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Write Annotated Bibliography for given below Topics:

1. Holo3DGIS: Leveraging Microsoft HoloLens in 3D Geographic Information

2. ugmented Reality for Urban Simulation Visualization

3. Augmented Reality and Perception of Analogue and Digital Images and Maps

4. An Emerging Study in Augmented Reality & Geographical Information System

4. Mobile Augmented Reality to Discover New Environments

5. Geo-Spatial Hypermedia based on Augmented Reality

6. Augmented Reality: Applications, Challenges and Future Trends

7. ARVino - Outdoor Augmented Reality Visualisation of Viticulture GIS Data

8. Augmented Reality and GIS: On the Possibilities and Limits of Markerless AR

Holo3DGIS: Leveraging Microsoft HoloLens in 3D Geographic Information

AR, GIS, Microsoft HoloLens, 3D GIS, Holo3DGIS

In this article, authors Payam Ghadirian1and Ian D. Bishop presents early phases of a project in which GIS, based on environment process modelling, with the Augmented Reality technology. A project which can facilitate amenities of current system i.e. Geo-reference GIS, 3D modelling  with the 3D immersion system can overcome various problems of current system. The article intends to create more realistic simulations of the ever-evolving systems.

The article evaluates the current visualization systems and also introduces fundamentals of existing proposed system. It also explains the proposed weed spread case along with key observations in multi-channel video capture. The article is at a very beginning step in figuring out the capabilities of combined system consisting of GPS, GIS and Augment Reality. However, it is possible only by improving communication among public which will lead to development of more public exposure and participation. 

In this article, authors - Fotis Liarokapis, Ian Greatbatch, David Mountain, Anil Gunesh, Vesna Brujic-Okretic and Jonathan Raper – presents the very first prototype of an interactive visualization system which is specifically designed for showing the geographical data of both indoor and outdoor platforms. The objective of the article is to make a 3D scene around the user of the mobile at a prescribed height and data using photogrammetry and GIS techniques. The second objective is to show the modelled data into a mixed realtime environment which has two different visualization interfaces: VR mobile and tangible AR interfaces. The authors have proved their objectives by implementing an experimental educational application known as 3D puzzle. They have chosen human interaction method as the basis their research and finding results. The article limits on the number of types of interactions that can be made and intends to figure them out in their future work.

The paper aims to make use of Microsoft’s HoloLens for interacting and exploring GIS. HoloLens is a next generation AR technology developed by Microsoft. The paper presents and explores this technology and it’s significant because HoloLens is a more advanced technology compared to traditional ARs and has excellent capabilities when it comes to AR. These features include exception 3D display, gesture design, gaze design, spatial mapping and spatial sound design (16). Thereby HoloLens has been used in many different areas of research and development (20).

The paper intends to explore the development of a 3D GIS that would work on HoloLens and as such intends to explore the creation of 3D assets, development of the application as well as the compiler for deploying of this application. For each of these three components, the paper describes multiple methods for accomplishing them. Then the Authors intend to test out their creation with a basic map of a state.

Augmented Reality for Urban Simulation Visualization

The limitations of their study is that their test subject was extremely simple and basic and hardly any indicator of a real-world scenario. Additionally, HoloLens is still in early pre-production and the project may itself get discontinue if it doesn’t go well with the market that Microsoft wants to target. However, Authors have had success with their research and conclude that it can be used for GIS. Authors collected evidence empirical observation and did collection by both qualitative and quantitative methods.

The paper presents multiple papers and different experimental projects that has been undertaken within the topic of Augmented Reality, visualization and Geographical Information Systems. The paper digs through those experiments and papers and present’s its summaries and analysis. The paper does not intend to break new grounds however, it highlights the fact that with the advent of smartphone and the raw processing capabilities that come with it has led to enhancement of visualization of GIS data.

The paper intends to find out how mobile augmented reality technology can help the visualization problem of GIS which is specifically divided into two areas. The first part is a good user interface that allows for selection, manipulation and viewing of this dataset and the second is the perceivable visualization of this dataset. The paper also further follows up with the requirements essential for the development of pre-processing of GIS data, simulation of the data, augmented visualization, then interacting with the data and the needed client-server framework. The data collection method used in the paper is qualitative wherein the Authors makes use of similar papers and research projects in order to formulate the basis of their own study.

The paper talks about the AR technology and its fusion with GIS primarily in this paper. The author intends to showcase how AR is beneficial compared to the traditional system especially static methodology of making use of printed papers. Much of the content of the paper is through Author’s own reflection and observation of using GIS in the field. The significance of this paper is low as the paper does not break grounds or present any information that was previously unkown. Essentially, the Author intends to find out whether or not AR is beneficial when compared with traditional methods especially printed maps. Author also provides evidence related to issues that commonly arises with the use of AR.

Much of the research materials used in the paper comes from Author’s own observation and hence there are lot of empirical evidence at play here. Apart from that, Author cites a lots of different studies that together make up for a qualitative data assessment. The limitation of the study is that Author does not have enough convincing evidence as to support either side of the narrative but does have an overall positive tone about the AR technology.

Augmented Reality and Perception of Analogue and Digital Images and Maps

This paper provides a high level overview of how to go about developing a mobile application that would take the advantage of Mobile’s AR capabilities for the benefit of GIS. The paper covers major ground when it comes to the high-level requirements and necesseties needed to develop the AR application. It however does not go into much detail. The authors does not propose anything new, rather describes a standardized and popular method of developing the application for GIS with the help of AR. The Authors again do not intend to find anything new here but their primary course is to walk through the process of application development for GIS.

The limitation of the study primarily is that the study is extremely basic and covers only aspect of AR GIS and that too with only a singular method. The study also does not break any new grounds or provide any new convincing results or even carries out an actual development in order to verify their claims. The method of data collection the Authors have used here is primarily qualitative method and there are no analysis done here.

The paper presents a proper definition of augmented reality. Thereafter, the authors provide a technique of making use of sensor based graphical user interface application that helps in urban navigation as well as making use of image based technique that shows changes in the environment through an elongated timeline. The paper essentially summarizes other studies in order to showcase how AR can be used to real-world GIS applications. The paper does not break any new grounds rather combines various studies to formulate a new one.

The paper found out that AR technology can be beneficial in both indoor and outdoor regions and can help the user a great deal with GIS based explorations. The paper concludes that in order for Augmented Reality to succeed the Object recognition technology must be greatly enhanced before AR is a synonym in the GIS world. The author’s method of research was empirical evidence with a few experiments of their own which were in turn based on other studies.

In this paper, the authors propose a novel technique in combining GIS with AR. The novel technique is an important one because it hasn’t been done before and explores another aspect of combing AR with GIS. The technique allows to connect a geospatial video and combining with real-world geo-tagged objects. Once this is done, users would be able to search the video space within a 3D space having GPS logged objects. The researchers have proposed their own algorithm in the linking the two and then having them presented in an easy to use AR application.

An Emerging Study in Augmented Reality & Geographical Information System

The authors have successfully presented the algorithms and they had made use of C++ for the core algorithms and OpenGL for the respective visualizations and overlay. The authors tested the application in a real-world scenario on a test-bench machine that consists of a Windows XP operating system running on top of Xeon 3Ghz process and a 4GB or Ram and an Nvidia QUadroFX 5600 GPU. The method of research was empirical and the limitation of study is that the application was tested on a simple 3D rectangular buildings, but it’s unverified on how the system would be handle a more common and rather complex real-world polynomial building.

This paper provides an overall overview of the current state-of-the-art technology in augmented reality and how it is being used in multiple disciplines including GIS. The Author talks more about AR than GIS. The paper is significant because it gives a holistic overview of the capabilities of AR from multiple point-of-view and helps understand the breadth and the capabilities of AR. The author here does not propose anything rather gives his basic analysis with much of the talk being a summarization of the current and future applications and challenges of AR.

The Author intends to find out the complete breadth of applications that AR has and compile it for the readers and then also provides a detailed overview of current issues and challenges in building solutions surrounding AR technology as well as limitations of the mobile platform. The Author did not perform an original research and much of the matter comes from the review of other studies, experiments and projects and Author gives his analysis on how the future of AR should look like.  

The paper presents the unique combination of GIS and Augmented Reality in providing a novel solution for an otherwise uncommon problem. The paper presents the combination of two technology for visualizing the viticulture i.e., the science behind production and study of grapes. The paper presents developing a new platform altogether that would alleviate the problems faced by Viticulturists altogether. In order to do this, the paper presents the Author’s very own ARVino platform that combines an effective user interface with a capable AR platform that is robust and simple enough for agricultural use.

The paper does not go into much detail about how the platform was developed and only talks about the hardware in use. The test system was done on an Dell Inspiron 8100 laptop combined with a firewire video camera as well as a Garmin 12XL GPS. The results of the experiments were mixed as the authors noted several problems that hindered the study and these problems relate to the hardware rather than the software such as long-flat view problem, the display contrast of the system and the transparency of virtual objects in combination with real world objects. However, the experiments were not completely failure and did opens a pathway for future research on this subject.

The authors’ presents an original research carried out by them so as to understand what different types of applications are suited for markerless AR thereby relying purely on sensor based data. Markerless AR is not suitable for applications such as surgical for instance and thereby for something of less precision and everyday situation such as car parking system, a markerless AR may be suitable. In order to test out different instances, authors developed an AR tool which they call as ‘MapAr’ based on the OpenStreetMap. MapAR runs on any modern smartphone which has GPS and Accelerometers in them.

The authors revealed that markerless systems are significantly less useful even in day-to-day situation as relying solely on sensor for GIS is not enough. The authors carried out an original research and primarily made use of quantitative data collection method and simple statistical analysis method to evaluate the results. The result concluded that in scenarios where accuracy of less than 5 metre in GPS is not required then one could rely on purely sensor based data and if the application does require an accuracy of less than 5 metre then markerless systems wouldn’t be suitable.

Ghadirian and I. Bishop, "Composition of Augmented Reality and GIS To Visualize Environmental Changes", Joint AURISA and Institution of Surveyors Conference, vol. 2, no. 2, 2002.

F. Liarokapis, I. Greatbatch, J. Raper, D. Mountain, V. Brujic-Okretic, A. Gunesh and V. Brujic-Okretic, Mobile Augmented Reality Techniques for GeoVisualisation. 2018.

W. Wang, Z. Chen and G. Chen, Holo3DGIS: Leveraging Microsoft HoloLens in 3D Geographic Information. 2018.

V. Heuveline, S. Ritterbusch and S. Ronn, Augmented Reality for Urban Simulation Visualization. 2016.

Sabir, M.; Prakash, J. Virtual Reality: A Review. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advance Trends in Engineering and Technology, Jaipur, India, 17–19 April 2014.

J. Rodriguez and C. Huang, "An Emerging Study in Augmented Reality & Geographical Information System", International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 447-450, 2017.

N. GHOUAIEL, J. CIEUTAT and J. JESSEL, Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO). 2013.

S. Kim, K. Kim and S. Jang, Geo-Spatial Hypermedia based on Augmented Reality. 2018.

E. Y?ld?z, "Augmented reality research and applications in education", New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 238-243, 2017.

G. King, W. Piekarski and B. Thomas, ARVino - Outdoor Augmented Reality Visualisation of Viticulture GIS Data. 2012.

F. Schmid and D. Langerenken, "Augmented Reality and GIS: On the Possibilities and Limits of Markerless AR", International Conference on Geographic Information Science, vol. 3-6, pp. 

K.K.F. Riley, M.P. Hobson, S.S.J. Bence. Mathematical methods for physics and engineering. Cambridge University Press, 2006, S. 931-942.

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