The elevated improvement to the network technological innovation contributes to a standard culture to interchange the data among various consumers extensively . Therefore, this causes a major issue to the privacy, identity theft, electronic payments and security concerns since it is much more accessible to rebuild a copy of a data which the hazardous user steal from the guided end user. It is necessary for information to be protected from these hackers and it should be read or maybe employed only by personnel who are authorized to do so . The sensitive data such as ATM cards, banking dealings and public security numbers requires more security. The data such as texts, images are divulged via the network . The mobile coverage communication continues to grow since people can easily access the internet via the mobile every time they are use them . The mobile Ad-hoc Network generally consists of a group of the mobile nodes which have the functionality of the self-company, particularly in the decentralized manner without the present infrastructure.
Cryptography is widely seen as the standard way in which electronic documents are protected. Cryptography is also regarded as hiding of the data and substantiation. It consists of protocols, algorithms and methods to prevent access of the hackers protected data . There are various encryption approaches that are used to protect secret data from the unauthorized use . Encryption is a method that is utilized to promote the security of data. This method generally converts the data to a format that is considered cipher text and decryption techniques. With regards to the cryptography, a block cipher operates to the fixed length groups of the bits, which can be termed as blocks with a regular transformation. When it comes to encrypting a block cipher usually takes 128 bits input and output as well as a secret key. In this research study, it will discuss various methods of the cryptographic. The main purpose of the study would be to gain a understanding of cryptographic approaches due to changing scenario of the technology.
In this research, it aims to address the aspect of cryptographic techniques. Hence, the research problem which has been highlighted to this topic are as below:
- What are the cryptographic techniques?
- What are the various research gaps which exist in cryptographic techniques?
- What are the challenges/problems associated with the cryptographic techniques?
The purpose of this research is aimed to discuss the topic in cryptographic techniques. There are numerous aspects that will be discussed in the research . The new knowledge would add new literature for the learners and at the same time identify research gaps in the subject which would form the further studies.
Overview of the technology involved
Cryptography has a long history, which is from ancients’ ciphers, for example, Ceaser Cipher, machine cipher during the WWI and WWII along with the modern ciphers . These play a crucial role when it comes to offering confidentiality, Integrity and Authentication of the services particularly in transmission, processing and storage of the sensitive data over open networks . The cryptographic protocols makes agreements or decisions between the two parties through the internet using cryptosystems and hash functions that provide key management, verification, authentication and identification protocols to the practice . The security of cryptographic protocols for most of the times need be proved in details that are under theoretical assumptions before practical harness . Currently, there has been new kind of secure or private protocols which have become more practical. There have been new types of cyber business which are available . Each day individuals enjoy cryptography since they can send secure messages over the SNS to friends, and they can secure their financial transactions over the internet. Each individual understands that the security and privacy with use of cryptography are everywhere.
Relevant technologies and applications of those technologies
There are various technologies which are used for encrypting and keeping the information secure. One of the technologies is selective encryption. This is a technique for encrypting some parts of a condensed information file and leaving the other section of the plaintext unencrypted . This type of encryption saves time and cost of the data to be encrypted. The encryption techniques are classified into 3 types these are; symmetric, asymmetric and hashing. Symmetric vital cryptography technology is an algorithm which utilizes similar cryptographic keys to both the encryption and decryption purposes. It might be indistinguishable . To maintain a personal data link this type of algorithm utilizes special key which represents a secret that is to be shared among the users. Another type of technology is asymmetric cryptosystems which uses one key to encrypt the message and another key to decrypt the same kind of message which is transferred to the destination . It is also considered the public key cryptosystems. In asymmetric algorithm, the secret could be shared among many users who require that type of data. The hash technologies are the algorithms which use no key. There are considered one-way encryption. At any given plaintext a fixed size hash value is generally calculated . This is because of the content which is contained in the plaintext and it cannot be brought back.
The symmetric and asymmetric encryption techniques that are available are DES, 3DES, Blowfish, and RSA.
Challenges/problems in Cryptographic Techniques
In this section, it highlights research challenges in relation to the cryptographic techniques from the generic perspective . Even though there is current large toolbox in relation to the cryptographic algorithms and protocols, this could not be adequate for the next years due to numerous reasons. One issue is changing environment and the threat in which cryptology could be deployed . Currently, we are evolving towards ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing and pervasive networking which has completely new characteristics . The next challenge is the erosion of computational difficulty in relation to the mathematical issues that cryptology continues to be based. This type of erosion is created in part by the development in the computation and part of the development of the cryptographic implementations including insufficient physical security in the devices .
The research issues in the asymmetric cryptology system are definitely not smaller. The first one is on security reductions that are more focused on asymmetric cryptology . In relation to this kind of research, one attempt to prove that security of the cryptographic primitive protocol might be reduced the assumption of problems in mathematical concern. The research focuses on studies efficient and meaningful reductions, to reduce the assumptions that are utilized in the proof . It needs to be noted that security of majority of asymmetric primitives depends on small set of issues from the algebraic number theory . Any of the breakthroughs in solving some of the issues could have dramatic consequences. This clearly shows there is a need for new asymmetric algorithms that depends on new issues.
Identification of any gaps in the literature by:
Discussions of areas/issues that you believe have been addressed in the current literature.
In this research, it has discussed different methods of cryptographic techniques. There have been different cryptographic techniques that have been developed and applications with the perspective to the emerging technologies . This research will help in understanding of the cryptographic techniques and how to solve the problems. In this research, it has proposed comparison to numerous cryptographic algorithms. Algorithms have been evaluated to the numerous files. The area of the research has also been on information security which aims to protect the information from hazardous attackers whilst permitting legitimate customers to manipulate data easily . The study also discussed what cryptography is which is regarded as the branch of information security that covers study of the algorithms and protocols which secure the data. This area of research is diverse and it takes on the components of the electronic engineering, computer science, algebraic number theory, mathematics including the computational number theory . The research would also study theoretical limitations and some practical implications. There has been a wide range of issues in this field for the provable aspect of security, which focus on the problems associated with the random oracle model. There have been also issues related to challenges which are associated with the cryptographic securities .
Highlighting areas/issues that have not been addressed or adequately addressed
Despite many significant successes in the research of cryptographic techniques, research has not advanced as far as one could think. There has been heated debate on how we should formally model security in relation to cryptographic, relationship between provable securities and complexity theory which is still not understood well . Moreover, it is important to note that underpinning on this research area is inconsistently applied and it is fully unrealistic simplifying on the assumptions. There have been limitations which are accepted just because it is unclear on how to proceed without them. The research has not highlighted approaches to the security modeling for the cryptographic techniques. There is little research which has been undertaken on this subject . There has been continuous fear towards the security aspects and possibility of dependency of system in handling the automatic systems. There are also gaps in relation to the coding systems with focus on encryption techniques, mechanism and scientific methods to assist in raising the security efficiency. These issues have not been addressed in this study.
Discussing your view(s) on the issue(s) that you see as being a critic
In this research, there are issues which are critical such as cryptography that is essential to the security as well as the integrity of the data . In this research, it has examined on these concepts and explained how it enhances security within the various applications . The research has explained security method that makes use of various cryptographic techniques in order to encrypt the data and at the same time make it to be unreadable form. There have been cryptographic techniques which have been highlighted and discussed in details. Another part of the research which was crucial was on the discussion on the challenges and the problems which have been exhibited in the cryptographic techniques. These issues have been discussed in details within this research . There has also been an evolution of the cryptographic technology from the secret art to the modern science. Another critical issue highlighted in the research is challenging issues in the area of the cryptographic algorithms and protocols. How Encryption is carried out has also been crucial and has been examined in the study .
Summarize the future research directions based on the identified gaps
The future direction would likely focus more on use of cryptography in cloud; this would ensure there is security of data being shared . Moreover, confidentiality, integrity and data security will also be considered . The future research would also highlight in details cryptographic techniques since currently there is only overview of the research. The research would discuss in details security and the privacy challenges which are related to the cryptographic techniques.
The future research directs would also discuss methodologies in cryptographic techniques. There would be a comparative research in relation to symmetric encryption techniques and images in information techniques . The major concerns in the literature gaps are on the aspect of security, therefore the future research directions would focus o the different encryption techniques which are majorly based on the security, performance and behavior . The study would also undertake a comprehensive research in relation to the comparative study on the numerous security algorithms.
In this research study it discussed the cryptographic techniques. The discussion has further highlighted numerous technologies that are related to the cryptographic. Furthermore, it has discussed challenges and issues related to the cryptographic techniques along with the research gaps which require further research on this topic.
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