OSI reference model
Over the network application communicate through the OSI Model, it used in standardization and characterization of telecommunication functions. The model has seven layers and the layer below serves the layer above it
The model is a frame work used for relationships understanding, and its used specifically for the guidance of developers and vendors. This is to ensure there is interoperability between software program and digital communications output created and facilitation of a framework that describe telecommunications and networking functions.
This are the rules which explain how data flow from the origin to the end point or internet.
TCP runs in the layer four of the model while IP runs in the Networking layer ,layer three of the of the model. Both can combined for the Networking model
Protocols in the TCP/IP model include:FTP,TELNET,SMTP,DNS,TCP ,UDP,TCP,UDP and
1.2 The relationship of the two layers TCP /IP and OSI model
Similarity between the OSI and TCP/IP models
- Both models have layered architecture.
- Layers offer same functions
- Both of them are protocol stack
- Both are models of reference
The difference of the two models
- OSI has seven layers while TCP/IP has four layers
- TCP/IP it is a protocol of communication while allows host connection over a network while OSI is generic, it is a communication gateway for the network and end users
- In the OSI model presentation and session layers are different unlike in TCP/IP model where both layers are not separate
- OSI reference the layer of transportation is oriented on connection while its connectionless in TCP/IP the layer of transportation
- OSI model there is a guarantee of packet delivery by transport layer while in TCP/IP there is no need of packet delivery by transport layer
The diagram representation of the comparison between OSI and TCP/IP reference model
2.0 hands on project
Image of capturing the Wi-Fi for the information about the packets
Image of the associated Ethernet II values
The conversation statistics
The main protocols identified are TCP AND ARP
The hierarchy of packets in the buffer of the tracer in bytes
Summary information of contents of the buffer
A image of the graph for the packets recorded as per second
A saved copy
3.0 a) The role ARP cache plays
1.ARP is a table which helps to maintain the connection between IP address and its corresponding MAC address.ARP makes this possible by providing protocol rules for making this connection
2.Acknowlegement after reception of a data frame
3.ARP measures how many packets are dropped in a single transmission
4.ARP obtains the host IP address and maps it to a domain name which is registered
How the ARP carries their role
In TCP/IP suite ARP is main rule in networking coverage of OSI refence
Which is usually used in the host system to obtain Media Control Address. In the database it establishes the mapping between the MAC address and the IP address
3.1 b) hands-on project
the arp-an image
open the command prompt as an administrator the type arp-an and enter for the purpose of ARP cache creation
The image of the arp-d to delete ARP cache from the computer
The image of the pinged IP address
The arp-an image after pinging the IP address
4 .0A) Sub netting dividing a single large network into small networks called subnets
Types of sub netting include: FLSM and VLSM sub netting
For our case we are going to apply the VLSM sub netting because it allows choosing of an individual segment for a particular size rather than forcing one to use a fixed size for all the segment. Due to its flexibility there is a reduction in the number of IP address that could have been wasted. We choose the subnet size which closest matches our requirement.
We will use the concept of VLSM variable length subnet mask to solve this question
Use the host formula to be able to know how many hosts that would be accepted to the structure on that subnet . The formula is 2n-2 where by in our case n represents 0s available in the subnet mask. Whereby the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0
We change this to binary, it will be 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
The number of available zeros are eight and 0s which represent the value of n in the host formula
Let’s take 28 -2=256
256-2=254 and 254 is the number of usable host
254 will not be suitable for our case because we need 1100 host
So let’s 1s from the subnet mask and replace it with 0 this gets more host per network and reduces the number of networks
Using our formula 29-2=512
Which not even enough we take another 1 and make it zero
So we have 11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000
Using our formula, we will have 210-2=1024
The address 10.0.0.0 will be converted to binary
The 1s will be representing the bits that are retainable from the private address
While the C’s represents the bits assigned to the sub network addresses
The 0s represents the bits assigned for host addresses
Our next step is to perform the FLSM subnetting and selecting from the already subnetted subnets the correct subnets
A single block size and all its subnets are provided by a single FLSM sub netting and if a different block is needed we have to perform the FLSM sub netting for that block FLSM performed depends on the how many block sizes are needed. For example, in our case requires six blocks 300,215,150,130,125,120 so we need to carry out FLSM sub netting six times we start from the largest to the smallest for our case from 300 and 120 will be the last
Workstation address range Broadcast
300 10.0.0.0/23 10.0.0.1-.254 10.0.1.255
215 10.0.2.0/24 10.0.2.1-254 10.0.2.255
150 10.0.3.0/25 10.0.3.10-254 10.0.3.255
130 10.0.4.0/24 10.0.4.1-254 10.0.4.255
125 10.0.5.0/25 10.0.5.1.126 10.0.5.127
120 10.0.5.128/25 10.0.5.129-254 10.0.5.255
We are going to use the following address
Since when n is 12 we have 4096 addresses we still have so many address to spare since only the number of needed addresses is 1040
0 percent of the available space of address of the network will be used while only 69 percent from the total space of the address of the network will be used
B what would happen if the number jumps over 1024
The routers have to be left in their boxes and everything is going to be wired for the /8
Subnet. Though the network maybe crippled to some point by the broadcast traffic
Although if a subnet want to de designed per building a smaller bit than b/8 has to be chosen
though really the network setting are not yet defined
The TCP/IP are protocols used for a network interconnection for devices on the internet.
TCP/IP is also used as a communication rule for a private network .The rules is what is known as TCP though there many others included in the suite
Fall, K. R., & Stevens, W. R. (2011). TCP/IP illustrated, volume 1: The protocols. Addison-Wesley
Goralski, W. (2017). The illustrated network: how TCP/IP works in a modern network. Morgan Kaufmann.
Newcomer, L., & Campus, Y. Subnetting Made Simple. Network, 501(10010010), 10101000.
Browning, P. W., & Tafa, F. (2012). Cisco CCNA in 60 Days. Reality Press Ltd.
Angeles cu, S. (2010). CCNA Certification All-in-one for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.
Davidson, J. (2012). An introduction to TCP/IP. Springer Science & Business Media.
Townes, M. (2012). The spread of TCP/IP: How the Internet became the Internet. Millennium, 41(1), 43-64.
Hong, S., Oh, M., & Lee, S. (2013). Design and implementation of an efficient defense mechanism against ARP spoofing attacks using AES and RSA. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 58(1-2), 254-260.
Saputro, N., & Akkaya, K. (2013, October). An efficient and secure arp for large-scale ieee 802.11 s-based smart grid networks. In International Conference on Ad Hoc Networks(pp. 214-228). Springer, Cham.
Nahm, K., Helmy, A., & Kuo, C. C. J. (2008). Cross-layer interaction of TCP and ad hoc routing protocols in multihop IEEE 802.11 networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 7(4), 458-469.
Tatipamula, M., & Vogt, C. (2012). TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL OVERVIEW.
Mbale, J., & Mufeti, K. (2011). Phase teaching model for subnetting IPv4. International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 3(1), 1-15.
Manaf, A., & Bataona, D. S. (2014, November). Analysis and design of subnetting methods: Hybrid fixed length subnet masking (HFLSM). In Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (ICEECS), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 102-108). IEEE.
Chungang, G. (2011). Overview of VOIP Principle and Application. Science Mosaic, 3, 014.
Neumann, J. C. (2009). Understanding Binary and Subnetting. Cisco Routers for the Small Business: A Practical Guide for IT Professionals, 143-156.
Chan, M. C., & Ramjee, R. (2008). Improving TCP/IP performance over third-generation wireless networks. IEEE transactions on mobile computing, 7(4), 430-443.
Shang, W., Yu, Y., Droms, R., & Zhang, L. (2016). Challenges in IoT networking via TCP/IP architecture. Technical Report NDN-0038. NDN Project.
Oh, M., Kim, Y. G., Hong, S., & Cha, S. (2012). ASA: agent-based secure ARP cache management. IET communications, 6(7), 685-693.
Wang, Z., & Zhou, Y. (2009). Monitoring ARP attack using responding time and state ARP cache. In The Sixth International Symposium on Neural Networks (ISNN 2009)(pp. 701-709). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Chappell, L., & Combs, G. (2010). Wireshark network analysis: the official Wireshark certified network analyst study guide. Protocol Analysis Institute, Chappell University.