1: 3 Data Encryption Standards for WIMAX Networks
DES: DES is the abbreviation for Data Encryption Standard and it is made for being used as the key standards for the process of data encryption (ISLAM & AZAD, 2014). The nature of the data encryption standard is symmetric in nature and it involves the development of the process of encryption of the data by using the keys. For the DES, the sender is always notified about the key for the encryption prior to the implementation of the encryption process. Normally the size of the encryption key used by DES is 64 bits. However, the actual available size of the encryption key of DES is 56 bits only as the remaining 8 bits are kept for checking the parity of the data standards. DES encryption had been developed and designed by IBM and it is a public standard for the process of encryption of the data.
AES: AES is the abbreviation for Advanced Encryption Standard and it is a block symmetric data standard (Karthik & Muruganandam, 2014). The implication of the advanced data standards is used for forming the block encryption in the organization. The Advanced Encryption Standard is very helpful for the most secured encryption standards followed by the US government also. The US government had chosen this standard for the development of the protection of the classified and confidential information. The AES encryption has been using identical keys for the development of the encryption and data protection. The standards of the encryption can accept the data block for encryption to be 128 bits where as the 3 keys used for the encryption are 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits respectively (Bhanot & Hans, 2015). The AES process of encryption involves the processing of the whole block consisting of data in a parallel manner for using the substitution technique and permutations for every round.
Triple DES: Triple DES can be considered as a modified and advances form of DES or Data Encryption Standard used for the process of encryption (Barker & Barker, 2012). The technique of encryption using Triple DES would involve the use of 3 separate keys for the encryption process. The algorithm used for Triple DES encryption includes the application of the DES thrice for securing the data and information. The keys used in the Triple DES encryption consist of 56, 112, and 168 bits size and it can be used for encryption of the data. The first and third key is used for encrypting the data. However, the second key is used for decryption of the data.
2: Security Challenges of WPAN Technologies
Security Challenges of Bluetooth: As defined by Padgette (2017), Bluetooth is an advanced technology for sharing of file and media by using the Bluetooth infra red data transfer. However the technology had been facing many issues and challenges of security like Bluesnarfing attack, Backdoor hacking, and Bluejacking. The Bluesnarfing attack comprises of occurrence of the attack in the Bluetooth network by the process of hacking. The hackers in this scenario hack into the network of Bluetooth of getting access to the confidential and private data and information for their personal benefits. The backdoor hacking is the threat to the Bluetooth technology for the exploitation of the vulnerabilities of the system. The hackers infiltrate the device and form the infiltration of the device without even required to be paired with the sensitive data. The Bluejacking is the process when the hackers successfully execute the identity theft for extracting crucial information from the system devices (Minar & Tarique, 2012). Hence Bluetooth devices had been facing many issues and challenges of security like Bluesnarfing attack, Backdoor hacking, and Bluejacking. The hackers in this scenario hack into the network of Bluetooth of getting access to the confidential and private data and information for their personal benefits. The hackers infiltrate the device and form the infiltration of the device without even required to be paired with the sensitive data.
Security Challenges of Zigbee: The Zigbee is an advanced WPAN technology used for communicating and transferring of the information from one user to another (Zillner & Strobl, 2015). The challenges of security faced by the Zigbee technology are hacking and imitation of Zigbee node. The hackers and cyber criminals use simple methods for hacking the Zigbee as they are aware of the fact that the technology of Zigbee uses the radio frequency waves and it becomes easy to target the Zigbee radio devices by exploiting the frequency function. According to Wang, Jiang and Zhang (2014), the encryption of the Zigbee using devices are targeted by the attackers. The users would not be aware of their devices being hacked externally by using the hacking method. Sometimes, the hackers use the technology for getting into the system devices from a far away and remote place. The attackers imitate the nodes of the Zigbee for gaining access to the information and data of the devices. The physical access to the device is another factor that results in security issues.
3: Critical Reflection on Energy Harvest
Energy harvest is defined as the process of generating the energy from the various sources of energy for helping us in our day to day activities (Ulukus et al., 2015). The resources of energy can be classified into two layers namely renewable (or non exhaustible) and non renewable (exhaustible) sources. The energy harvesting is done for ensuring that the flow of the operations would be carried on by the use of the improved services and technology. We came to realize that WSN would have to face some issues and problems regarding the harvesting of the energy. The WSN consists of energy nodes that would be synthesized for generating the energy. There are various mechanisms by which the energy can be harvested and it would involve the development of the RF mechanism. The RF mechanism would comprise of using radio waves for generating the DC power (Shaikh & Zeadally, 2016). The conversion of the radio waves would help in developing improved and effective power generation in the organization. The hydro power generation is another non exhaustible and renewable source of energy that can be used for developing the effective power generation for WSN. The change of the power generation would be helpful for critical evaluation of the resource required for the processes. The energy collecting is improved the situation guaranteeing that the stream of the operations would be carried on by the utilization of the enhanced administrations and innovation. We came to understand that WSN would need to confront a few issues and issues with respect to the gathering of the energy. The change of the radio waves would help in creating enhanced and viable power era in the association. The difference in the power era would be useful for basic assessment of the asset required for the procedures.
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Wang, C., Jiang, T., & Zhang, Q. (Eds.). (2014). ZigBee® network protocols and applications. CRC Press.
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