Methodology is a technique which is implemented by project manager to design, plan and achieve the objectives of a particular project. There are different project management methodologies taken up by the managers to benefit their respective projects (Mahalakshmi & Sundararajan, 2013). From initiation to implementation of project, there are various steps of methodology to guide the managers (Bassil, 2012). To understand the term in a better way consider an example , NASA ( National Aeronautics and Space Administration) uses a particular methodology to create space station which is completely different from the methodology used by Navy to build submarines. To fulfill the need of different projects there are various project management methodologies used by different managers.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
Some commonly used project management methodologies are:
- Adaptive Project Framework
- Agile Software development
- System Development life cycle (SDLC)
- Waterfall (Traditional).
Agile model mainly points on the fact that in order to develop the new projects in a better way the existing methodologies must be improved (Balaji & Murugaiyan (2012). In order to achieve specific advantages in this model the given task is divided into small time boxes (Kerzner, 2013).
This model mainly consists of four steps:
- Interaction with individual.
- Software running on the system.
- Customer collaboration
- Responding to change.
- It can be fixed or changed as per the requirement .
- It provides a part of the working solution.
- It can adapt with the changing environment in the project world.
- No planning or a very little is required.
- Complex or Difficult dependencies cannot be handled.
- This model increases the risk of certain factors like sustainability and extensibility .
- Due to lack of documentation the technology cannot be transferred from old members to new members .
- This model is totally client depended, so it can mislead the whole team to wrong direction if it is not guided properly by client.
Waterfall was the first model in the software industry . This model is also known as Linear –Sequential Life Cycle (Leau et al, 2012).It is a very simple and easy model. To avoid overlapping of phases, each phase must be completed before beginning of a new phase (Nicholas & Steyn, 2017). Waterfall has mainly six phases
- Gathering of information and then analyzing it.
- Designing of System
- Integration of units and then testing it.
- System must be deployed.
Waterfall model has some disadvantages like
- This model is bit risky.
- This model is not suitable for big software projects.
In cannot be used in software projects where requirement vary with time.
This model is not suitable for software projects which are complex and object oriented programming dependent .
- Out of the above listed methodologies, it is very easy and simple one.
- At a time only a particular phase can be processed and completed.
- It is perfect for small projects where the necessity can be well understood.
- Clearly define stages.
Agile and Waterfall Relation to Project Life Cycle.
In relation to project life cycle ,Agile model has mainly four steps:
- Individual and interaction -This model mainly focuses on motivation and self organization as it is very important factor for pair programming and co- location .
- Response to change- This point mainly focuses on two major fact that is to quick response to rapid change in the environment and to develop continuously.
- Working software-Instead of providing a documentation of the developing software to the client, demo working software is the best way to give a clear idea about the software.
- Customer collaboration – For proper developing of the software , frequent interaction with the client is very important .
Waterfall methodology has mainly six stages related to project life cycle:
- Collecting information: In this stage all the possible requirements of the developing software is captured and then in a particular document it is documented.
- System design: This stage is totally depended on first phase that is requirement and gathering of information .In this stage the requirement of the particular software and hardware is specified.
- Implementation – In this stage , units are used to develop small program which are assembled in the forthcoming stages.
- Integration and testing - After successful completion of testing , the units developed in the implementation stage are integrated to form a system .
- Deployment of system – After successful completion of testing , the product developed is handed over to the respective client.
- Maintenance- There is possibility of some issues in the client side , to overcome those issue patches and upgraded versions are released.
Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. V-Model vs. Agile: A comparative study on SDLC. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.
Bassil, Y. (2012). A simulation model for the waterfall software development life cycle. arXiv preprint arXiv:1205.6904.
Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Leau, Y. B., Loo, W. K., Tham, W. Y., & Tan, S. F. (2012). Software development life cycle AGILE vs traditional approaches. In International Conference on Information and Network Technology (Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 162-167).
Mahalakshmi, M., & Sundararajan, M. (2013). Traditional SDLC Vs Scrum Methodology–A Comparative Study. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(6), 192-196.
Nicholas, J. M., & Steyn, H. (2017). Project management for engineering, business and technology Taylor & Francis.