushfire zone, affecting the health of communities around the area. Bushfires harm and pulverize homes, foundation and administrations; therapeutic services administrations might be severely concerned, for instance, because of damage to doctor's facilities and medical centers. In Victoria in 2009, the Dark Saturday bushfires brought about 173 deaths, what's more, 414 individuals introduced to hospital emergency wings in the initial 72 hours after the flames Jiang et al. (2016).
The Government can work with locals to implement Policies for example by having insurance premiums that will cover the risks that come with climate change. Affected patients in Bundoora need affordable health insurance policies that include catastrophes such as typhoons, heat wave, loss of property due to extreme weather conditions among others. Wu & Xu (2016)
Advocate that these public policies will also cover life assurance policies for the deceased families. The protection of forests and natural ecosystem helps lessen atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by sequestering carbon, facilitates better air and water quality gives a chance to biodiversity and encourages mental health and well-being by transforming human connections with the environment. The greening of Bundoora decreases the heat island effect, dropping the need for air conditioning and improving the quality of the community's life. The people of Bundoora should try and adopt new practices like the reduction of processed foods and adopt cycling, walking, and buses as a means of transport while reducing the emission of gases through with their cars.
Australia needs to diminish unnecessary consumption and proceed to renewable energy sources like solar and wind, rather than depending on coal, oil, and gas. This switch is monetarily and innovatively attainable. However, there is a requirement for a robust political sense of duty regarding stopping new coal mine improvement, guarantee the decommissioning of existing coal mines and bolster the progress to a sustainable power source. Misra (2014) suggests that we additionally require more grounded control of air quality in Australia, as far as possible outflows of unsafe particulate issue and gases. While alleviation of environmental change by decreasing ozone-harming substance emanations is essential, we should likewise look to adjust to changing atmospheric conditions in foresight of their reasonable consequences for health. Exceptionally, health systems and administrations must be sufficiently resourced and arranged to adapt to the health impacts of environmental change. Potential effects on housing, fundamental administrations, community function and the economy should likewise be considered, to guarantee that all individuals from society have the open door for good health and prosperity
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