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Introduction To Computing: Actor Network Theory

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Question:

Why it is appropriate to study Actor Network Theory. Discuss?

 

Answer:

Introduction

Contemporary computing occupies a large space in the today’s centuries. Contemporary computing can be said as the modern development of the base computing which is done by including several new and modern technologies in the past years. The assemblage of modern technologies can be said as the combination of the modern technologies and the new mechanism of software and hardware which includes secure database, high speed CPU and networking with the improved performance to overcome the past technologies (Baker, 2014). Contemporary computing in the recent decades provides several advancements to the new generation devices and computers. It takes the place of the new technologies by replacing the old technologies with advancements. It also increases the speed and time complexity of the machines. The impacts of the modern computing in new technologies change the style of living of new generations (Barazza, 2012). The assemblage of the contemporary computing provides several advantages to the modern computers which are also implementing in higher forces in the business organization or in several IT brands.

Actor Network Theory

The theory of the Actor Network Theory (ANT) is started in 1980, which is created by Michel Callon and Bruno Latour, discussed about the advancement of the social theories on the basis of science and technologies. Both the human and non-human actors are present in the network of the Actor Network Theory (ANT). Interactions of the human and non-human actors create a great importance in developing the network of modern technologies and computing. The new electronic devices such as modern computers, tablets and other machines are continuously growing stronger day-by-day with the together involvement of the humans and machines (Chen and Ann, 2014). Actor Network Theory (ANT) is used in all the stories in case of describes it from the base. The social view along with the technical view of the system is also provided in the ANT theory. The social networking sites are the biggest attraction of the new generation peoples. Both the human and the machines take parts in the social networking system which can also be said as the network in the ANT theory. The ANT theory describes the ways of handling the network by the human actors. Both the terms actants and token are used in the ANT theory where actants can be said as the human and non-human actors and token can be describe as the interaction between them (Cusumano, 2013). There are several solutions provided in the theories of the Actor Network Theory (ANT) regarding to the questions arises from the modern technologies, societies and networks.

Why it is appropriate to study Actor Network Theory

Regarding to analyzing social technologies in the modern aspects, the best way of describing is by using the Actor Network Theory (ANT). The contemporary computing is totally depends on the Actor Network Theory (ANT). The significant terms used the ANT theory is the network which is required to understand before describing any stories. Network is mainly used in the transaction between ‘human and human’ or ‘human and non-human’ actors (Dalessandro et al. 2014). In the Actor Network Theory (ANT), the term network is used in case of describing the transaction between the human and non-human actors. The Actor Network Theory (ANT) is also used in case of describing the relationship between the human and the non-human actors which are also called actants. Both the positive and the negative sides of the stories can be determined by using the ANT theories. The study of the ANT theory can be done on the basis of the technical aspects and cannot be done without any networking knowledge. This is because the ANT theory gives the description of the study and case studies which is related to the interaction of the actants with the networks. The basic knowledge of the social networking is required in case of studying the modern computing with the help of the Actor Network Theory (ANT) (Day, 2015).

Story 1: Big Data, Bigger Marketing

Big data can be described as the volume, velocity and variety of the enormous collections of data. Big data in the organization of marketing can be described as the basic significance of the new marketing scenery, arise from the digital world of living (El-Mahdy, 2013). Big data is not only just collection of data; it also refers to as the ability of store and analyzes the required data that are useful for decision making with the proper time-consuming manner.

 

In the marketing business, the data regarding to the customers past year business are such as transaction data, coupon redemption, direct mails, etc. And the data regarding to the current business are online purchase, browsing, transactions of social media, etc. which are apparently very big. Big data cannot automatically make the marketing business better; it is required to use its technology in the efficient manner (Hajibaba and Gorgin, 2014). In the strategies of the marketing management, big data can provide great advantages in the aspects of customer engagement, loyalty and retention of customers and marketing performance. The dealing of the marketing in the business using the big data is in the aspects of the customers, operational and financial. The technology of big data provides the business great advantages in the field of transactional metrics in several sources such as social media, communities, websites etc. The past data which are not collected previously in the business are also can be collected by using the big data technologies (Baker, 2014). Also the future estimation of the results in the marketing business can be provided by the big data technologies from the ratio of the past and the present results of the business. Big data develop the marketing strategies bigger and bigger day-by-day. In most of the big marketing business, the demands of the big data are at the top among all the new technologies. Google, Facebook etc. employ the big data technologies in their marketing strategies and are now at the top 10 position in producing several products and running the social networking sites.

Actants: According to the Actor Network Theory (ANT), in the network of the big data there are also several human and non human actors. The human actants are such as operation manager and organization rules. The non-human actants are such mechanism of managing data, networking measures, channels of data transactions and the database management (Halavais, 2015). In the big marketing business big data provides a network between the human and non-human actants of the organization. The role of actants in the big data technologies is to analyze the required data regarding to the transaction and the management of the marketing business. ANT theory is used in the technologies of big data in the big marketing business provides several information and strategies to the organization to make innovative business strategies (Taylor et al. 2014). The actants of the Actor Network Theory (ANT) of these particular stories interacts with each other and also with the social technologies to implement a suitable network in the business.

Story 2: Samsung lead Smartphone market over Apple

In 2014, in case of Smartphone delivery Apple makes a tie with Samsung. The same amount of units was moved by both the brands. But in the first quarter of 2015, the lead is again taken by the Samsung. Samsung overtake apple in the market of global Smartphone with the help of rising market sales in this year. According to IDC, number of Smartphone sold by Samsung in first three months is about 8.24 million, for the market share of 24.5 percent (Huberman, 2012). The sales of iPhone in this year are slightly reduced in compare to the previous year. Galaxy S6 and Galaxy S6 Edge create a great market in the quarter of April which led the Samsung market in this year. As commented by IDC analyst, Apple made several challenges on behalf of its products such as iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus in the fourth quarter but Samsung, in the first quarter, also led the market. Also the demands of the low-price Smartphone are also rises in a large volume with this leading market. Also there are several other Smartphone brands such as Microsoft, Nokia, Lenovo, Motorola, etc. which are also struggling for getting the top position in the Smartphone market (Junqué de Fortuny et al. 2013).

Actants: The actants i.e. human and non-human actors in the Actor Network theory (ANT) are engaged in a large network in the market of the Smartphone. Here the concept of the social technologies can be determined as the human actants of the network. The market of the Samsung Smartphone is much better than the market of the past years and the market also looking for the profits that can be generated from the new launched products of Samsung (Liebeskind, 2015). Here Samsung and apple can be said as the hardware actants. Also there is a role of the software actants. The technology of the contemporary computing provides a big profit to the market of the Smartphone. The time and labor can be reduced with increasing the communication in the social networking sites (Salehi and Dehyadegari, 2014). The hardware actants and the software actants of the Actor Network theory (ANT) create a huge interaction in the modern technologies and the social sites in case of engaging a suitable network to the study.

Conclusion

The new technologies of the contemporary computing improve the living nature of the people. Also it modifies the social life using several assemblages of technologies in the network. The analysis done in this essay provides the role of the human and non-human actors in case of implementing several networks. The actants of the first story is the Big Data which can be said as the digital actants. Big data provides several ways to manage the marketing business in case of collecting, analyzing and storing several data from the social sites. In the second stories, Samsung and Apple can be described as the actants of the network which can be described as the hardware actants. Here the market of the Samsung Smartphone is increasing rapidly and became in the top position in this year. Whereas, Apple also providing several challenges to occupy the top positions. All this theories can be described on the basis of the Actor Network Theory (ANT) which can provide several human and non-human actors in their network. In these stories, all the actants plays a significant role to keep their positions in the network. Hence, it can be said that the Actor Network Theory (ANT) is appropriate in studying the following stories provided in the essay.

 

Reference List

Baker, L. (2014). Do our “big dataâ€Â in genetic analysis need to get bigger?. Psychophysiol, 51(12), 1321-1322. doi:10.1111/psyp.12351

Barazza, S. (2012). Apple v Samsung: a preliminary injunction against the Galaxy Nexus smartphone. Journal Of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, 8(1), 6-8. doi:10.1093/jiplp/jps174

Chen, C., and Ann, B. (2014). Efficiencies vs. importance-performance analysis for the leading smartphone brands of Apple, Samsung and HTC. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 1-23. doi:10.1080/14783363.2014.976937

Cusumano, M. (2013). The Apple-Samsung lawsuits. Communications Of The ACM, 56(1), 28. doi:10.1145/2398356.2398366

Dalessandro, B., Perlich, C., and Raeder, T. (2014). Bigger is Better, but at What Cost?Estimating the Economic Value of Incremental Data Assets. Big Data, 2(2), 87-96. doi:10.1089/big.2014.0010

Day, C. (2015). Modern Computing--in 1949. Comput. Sci. Eng., 17(1), 72-72. doi:10.1109/mcse.2015.17

El-Mahdy, A. (2013). Recursive Detection of M-ary Signals over Fast Varying Mobile Communication Channel. TELKOMNIKA, 11(1). doi:10.12928/telkomnika.v11i1.672

Hajibaba, M., and Gorgin, S. (2014). A Review on Modern Distributed Computing Paradigms: Cloud Computing, Jungle Computing and Fog Computing. Journal Of Computing And Information Technology, 22(2), 69. doi:10.2498/cit.1002381

Halavais, A. (2015). Bigger sociological imaginations: framing big social data theory and methods. Information, Communication and Society, 18(5), 583-594. doi:10.1080/1369118x.2015.1008543

Huberman, B. (2012). Sociology of science: Big data deserve a bigger audience. Nature, 482(7385), 308-308. doi:10.1038/482308d

Junqué de Fortuny, E., Martens, D., and Provost, F. (2013). Predictive Modeling With Big Data: Is Bigger Really Better ?. Big Data, 1(4), 215-226. doi:10.1089/big.2013.0037

Liebeskind, D. (2015). Big and bigger data in endovascular stroke therapy. Expert Review Of Neurotherapeutics, 15(4), 335-337. doi:10.1586/14737175.2015.1018893

Salehi, M., and Dehyadegari, L. (2014). Optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing. Journal Of Modern Optics, 61(17), 1442-1451. doi:10.1080/09500340.2014.940017

Taylor, L., Schroeder, R., and Meyer, E. (2014). Emerging practices and perspectives on Big Data analysis in economics: Bigger and better or more of the same?. Big Data and Society, 1(2). doi:10.1177/2053951714536877

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