1. WiMax or worldwide interoperability for microwave access is a standard for wireless communication based on IEEE 802.16 protocols. It is generally used for providing high-speed internet connection in wide area network. Therefore ensuring security of WiMax becomes essential. Encryption is one important security protocol used for WiMax technology. The process of converting a plain text or readable data with the help of certain standard algorithm is known as encryption. Out of the three various encryption standard used for securing the data in WiMax network, the most common encryption standard that are used in WiMax includes triple DES, AES and CCMP (Biham & Shamir, 2012).
Triple DES, AES and CCMP encryption standards are compared in the following table-
· 3DES algorithm or triple DES is a symmetric encryption standard that uses three keys, each of length 56bit for data encryption in WiMax networks (Singh, 2013).
· The security level in 3DES is enhanced due to the involvement of the three-phased encryption. 3DES encryption runs the traditional DES algorithm on a data three times thus ensuring extra layer of protection
· Since a single algorithm is run three times in a data, the process of encryption becomes slower in comparison to other encryption standard.
· 3DES is one of the oldest algorithms that are used even today. Out of different encryption standards used in WiMax, triple DES is the most widely used algorithms.
· In order to eliminate the limitation of slower performance in 3DES, an advanced algorithm called AES is used in WiMax networks.
· Advanced encryption standard or AES is a advanced version of 3DES and uses 128, 192 and 256 bit keys for standard encryption (Karthik & Muruganandam, 2014).
· It is a symmetric block cipher that is most commonly used in WiMax networks.
· The performance of AES is much faster compared to that of 3DES but needs a dedicated processor for it implementation (Daemen & Rijmen, 2013).
· AES is therefore, somewhat more costly than DES to implement.
· However, it is one of the most used encryption standards in WiMax networks.
· Counter mode cipher message authentication protocol or CCMP is one of the most common encryption algorithms used for wireless networks.
· It is one of the most effective algorithms for WiMax networks as well.
· Like AES, CCMp also uses 128 bit key for encryption of data in WiMax network.
· CCMP is derived from AES and provides enhanced security using 128-bit encryption.
· A 48-bit initialization vector initiates the encryption algorithm in CCMP (Saberi et al., 2012).
2. WPAN stands for wireless personal area network, a network, which is generally used for establishing connection among the devices over a short range. It is much simpler in comparison to that of WiMax. WPAN technology and network is mainly used proving a wireless connection to devices located in a very short range. WPAN can be set up with a very low cost and consumes less power in comparison to that of WiMax.
Examples of two most common WPAN technologies include Bluetooth and ZigBee. Bluetooth is considered as a short-range network connection capable of connecting eight devices at most. Bluetooth network is generally used to transfer files over a very short range. ZigBee on other hand is a more simple WPAN technology. It is used generally used to create networks that require a considerably lower data transfer rate. It is an energy efficient network as well. However, there are different security issues and concerns associated with Bluetooth and ZigBee which are elaborated in the following paragraphs-
The different security challenges associated with the Bluetooth technologies are security attacks such as Bluesnarfing, Bluejacking and bluebugging. The risks associated with these security attacks include gaining the access to the network by the attacker, which results in data loss and severe security breach (Minar & Tarique, 2012).
Zigbee network is more prone to attack in comparison to Bluetooth network. Different malicious agents can be used to break into a ZIgBee network to gain access to encryption key and confidential data present in the network. This attack can be launched by imitating a node ZigBee network (Zillner & Strobl, 2015).
3. Energy harvesting is method of capturing the energy from natural and manmade resources, which are then converted into usable electrical power. The process of energy harvesting helps in lowering the convection energy use. Therefore, different energy harvesting processes can be implemented for reducing the energy problems that are faced in case of wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks or WSNs are popular due to its extensive use in IOT. However, these WSNs are facing a lot of problem due to the limitation of conventional energy and this network requires a continuous power supply. In order to eliminate these problems, different energy harvesting techniques can be used for providing a continuous power supply to the sensor nodes. Energy loss in wireless sensor networks can be due to the battery breakdown and current leakage. In such cases, the wireless sensor network fails to perform until the energy source is replaced. Therefore, energy harvesting becomes essential for impeding the energy needs in WSNs (Ulukus et al., 2015).
The different techniques of energy harvesting are listed below (Shaikh & Zeadally, 2016)-
1) Energy Harvesting using Radio Frequency is a energy capturing techniques, that captures the energy of radio waves that is later converted into electrical energy.
2) Energy of the sun is harvested and converted into electrical energy, which can further help in reducing the associated energy problems in WSNs or wireless sensor Networks.
3) The heat energy can be converted into electrical energy by Seebeck effect. This is a process of thermal energy harvesting.
4) In Flow based energy harvesting, the rotational energy or power of turbines and rotors are converted into electrical energy with the help of different energy harvesting procedures.
5) The energy of the wind is harvested in wind harvesting for converting into electrical energy.
6) The energy of moving water can also be harvested and converted into electrical energy. This energy can be used to replace the energy source in wireless sensor networks.
Biham, E., & Shamir, A. (2012). Differential cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daemen, J., & Rijmen, V. (2013). The design of Rijndael: AES-the advanced encryption standard. Springer Science & Business Media.
Karthik, S., & Muruganandam, A. (2014). Data Encryption and Decryption by using Triple DES and performance analysis of crypto system. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 24-31.
Minar, N. B. N. I., & Tarique, M. (2012). Bluetooth security threats and solutions: a survey. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 3(1), 127.
Saberi, I., Shojaie, B., Salleh, M., Niknafskermani, M., & Alavi, S. M. (2012, May). Improving confidentiality of AES-CCMP in IEEE 802.11 i. In Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), 2012 International Joint Conference on (pp. 82-86). IEEE.
Shaikh, F. K., & Zeadally, S. (2016). Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, 1041-1054.
Singh, G. (2013). A study of encryption algorithms (RSA, DES, 3DES and AES) for information security. International Journal of Computer Applications, 67(19).
Ulukus, S., Yener, A., Erkip, E., Simeone, O., Zorzi, M., Grover, P., & Huang, K. (2015). Energy harvesting wireless communications: A review of recent advances. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 33(3), 360-381.
Zillner, T., & Strobl, S. (2015). ZigBee exploited: The good the bad and the ugly.