1. The communication protocol can be defined as the basic set of rules that are implemented in a network where there are two or more than two components in the network (Machado et al., 2015). The components that are communicating within the network, transfer the data with help of the physical devices. These protocol provides the definitions of the semantics and the syntax of the network. They also perform the error recovery functions. The protocols can be either implemented by the software or the hardware components or can also be implemented with collaboration of the both the components. These are necessary at all the levels of a telecommunication network. In addition to this there are set of rules that are defined for the hardware components as well. The protocols are also defined for the different layers of networking. These protocols are to be recognized and followed by all the components of the network.
The analyzer is a type of program that is designed for tracking the traffic in a network. The program that is used is an experimental model. The method is also used for gathering the information of the transitional states. The system is basically used for utilizing the calculation methods for the functions. The network probe is one of the tools that is used for analyzing purpose. It can monitor the systems and detecting the factors for which the network is facing the lag in the connection.
2. The hub is a hardware tool that is used to connect the servers that are in-line with the network (Vilar, Marti & Magne, 2015). The hub is used to dispatch the data packets throughout the network that arrive at a single point on the network. This would as a result increase the amount of traffic within the network and would also be visible to all the components of the network. Hence, the switch is used to solve this kind of issue. In a connection which comprises of only hubs and no switches the data that is flowing through the network would be visible to all that members of that network. In this kind of situation the analyzer can be plugged in any point in the network and information regarding the traffic in the network would be easily obtained by it. In the provided scenario the pharmaceutical firm has 11 workstations and 24 ports for the hub. Hence use of a switch is very essential in this situation. The workstations would connected to the port the help of their MAC addresses.
The Use Of a Switch Are:
- It is used for splitting the connection that are generated from a single point on the network and spread to other parts of the network.
- The switches are also used to monitor the system.
3. The difference between the distance routing vector and the link state vector are (Vijayanand & Muralidhran, 2014):
- The link state vector is faster in converging than the distance routing vector.
- The robustness of the link state vector is less than the distance routing vector.
- The infrastructural requirements of the link state vector is huge in comparison to the distance routing vector.
- The Bellman-Ford Algorithm is used in the case of distance routing vector, while the shortest path algorithm is used in the case link state vector.
- The classless as well as the class full subnets are supported by the link state vector while only the class full subnets are supported by the distance routing vector.
- The link state vector performs a variety of tasks such as the routing table, topology table and the neighbor table. Whereas, the distance routing vector only can create the routing table.
- The memory requirements of the link state vector is more than that of the distance routing vector.
- The configuration process of the distance routing vector is easier than that of the link state vector.
- The example of the distance routing vector are RIP and IGRP. The examples of the state routing are IS-IS, OSPF.
Figure 1: Link State Vector and Distance Routing Vector
Source: (created by Author)
5. The default subnet mask = 255.0.0.0
Binary notation = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000.
The 1s in the subnet mask are the network address bits.
The 0s in the subnet mask are host address bits.
Number of hosts in the subnet = 16777214.
The total number of subnets that are possible are.
11111111=255 number of subnet masks is the standard one.
Subnet mask for the network = 255.255.248.0 or /21
The binary address =11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000.
Total number of possible host IP addresses in every subnet. =1111111111111=2048.
Hence, number of IP addresses per subnet used for hosts over the network is 2048 - 2 = 2046.
The total number of host addresses that are possible technically are 2046.
The required number of addresses for the buildings=1024.
Therefore the number of available addresses is more than that of the required addresses. Hence, the remaining addresses would be sufficient for adding more addresses to the network.
6. The QoS is the Quality of Services (Khan, 2016). It is basically the set of rules that is used for setting the different types of priority for the different kind of operations within the network. It also assigns the different kind of tasks for the different components of the network. It also sets the order of priority for the different data packets and the different MAC addresses. It also monitors the sytem performances.
The IP Precedence, ECN, TOS and the Difffserv are the different types of the header files that are included in the data packets. The header files can be differentiated according to their functionality and the number of bits.
According To The Function The Headers Files Can Be Differentiated As:
- IP Precedence provides the status of the network.
- The ECN provides the information about the network congestions.
- The TOS provides the Type of the services for the network.
- The Diffserv provides the differentiated services information about the network.
According To The Number Of Bits:
- The IP Precedence is of 3 bits.
- The ECN is only I bit.
- The TOS consists of 8 bits.
- The Diffserv varies from 2-7 bits.
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