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Introduction To Software Engineering

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Question: Discuss about the Introduction to Software Engineering.     Answer: Software Project Failure There are different factors for which a software project can fail like short time, poor communication, insufficient budget, inadequate testing process, process progress never reviewed, lack of quality assurance, testing the product in live environment, not maintaining standardization, etc. It was found that the software projects that are developed only 16% of them get success and the a major 53% of the software products face challenges like content deficiency, cost overrun, budget failure etc. and the remaining 31% of the projects are discarded. Thus many of the software products in the IT industry face failures and many successful products are built taking ideas from the failed products. In the year 1980 a software product named TAURUS (Transfer and Automated Registration of Uncertificated Stock) was launched for transferring the stock exchange service of London to an automated system (Maas et al. 2016). The software product was launched to reduce the paper works of the stock exchange and thus reduce the cost and time. TAURUS was designed to bring the holdings of the investors of the London Stock Exchange in a centralized database (David and David 2016). All the records of the share holders, investors, market makers, brokers and the peoples associated with London stock exchange was to be stored electronically in the centralized database system. This would reduce the time required for the financial and legal steps that are required for the payment in the share market. TAURAS had small competition in the market but it was launched to manage bigger stock exchange but there was no to the point scope and it resulted in crawling for new scope and more investment cost. The manufacturer, designer and the peoples involved with TAURUS proposed some ideas and designers tried to implement the proposed idea on the live project but it was a failure and it costs a damage of 500 million pounds.  TAURUS was discarded in 1993 and new software CREST took its place which was far more efficient than TAURUS (Savolainen Ahonen and Richardson 2012). The main reason for the failure of the TAURUS software was the increase of the complexity of the system and the involvement of the middle man in the development of the software (Maas et al. 2016). An U.S. software was bought and it was tried to be modified but a survey was made and it was found that to meet the requirement of the London Stock Exchange about 70% of the codes was required to be changed.   Reason of Software Project Failure The two major reasons for the failure of the TAURUS are as follows. Creation of a centralized database: The first reason was the creation of a centralized database which requires a complete change in the business process of the share holders. TAURUS attempted to make a centralized hub to record the transaction and record the data flow. It was made to avoid the middleman who had a major role in the trading process of the share. The result of introducing the system was a violent opposition by the registrars or the middleman who could not gain profit from the business anymore. For developing the software a time period of 5 years was taken but it could not change the business process and finally the approach of the software was discarded in the year 1989 (O'Regan 2012). The stock exchange began to develop new design for the software which would be acceptable to all the stakeholders. Complexity of the project: Secondly the complexity of the project increased due to the revised design of the software and involvement of the stakeholders in the meetings. The new design was implemented by modifying a part of the existing system that was bought from U.S. Modifying the software was a great challenge for the software developer because the codes of the bought project was unknown to the designer and the developer have to follow the British laws and regulation to change the software and act according to the London stock exchange policy. It was noted that to meet the requirement of the London stock exchange policy about 70% of the codes was needed to be changed and this change in the codes caused a loss of time and the value of the purchasing of the software. The date that was fixed for the implementation of the software got delayed for a number of times and the external factors affecting the project made the software product unusable and finally it was discarded in the year 1993. Thus the lack of the strategic decision and poor governance was the main cause for the failure of TAURUS. Waterfall Model Description of Each Phases of Waterfall Model The waterfall model is the first developed software improvement lifecycle that is implemented to develop software. The waterfall model consists of 6 phases like requirement specification and analysis, feasibility study, coding, design, and unit testing, Integration, system testing and maintenance. Requirement specification and Analysis: Requirement gathering and analysis: The purpose of this step is to accumulate all the related information concerning the product from the customer to be developed with a vision to undoubtedly understand the requirement of the customers and to face the inconsistencies and the incompleteness. Requirement specification: The customer requirement identified and gathered into a document known as SRS or Software Requirement Specification document. The vital components of the document are: Functional requirements: It involves the identification of the function to be supportive to the system. Non-Functional Requirement: It includes the maintenance of the performance and the standards. The document of SRS is written by the end-user language and must be understandable by the customer and if necessary it will be reviewed then approved by the customer. It works like an agreement or pact between the developer team and the customers. Feasibility Study In this step we need to determine whether it is financially technically and timely feasible or not. In this process the problems regarding the project is analysed and the data regarding the software product is collected. While collecting the data we need to follow the following steps: An abstract problem definition which includes important requirement only and ignores the unimportance Formulation of different solution strategies Analysing of alternate solutions and compare their benefits and disadvantages   Coding and Unit Testing In this phase we interpret the software design into a source code. Each constituent of the design is executed as a module of program that is individually tested which is known as unit testing. Each unit is tested to check it is correctly working or not which an efficient way to debug the errors. Design In design phase the designer alters the requirement précised in the document of SRS into a structure that is appropriate to be implemented using programming language. There are basically two types of approach for designing. Traditional Design Approach- There are two types of activities in this approach Structured analysis: Here the details regarding the structure of the problem are examined. Structured designed activity: Here the outcomes of structured analysis are changed into a software based design. In the design approach we need to use DFDs, ERDs. Object oriented design approach- This is a new system where the objects that arise in the solution domain and the crisis domain are recognized. The relationship exists among them are identified. The advantages of this approach are less development time and effort, better maintenance etc. Integration and system testing  After the unit testing is over the modules are integrated in a systematic manner and the testing for the system is carried out. The purpose of this testing is ensuring a developed system is that is properly working or not and confirming the requirement of SRS document. Types of system testing Alpha Testing- In this case the system testing is executed by the developer team. Beta Testing- This type of system testing is executed by a friendly customer set. Acceptance Testing- The customer executes this testing by himself after the delivery of the product for determining whether the product would be accepted or rejected. Maintenance Sometimes maintenance needs much more effort than developing the software. There are mainly three types of maintenance. Rectifying errors that are not revealed during the phase of product development is known as the corrective maintenance. For improving the execution of the system and to enhance the utility according to the customer requirement is known as perfective maintenance. Adaptive maintenance is known as for the porting the software to a new environment (a new platform or computer or a new operating system). Advantages of Waterfall Model and Examples The advantages of the classical model of waterfall are as follows: It is very simple to develop. It is easily manageable because the model is inflexible. It has a well defined inputs and outputs for every phase such as deliverables and milestones. It can be easily understood even by the non-technical persons (David and David 2016). It works well for smaller projects because the requirement is well understood by using this method. The classical waterfall model is appropriate for the small software projects where the requirement is clearly understood and less customer interaction is required for the development of the project. The project can be shown to the customer when the building of the software is completed. If there is any failure of the project the loss is very high as the whole project is required to be changed and thus it is applied for small scale software projects. Explanation of Main problems associated with Waterfall Model The main problem associated with the waterfall method is as follows: It cannot handle the risk that a real life project is subjected to. Since it is an idealistic model it assumes that the entire requirement should be clearly understood. There is no involvement of the user during the development phase. The user can only get to work once the system is fully developed since it is sequential in nature. The waterfall model is inappropriate for a large scale software project because if a requirement is changes by the user the designer and the software engineering have to begin the development from the early stage (Dingsøyr et al. 2012). In practical scenario errors are identified much later during the development of the software product and if an error is identified in the later phase of development there is no way to get back to its immediate early phase to resolve the error. Thus it is difficult to handle large scale software project with the classical waterfall model.   Consideration of Scenario In the practical environment the engineers face a large number of errors in almost every phase of the lifecycle. These faults usually get noticed much later in the lifecycle. Once a defect is noticed the engineers want to go back to the segment where the faults had taken place for reconstruction. Iterative waterfall model allows the engineers for going back to their particular phase using the feedback paths (Gandomani et al. 2013). The diagram of iterative model is very much similar to the classical waterfall model. In the classical waterfall model if an error is identified in the later stage there is no path to go back from that stage but this problem is conquered in the iterative model of waterfall by adding a feedback path to each of the stage (O'Regan 2012). If an error is identified in the requirement analysis and specification phase while the software engineers are working in the design phase; in classical waterfall model there was no way to modify the errors but in the iterative waterfall model the software engineers can go back to the requirement analysis and specification phase through the feedback path and solve the error (Balaji and Murugaiyan 2012). In the classical waterfall model if an error is identified in the design phase and the software engineers are working in the integration and system testing, they have to discard their workings and fi

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