Discuss about the Introduction To the Organization Psychology.
The assignment, being a reflection of understanding of the concept of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, emphasizes specifically on the role and need for the same in the contemporary business scenario, keeping into consideration the fact that the global organizational framework is becoming increasingly complex, cognitive and integrating with time. The assignment, for the purpose of studying the same, takes into account the recent news article by Jill Bowers, published in Business News Daily, on August, 21, 2017, which discussed extensively about the description of the I/O Psychology and its roles in the contemporary business scenario. An extensive review of the relevant literatures is also conducted in the later sections, to understand the dimensions and parameters of difference of this genre of cognitive psychology from that of the conventional notion, the positive implications of the same and also the loopholes which are currently present in this aspect and the scopes of exploration and expansion of domain of operations of this genre of psychology.
I/O in the News
Over the years the overall industrial, business and social environment in the global scenario have become more integrated, inclusive and cognitive, with each of these domains experiencing considerable dynamics and modifications. Global phenomena like Globalization, industrial and technological revolutions and others have contributed significantly in changing the overall lifestyle of people, both personal as well as professional, thereby affecting considerably the business environment in the overall basis (Dries, 2013, pp. 272-285). Keeping this into consideration, in the span of my academic coursework, I came to understand that like any other genre, psychology as a subject has also expanded its domain of operations significantly with time and has become more integrated and liberated. The genre of study being already cognitive in nature, has infiltrated in many arena of real world scenario, including that of the industrial domain. Industrial/Organizational Psychology has been into speculation and is a much talked about topic in the contemporary period, with the global business and industrial environment becoming more complex and multi-dimensional (Koppes, 2014).
In this context, I recently came across several news articles in some eminent dailies which talked about the concept of Industrial/Organizational Psychology and their significance in the contemporary business environment. Among these articles, I found the one by Jill Bowers, named “What is Industrial-Organizational Psychology”, published in Business News Daily, on August 21, 2017, to be detailed and intriguing as well as impartial (Bowers, 2018). The news article extensively discusses the concept of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, which in the recent periods, due to the presence of different point of views and perspectives have created different definitions and confusions among those who want to know about this genre.
The article, clearly defines the term Industrial/Organizational Psychology, by splitting it into two parts- organizational and industrial. According to the author of the article, this genre of psychologists, in general emphasizes on studying the behavioral patterns of the workers in their professional domains and on improving the overall efficiency, productivity and welfare of the workers in their workplaces, which may have long term positive implications on the business organizations as well. Among the two parts of this comparative new genre of psychology, the industrial psychology aspect deals with the different problems and issues which the contemporary commercial institutions deal with owing to their expanding domain of operations and increasingly complex activity framework (Ployhart, 2012, pp. 62-81). This includes contribution in deciding the process of hiring relevant employees for the organization after a detailed analysis of the work culture and methods in which the concerned company operate. Under this domain, the I/O Psychologists also work on finding the missing skills of the employees and on creating the scopes of trainings for the fulfillment of the existing gaps. As per the article, the role of increasing the efficiency of the employees, by studying the behavioral aspects, also falls under the job role of I/O Psychologists.
On the other hand, the other domain of this cognitive form of psychology, that is the organizational psychology, according to the concerned article, emphasizes on the broader picture present in the global business environment. This includes studying the behaviors and attitudes of the employees in an organization, to suggest modifications in order to increase their satisfaction, thereby contributing positively to their productivity and the benefits of the organizations for which they work (Imran et al., 2012, pp. 1455-1462). This also gives the I/O psychologists to analyze and suggest methods of operations, on part of the organizations, which may contribute in reducing stresses and anxieties among the employees and improve their work-life balance. In an overall perspective the organizational perspective of the I/O Psychology, as per the assertions of the news article, deals with the creation of a healthy and efficient work environment in the commercial institutions, in the contemporary periods.
The article not only emphasizes on the aspects which fall under the domain of I/O Psychology but also suggests how the business organizations can take help of these psychologists in improving the overall efficiency and productivity of their workers. According to the article, large, multinational companies and those organizations which target extensive changes in their organizational structure and modus operandi, can hire in-house I/O Psychologist whereas those commercial institutions which are comparatively smaller or just need to study or modify only a small sector of their operations can go for I/O consultant.
In the final section of the concerned news article, the author also gives a vital suggestion of introducing I/O in the organizations in the form of conduction of personality assessments of the employees, which can help the managers and the entrepreneurs to get a view of the team and individual dynamics of the workers, thereby creating scopes of improvements in their work styles, overall efficiency, productivity and welfare (which includes increase in the happiness quotient and decrease in the level of work related stress among the workers). For the purpose of doing the same the article suggest several personality tests like DiSC Assessment, Predictive Index, Myer-Briggs and Five-Factor Model of Personality, each of which, with its unique way of assessing the behaviors of the employees, can be used by the organizations to improve the overall work environment and productivity and welfare of their workers (Devonish, 2013, pp. 630-647).
I found the article and the points emphasized upon by the author of the article regarding the nature and domain of operations of the Industrial/Organizational Psychologists and the need for the implementation of the same in the contemporary global business framework, highly relevant to my coursework and what we have been taught about the same in our classes. Taking into account the above discussion the following section of the assignment reviews the extensive literary and scholarly works which are present in this aspect and which discusses about the different aspects of Industrial/Organizational Psychology and the roles played by the psychologists in this domain. I also tried to review those literatures regarding this aspect, which takes into account the loopholes and scopes of exploration which are still present in the domain of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
There have been many speculations regarding the genre of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, as has been defined by many scholars over the years. However, one of the most convenient descriptions of the specialty has been put forward by the abridged version of the approved Commit Proficiencies in Professional Psychology Petition, as can be found from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The same describes this genre of psychology as the study which takes into account the organizational and work environment and analyzes the same with the help of the different principles, methodologies and tools of psychology. According to the document, this genre of psychologists are versatile and specifically specializes in studying the behavior of the people specifically in their workplaces and the interdependence of the workers and workplace on one another in developing an efficient and productive work environment (Sackett & Walmsley, 2014, 538-551).
The above description of I/O psychology has been strongly supported by many other eminent literary evidences which include the works of Landy & Conte (2016). According to the authors there exist significant differences between the psychologists in general and Industrial/Organizational Psychologists. The authors divide the two genres according to different parameters, as per the conventional guidelines, which are as follows:
Population- According to the authors, while the domain of focus of psychologists in general can be any section of the population in the global scenario, the I/O Psychologists specifically targets the dynamics present in the behavior of human beings in their respective professional settings. Therefore, the targeted population in this domain includes those operating in the business environment, including that of the workers, the applicants to businesses, industries as a whole and also communities.
Problems- The domain of operations of the I/O Psychologists also differ considerably from that of psychologists in general. While psychologists in general deal with the behavioral aspects of people in general and the problems which people face in this aspect, the I/O Psychologists focus on the behavioral issues of the workers in their professional domains. This includes extensive research on the motivation, communication, leadership and social interaction in the organizations (Riggio, 2015). The objectives of these psychologists are to suggest scientific solutions regarding the problems which the workers face in their professional domain. The domain includes recruitment, selection of workers, training of the relevant employees, measurement of their performance, motivation, work life quality and happiness quotient.
There are significant literary works regarding the scientific framework in which the I/O Psychologists usually operate. Jex & Britt (2014), in their working paper puts forward these scientific approaches from the practitioners’ point of view. According to the authors there already exists a variety of tools, procedures and techniques in this aspect. This includes the presence of both standardized as well as situation specific methods for assessing the three primary elements of I/O Psychology, the workers, the context of the work and the work they do. The author indicates towards the need of tests to assess the differences in cognitive and physical abilities, inherent personality traits and work behaviors of different workers. Due to the presence of extensive data and empirical works, the I/O Psychologists have also developed procedures to analyze the statistical issues like that of the validity of the tests, the level of generalization and integration of individual as well as group level data.
However, I also came across several bottlenecks present regarding this aspect and the literary evidences supporting the presence of the same. Among several crucial loopholes, Ruggs et al. (2013), points out the opportunities of addressing the problems faced by the marginalized workers in the enterprises and their grievances which are often not taken into account. Thus often this branch of psychology deviates from their main goal of creating a fair workplace for all, which they often miss out, which leaves scope of improvement and expansion of this domain of psychology in the coming future.
Thus, from the above discussion and the literatures which I reviewed, it is clearly evident that the comparatively newer branch of I/O Psychology is steadily gaining immense significance in the complex and multi-dimensional work place dynamics as the same is directly related to the welfare and efficiency of the workers as well as the organizations they work for. However, there still remain several gaps in this aspect and scopes of further and more scientific development of this genre in the coming years, thereby giving the people venturing in this domain considerable scope of explorations and innovations.
Bowers, J. (2018). What Is Industrial-Organizational Psychology?. Business News Daily. Retrieved 6 January 2018, from https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10162-industrial-organizational-psychology.html
Devonish, D. (2013). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors: The mediating role of psychological well-being. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630-647.
Dries, N. (2013). The psychology of talent management: A review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 23(4), 272-285.
Imran, R., Fatima, A., Zaheer, A., Yousaf, I., & Batool, I. (2012). How to boost employee performance: investigating the influence of transformational leadership and work environment in a Pakistani perspective. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11(10), 1455-1462.
Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2014). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Koppes, L. L. (2014). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Psychology Press.
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2016). Work in the 21st Century, Binder Ready Version: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.
Ployhart, R. E. (2012). The psychology of competitive advantage: An adjacent possibility. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(1), 62-81.
Riggio, R. (2015). Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Routledge.
Ruggs, E. N., Law, C., Cox, C. B., Roehling, M. V., Wiener, R. L., Hebl, M. R., & Barron, L. (2013). Gone fishing: I–O psychologists' missed opportunities to understand marginalized employees' experiences with discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 39-60.
Sackett, P. R., & Walmsley, P. T. (2014). Which personality attributes are most important in the workplace?. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(5), 538-551.
Siop.org. (2018). Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Siop.org. Retrieved 6 January 2018, from https://www.siop.org/history/crsppp.aspx