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Introduction To Air Transport: ICAO And IATA

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Discuss about the Introduction to Air Transport for ICAO and IATA.



Background and Structure of IATA and ICAO

International air transport association (IATA) considers as a trade association of the airlines of world. It was established in April 1945 in Cuba. The priorities of IATA are security, safety, services, environment and strategic partners. It has 268 airlines that represent 117 countries.

International civil aviation organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of United Nations. It works with 191 members of states and industry groups to reach concord on international civil aviation standards and recommended practices. These policies of SARPs used by the members of ICAO for ensuring that its civil aviation operations conform to global norms or not (Clark and Wool, 2015).

International Traffic Rights and Air Services Agreements

An air service agreement is an agreement in which two nation’s signs to permit international commercial air transport services between their territories. Traffic rights can be referred as freedom of the air. It is the aviation agreement between two countries which allows an airline of other country to enter and land in another country’s airspace. It has been formed as a result of disagreement over the extent of aviation liberalization in the practice on international civil aviation. There are ninth freedoms. First freedom provides the right to the other country to get enter in to another country. Second freedom gives right to land in another country for the purpose of technical stopover. To drop off traffic from country A to country Y, is a third freedom. Fourth freedom allows to traffic back from county B to country A. fifth freedom allows to get registered in country A, to gather traffic in country B, and move on to country C. Sixth freedom has neither origin nor ultimate destinations. Seventh freedom is related to registration in country A, to monitor outside of country an in taking traffic between two countries. Eight freedom shows cabotage which means to get registered in a country, to take traffic between two points in the same abroad country. Ninth freedom refers that registered airline in country A can carry cabotage traffic of country B on the base of services performed completely within country B (ITF, n.d.).


Aviation Safety and Security

ICAO safety and security: Aviation safety is the core function of ICAO. A global strategy of ICAO has been contained in the global aviation safety plan and global air navigation plan. ICAO audits SARPs by universal safety audit programmers. ICAO attempt practical measures to improve the efficiency of all air transportation system. It has been implemented target safety programs to refer safety and infrastructure deficiencies. The safety and security system of ICAO is unbreakable because it is the complete responsibility of ICAO to take care of it airlines (Lutte, 2015).

Safety and security of IATA: Regulations plays a crucial role in the industry of aviation. IATA is an organization that works with IATA. It has 191 member states. IATA has set up a structure which contribute its role in to an efficient and cost effective approach so that medical issues can be resolved within aviation. The safety and security procedure of ICAO will affect the safety procedures of IATA (Quddus, 2016).

Industry Operational Standards, Training, and Best Practice

Standard operating procedures are an operational standard in the aviation industry. It has been designed on the basis of reflection of flight deck design and operating philosophy. It is a procedure which provides a standard in the regarding of ATC team and for the task of crew members on the flight deck. The training procedure of ICAO and IATO is systematic because numbers of airlines are connected with this organization. The training of both organizations is flexible. IATA is a big organization and more than 100,000 professionals are get trained by this organization. It provides best practices to their learner and provides best facility regarding training.  The training of both organizations helps organization operate safely, sustainably and efficiently. It gives the opportunity to the people to build career in aviation industry (International Civil Aviation Organization, 2012).

Ticket Pricing, Tariffs and Financial Reconciliation

There are so many charges that may affect the ticket pricing, tariffs and financial reconciliation. ICAO sets the price of ticketing and tariffs as per landing charges, parking charges, passenger services charges, security charges and noise related charges. Due to these charges maximum flexibility in the airport to be maintained and it facilitates to improve the techniques as they are developed (Abeyratne, 2014). IATA supports passenger tariffs. It provides the multilateral interline system in which offline points of one ticket booking is added. It defines that one booking- one ticket – one currency – one transaction. A number of tariff products has been designed for airlines revenue management, ticketing and revenue management (Quelch, 2015).


It has been concluded that ICAO and IATA is a crucial organization in the field of aviation. Many facilities have been provided at airports. ICAO IS the organizations which mainly do focus on security system. There is miscellaneous hardware available which are highly innovative and shows the latest technology. For instance CEM AC2000 which has the facility of intelligent card readers, integrated biometrics, portable card readers and terminal touch screen card reader.  IATA does focus on air bridge monitoring, vehicle management, temporary card holder management and check in desk enabling. Security and safety, ticketing and pricing, standard and training are different of both organization but IATA is the part of ICAO.


It has been recommended that IATA and ICAO need to manage the flow of passenger because and provide command for the security of airport. Both organization need to provide the one integrated graphical user interface for each system of airports. These both organizations handle number of airlines so the security system for the passenger as well as the staff should be strict. For invoicing, staff id for pass production should be managed. Air bridges should be used in an adequate manner. Unauthorized access should be prevented to secure areas and both organization need to manage the access throughout the airport. However, security system and procedure are being followed strictly in both organization but it is required to monitor and evaluate system frequently.



Abeyratne, R, 2014, The Nature and Role of ICAO, In Regulation of Air Transport (pp. 1-25), Springer International Publishing.

 Clark, L. and Wool, J., 2015, A Report on the Development of the Proposed Unidroit Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment as Applied to Aircraft.

International Civil Aviation Organization, 2012, ICAO’s Policies on Charges for Airports and Air Navigation Services, Ninth Edition — 2012.

ITF, n.d., International Traffic Rights Freedoms of the Air, retrieved on 10th may 2017 from:

Lutte, B., 2015, ICAO aviation system block upgrades: A method for identifying training needs, International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 2(4), p.5.

Quddus, M, 2016, Aviation safety and security, Air Transport Management: An international perspective.

Quelch, J.A., 2015, Pendent of IATA pricing arrangements, When a market In Proceedings of the 1979 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (p. 376), Springer.


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